Record Information
Creation Date2006-08-16 12:15:16 UTC
Update Date2013-05-15 20:27:23 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameFe2+
DescriptionIron is a chemical element with the symbol Fe and atomic number 26. Iron makes up 5% of the Earth's crust and is second in abundance to aluminium among the metals and fourth in abundance among the elements. Physiologically, it. exists as an ion in the body. Iron (as Fe2+, ferrous ion) is a necessary trace element used by all known living organisms. Iron-containing enzymes, usually containing heme prosthetic groups, participate in catalysis of oxidation reactions in biology, and in transport of a number of soluble gases. Iron is an essential constituent of hemoglobin, cytochrome, and other components of respiratory enzyme systems. Its chief functions are in the transport of oxygen to tissue (hemoglobin) and in cellular oxidation mechanisms. Inorganic iron involved in redox reactions is also found in the iron-sulfur clusters of many enzymes, such as nitrogenase (involved in the synthesis of ammonia from nitrogen and hydrogen) and hydrogenase. A class of non-heme iron proteins is responsible for a wide range of functions such as ribonucleotide reductase (reduces ribose to deoxyribose; DNA biosynthesis) and purple acid phosphatase (hydrolysis of phosphate esters). When the body is fighting a bacterial infection, the body sequesters iron inside of cells (mostly stored in the storage molecule ferritin) so that it cannot be used by bacteria. Depletion of iron stores may result in iron-deficiency anemia. Iron is used to build up the blood in anemia. Humans experience iron toxicity above 20 milligrams of iron for every kilogram of weight, and 60 milligrams per kilogram is a lethal dose. Over-consumption of iron, often the result of children eating large quantities of ferrous sulfate tablets intended for adult consumption, is the most common toxicological cause of death in children under six. The DRI lists the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for adults as 45 mg/day. For children under fourteen years old the UL is 40 mg/day. Iron is a metal extracted from iron ore, and is almost never found in the free elemental state.
  1. Armco iron
  2. Carbonyl iron
  3. FE
  4. Ferrovac e
  5. Hematite
  6. Infed
  7. Limonite
  8. LOHA
  9. Magnetite
  10. Malleable iron
  11. Metopirone
  12. Metyrapone
  13. Pzh2M
  14. PZHO
  15. Remko
  16. Suy-B 2
  17. Taconite
  18. Venofer
  19. Wrought iron
Chemical FormulaFe
Average Molecular Weight55.845
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight55.934942133
IUPAC Nameiron(2+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Nameiron ion(2+)
CAS Registry Number15438-31-0
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Metal Compounds
ClassHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • iron group element atom(ChEBI)
  • N/A
Direct ParentHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
StatusDetected and Quantified
  • Drug
  • Food
  • Component of Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • DNA component
  • Enzyme co-factor
  • Essential minerals
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point1538 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
physiological charge2ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count0ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area0ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Liver
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified9766 +/- 1246 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified8050.0 (7500.0-8600.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleCommentNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified8950.0 (7900.0-10000.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleCommentNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified3.6 +/- 3.6 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified9.293 +/- 1.140 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.8 (0.3-0.5) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.783 +/- 0.551 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0890 (0.0025-0.4579) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified0.11 (0.0-0.14) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.029 (0.014-0.053) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified8631 +/- 1497 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentMultiple sclerosis
BloodDetected and Quantified20.1 +/- 7.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParkinson's disease
BloodDetected and Quantified16.3 +/- 7.7 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.488 +/- 0.374 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedfibromyalgia
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.8 +/- 1.8 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.5 +/- 1.8 uMElderly (>65 years old)Not SpecifiedAlzheimer's disease
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  • Molina JA, Jimenez-Jimenez FJ, Aguilar MV, Meseguer I, Mateos-Vega CJ, Gonzalez-Munoz MJ, de Bustos F, Porta J, Orti-Pareja M, Zurdo M, Barrios E, Martinez-Para MC: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of transition metals in patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Neural Transm. 1998;105(4-5):479-88. Pubmed: 9720975
  • Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. Pubmed: 16244393
Multiple sclerosis
  • Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. Pubmed: 16244395
Parkinson's disease
  • Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. Pubmed: 16244392
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB01592
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB016251
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID25394
KEGG Compound IDC14818
BioCyc IDFerric-Hydroxamate-Complexes
BiGG ID33552
Wikipedia LinkFerrous_ion
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00692
Metagene LinkHMDB00692
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound27284
ChEBI ID29033
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Gal S, Fridkin M, Amit T, Zheng H, Youdim MB: M30, a novel multifunctional neuroprotective drug with potent iron chelating and brain selective monoamine oxidase-ab inhibitory activity for Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm Suppl. 2006;(70):447-56. Pubmed: 17017567
  2. Piga A, Galanello R, Forni GL, Cappellini MD, Origa R, Zappu A, Donato G, Bordone E, Lavagetto A, Zanaboni L, Sechaud R, Hewson N, Ford JM, Opitz H, Alberti D: Randomized phase II trial of deferasirox (Exjade, ICL670), a once-daily, orally-administered iron chelator, in comparison to deferoxamine in thalassemia patients with transfusional iron overload. Haematologica. 2006 Jul;91(7):873-80. Pubmed: 16818273
  3. Nasolodin VV, Zaitseva IP, Gladkikh IP, Voronin SM: [Correction of iron and immune deficiencies in students from a higher humanitarian educational establishment] Gig Sanit. 2005 Sep-Oct;(5):64-7. Pubmed: 16277000
  4. Custodio PJ, Carvalho ML, Nunes F, Pedroso S, Campos A: Direct analysis of human blood (mothers and newborns) by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2005;19(2-3):151-8. Epub 2005 Oct 24. Pubmed: 16325530
  5. Agarwal MB: Exjade (ICL 670): A new oral iron chelator. J Assoc Physicians India. 2006 Mar;54:214-7. Pubmed: 16800349
  6. Cortese S, Konofal E, Lecendreux M, Mouren MC, Bernardina BD: Restless legs syndrome triggered by heart surgery. Pediatr Neurol. 2006 Sep;35(3):223-6. Pubmed: 16939866
  7. Barkova EN, Nazarenko EV, Zhdanova EV: Diurnal variations in qualitative composition of breast milk in women with iron deficiency. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2005 Oct;140(4):394-6. Pubmed: 16671562
  8. Christoforidis A, Haritandi A, Tsitouridis I, Tsatra I, Tsantali H, Karyda S, Dimitriadis AS, Athanassiou-Metaxa M: Correlative study of iron accumulation in liver, myocardium, and pituitary assessed with MRI in young thalassemic patients. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006 May;28(5):311-5. Pubmed: 16772883
  9. Kom GD, Schwedhelm E, Nielsen P, Boger RH: Increased urinary excretion of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2alpha in patients with HFE-related hemochromatosis: a case-control study. Free Radic Biol Med. 2006 Apr 1;40(7):1194-200. Epub 2005 Dec 13. Pubmed: 16545687
  10. Gerlach M, Double KL, Youdim MB, Riederer P: Potential sources of increased iron in the substantia nigra of parkinsonian patients. J Neural Transm Suppl. 2006;(70):133-42. Pubmed: 17017520
  11. Jost PJ, Stengel SM, Huber W, Sarbia M, Peschel C, Duyster J: Very severe iron-deficiency anemia in a patient with celiac disease and bulimia nervosa: a case report. Int J Hematol. 2005 Nov;82(4):310-1. Pubmed: 16298820
  12. St Pierre TG, Clark PR, Chua-Anusorn W: Measurement and mapping of liver iron concentrations using magnetic resonance imaging. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1054:379-85. Pubmed: 16339686
  13. Clardy SL, Earley CJ, Allen RP, Beard JL, Connor JR: Ferritin subunits in CSF are decreased in restless legs syndrome. J Lab Clin Med. 2006 Feb;147(2):67-73. Pubmed: 16459164
  14. Grosse R, Lund U, Caruso V, Fischer R, Janka GE, Magnano C, Engelhardt R, Durken M, Nielsen P: Non-transferrin-bound iron during blood transfusion cycles in beta-thalassemia major. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1054:429-32. Pubmed: 16339692
  15. Anderson LJ, Westwood MA, Prescott E, Walker JM, Pennell DJ, Wonke B: Development of thalassaemic iron overload cardiomyopathy despite low liver iron levels and meticulous compliance to desferrioxamine. Acta Haematol. 2006;115(1-2):106-8. Pubmed: 16424659
  16. Matinaho S, Karhumaki P, Parkkinen J: Bicarbonate inhibits the growth of Staphylococcus epidermidis in platelet concentrates by lowering the level of non-transferrin-bound iron. Transfusion. 2005 Nov;45(11):1768-73. Pubmed: 16271102
  17. Blanck HM, Cogswell ME, Gillespie C, Reyes M: Iron supplement use and iron status among US adults: results from the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Nov;82(5):1024-31. Pubmed: 16280434
  18. Yarali N, Fisgin T, Duru F, Kara A, Ecin N, Fitoz S, Erden I: Subcutaneous bolus injection of deferoxamine is an alternative method to subcutaneous continuous infusion. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2006 Jan;28(1):11-6. Pubmed: 16394886
  19. Walter PB, Fung EB, Killilea DW, Jiang Q, Hudes M, Madden J, Porter J, Evans P, Vichinsky E, Harmatz P: Oxidative stress and inflammation in iron-overloaded patients with beta-thalassaemia or sickle cell disease. Br J Haematol. 2006 Oct;135(2):254-63. Pubmed: 17010049
  20. Kontoghiorghes GJ, Kolnagou A: Molecular factors and mechanisms affecting iron and other metal excretion or absorption in health and disease: the role of natural and synthetic chelators. Curr Med Chem. 2005;12(23):2695-709. Pubmed: 16305466

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Heme + AH(2) + Oxygen unknown Biliverdin + Fe2+ + CO + A + Waterdetails
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Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 191 proteins in total.