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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-01-29 02:27:25 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00693
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHeparan sulfate
DescriptionHeparan sulfate is a heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to heparin. It accumulates in individuals with mucopolysaccharidosis. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a linear polysaccharide found in all animal tissues. It occurs as a proteoglycan (PG) in which two or three HS chains are attached in close proximity to cell suface or extracellular matrix proteins.[1][2] It is in this form that HS binds to a variety of protein ligands and regulates a wide variety of biological activities, including developmental processes, angiogenesis, blood coagulation and tumour metastasis. (Wikipedia).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. alpha-Idosane
  2. Heparan N-sulfate
  3. Heparan N-sulphate
  4. Heparan sulfate
  5. Heparan sulphate
  6. Heparatan sulfate
  7. Heparatan sulphate
  8. Heparitin
  9. Heparitin monosulfate
  10. Heparitin monosulphate
  11. Heparitin sulfate
  12. Heparitin sulphate
  13. HHS 5
  14. N-Acetylheparan sulfate
  15. N-Acetylheparan sulphate
  16. Suleparoid
  17. Tavidan
Chemical FormulaC14H23NO21S3
Average Molecular Weight637.522
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight636.992468873
IUPAC Name(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-6-{[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-6-methoxy-4-oxido-5-[(sulfooxy)amino]-2-[(sulfooxy)methyl]oxan-3-yl]oxy}-5-(sulfooxy)oxane-2-carboxylate
Traditional Name(2S,3R,4R,5S,6R)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-6-{[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-6-methoxy-4-oxido-5-[(sulfooxy)amino]-2-[(sulfooxy)methyl]oxan-3-yl]oxy}-5-(sulfooxy)oxane-2-carboxylate
CAS Registry Number9050-30-0
SMILES
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C14H24NO21S3/c1-29-9-7(17)10(35-38(23,24)25)14(34-11(9)12(18)19)33-8-4(3-31-37(20,21)22)32-13(30-2)5(6(8)16)15-36-39(26,27)28/h4-11,13-15,17H,3H2,1-2H3,(H,18,19)(H,20,21,22)(H,23,24,25)(H,26,27,28)/q-1/p-1/t4-,5-,6-,7+,8-,9+,10-,11-,13+,14+/m0/s1
InChI KeyWKPUACLQLIIVJJ-RHKLHVFKSA-M
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassCarbohydrates and Carbohydrate Conjugates
ClassDisaccharides
Sub ClassDihexoses
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
Substituents
  • Acetal
  • Carboxylic Acid Salt
  • Dialkyl Ether
  • Glucosamine
  • Glucuronic Acid Or Derivative
  • Glucuronide
  • Glycosyl Compound
  • Mannosamine
  • O Glycosyl Compound
  • Organic Hydroxylamine
  • Organic Hyponitrite
  • Organic Sulfuric Acid
  • Organic Sulfuric Acid Monoester
  • Oxane
  • Secondary Alcohol
  • Sugar Acid
  • Sulfate Ester
Direct ParentDihexoses
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-8.1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count19ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area332.4 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count13ChemAxon
Refractivity142.98 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability52.51 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS/MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Location
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
  • Testes
  • Uterus
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.5 (0.0-1.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified2.6 (1.4-6.1) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLiver disease with gastrointestinal bleeding details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Liver disease
  1. McKee RF, Hodson S, Dawes J, Garden OJ, Carter DC: Plasma concentrations of endogenous heparinoids in portal hypertension. Gut. 1992 Nov;33(11):1549-52. Pubmed: 1452082
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022184
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC00925
BioCyc IDCPD-7177
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkHeparan sulfate
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00693
Metagene LinkHMDB00693
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound53477714
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceMeier, Bernd Horst; Meier, Nele. Manufacture and use of modified adducts of polysaccharides and chitosan or chitin and a process to improve the preparation of polysaccharide-drug conjugates. PCT Int. Appl. (2007), 67pp. CODEN: PIXXD2 WO 2007122269 A1 20071101 CAN 147:487869 AN 2007:1237349
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Dempsey LA, Plummer TB, Coombes SL, Platt JL: Heparanase expression in invasive trophoblasts and acute vascular damage. Glycobiology. 2000 May;10(5):467-75. Pubmed: 10764835
  2. Wasserman L, Abramovici A, Shlesinger H, Goldman JA, Allalouf D: Histochemical localization of acidic glycosaminoglycans in normal human placentae. Placenta. 1983 Jan-Apr;4(1):101-8. Pubmed: 6406996
  3. Inoue H, Otsu K, Yoneda M, Kimata K, Suzuki S, Nakanishi Y: Glycosaminoglycan sulfotransferases in human and animal sera. J Biol Chem. 1986 Apr 5;261(10):4460-9. Pubmed: 3457007
  4. Nader HB, Lopes CC, Rocha HA, Santos EA, Dietrich CP: Heparins and heparinoids: occurrence, structure and mechanism of antithrombotic and hemorrhagic activities. Curr Pharm Des. 2004;10(9):951-66. Pubmed: 15078126
  5. Henriquez JP, Casar JC, Fuentealba L, Carey DJ, Brandan E: Extracellular matrix histone H1 binds to perlecan, is present in regenerating skeletal muscle and stimulates myoblast proliferation. J Cell Sci. 2002 May 15;115(Pt 10):2041-51. Pubmed: 11973346
  6. Hjelm Cluff A, Malmstrom A, Tingaker B, David G, Ekman-Ordeberg G: Normal labor associated with changes in uterine heparan sulfate proteoglycan expression and localization. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2005 Mar;84(3):217-24. Pubmed: 15715528
  7. Yu WH, Yu S, Meng Q, Brew K, Woessner JF Jr: TIMP-3 binds to sulfated glycosaminoglycans of the extracellular matrix. J Biol Chem. 2000 Oct 6;275(40):31226-32. Pubmed: 10900194
  8. Subramanian G, LeBlanc RA, Wardley RC, Fuller AO: Defective entry of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 into porcine cells and lack of infection in infant pigs indicate species tropism. J Gen Virol. 1995 Sep;76 ( Pt 9):2375-9. Pubmed: 7561780
  9. Jenniskens GJ, Veerkamp JH, van Kuppevelt TH: Heparan sulfates in skeletal muscle development and physiology. J Cell Physiol. 2006 Feb;206(2):283-94. Pubmed: 15991249
  10. Maeda T, Alexander CM, Friedl A: Induction of syndecan-1 expression in stromal fibroblasts promotes proliferation of human breast cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2004 Jan 15;64(2):612-21. Pubmed: 14744776
  11. Sher I, Zisman-Rozen S, Eliahu L, Whitelock JM, Maas-Szabowski N, Yamada Y, Breitkreutz D, Fusenig NE, Arikawa-Hirasawa E, Iozzo RV, Bergman R, Ron D: Targeting perlecan in human keratinocytes reveals novel roles for perlecan in epidermal formation. J Biol Chem. 2006 Feb 24;281(8):5178-87. Epub 2005 Nov 2. Pubmed: 16269412
  12. Savas PS, Hemsley KM, Hopwood JJ: Intracerebral injection of sulfamidase delays neuropathology in murine MPS-IIIA. Mol Genet Metab. 2004 Aug;82(4):273-85. Pubmed: 15308125
  13. Chernousov MA, Rothblum K, Tyler WA, Stahl RC, Carey DJ: Schwann cells synthesize type V collagen that contains a novel alpha 4 chain. Molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and high affinity heparin binding of alpha 4(V) collagen. J Biol Chem. 2000 Sep 8;275(36):28208-15. Pubmed: 10852920
  14. Chikama S, Iida S, Inoue M, Kawagoe N, Tomiyasu K, Matsuoka K, Noda S, Takazono I: Role of heparan sulfate proteoglycan (syndecan-1) on the renal epithelial cells during calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal attachment. Kurume Med J. 2002;49(4):201-10. Pubmed: 12652971
  15. Kosir MA, Foley-Loudon PA, Finkenauer R, Tennenberg SD: Multiple heparanases are expressed in polymorphonuclear cells. J Surg Res. 2002 Mar;103(1):100-8. Pubmed: 11855924
  16. Myette JR, Shriver Z, Liu J, Venkataraman G, Rosenberg R, Sasisekharan R: Expression in Escherichia coli, purification and kinetic characterization of human heparan sulfate 3-O-sulfotransferase-1. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Feb 1;290(4):1206-13. Pubmed: 11811991
  17. Barnett MW, Fisher CE, Perona-Wright G, Davies JA: Signalling by glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) requires heparan sulphate glycosaminoglycan. J Cell Sci. 2002 Dec 1;115(Pt 23):4495-503. Pubmed: 12414995
  18. Haimov-Kochman R, Friedmann Y, Prus D, Goldman-Wohl DS, Greenfield C, Anteby EY, Aviv A, Vlodavsky I, Yagel S: Localization of heparanase in normal and pathological human placenta. Mol Hum Reprod. 2002 Jun;8(6):566-73. Pubmed: 12029075
  19. Leu SJ, Chen N, Chen CC, Todorovic V, Bai T, Juric V, Liu Y, Yan G, Lam SC, Lau LF: Targeted mutagenesis of the angiogenic protein CCN1 (CYR61). Selective inactivation of integrin alpha6beta1-heparan sulfate proteoglycan coreceptor-mediated cellular functions. J Biol Chem. 2004 Oct 15;279(42):44177-87. Epub 2004 Aug 17. Pubmed: 15322081
  20. Lensen JF, Rops AL, Wijnhoven TJ, Hafmans T, Feitz WF, Oosterwijk E, Banas B, Bindels RJ, van den Heuvel LP, van der Vlag J, Berden JH, van Kuppevelt TH: Localization and functional characterization of glycosaminoglycan domains in the normal human kidney as revealed by phage display-derived single chain antibodies. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005 May;16(5):1279-88. Epub 2005 Mar 23. Pubmed: 15788473

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as estriol, 4-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestriol) and xenobiotics (such as 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-aminophenol, 4-hydroxybiphenyl and menthol). It is capable of 6 alpha-hydroxyglucuronidation of hyodeoxycholic acid.
Gene Name:
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID:
P06133
Molecular weight:
60512.035
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate.
Gene Name:
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID:
P22310
Molecular weight:
60024.535
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol (in vitro).
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular weight:
60720.15
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular weight:
59940.495
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID:
P19224
Molecular weight:
60750.215
General function:
Involved in galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Glycosaminoglycans biosynthesis. Involved in forming the linkage tetrasaccharide present in heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. Transfers a glucuronic acid moiety from the uridine diphosphate-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcUA) to the common linkage region trisaccharide Gal-beta-1,3-Gal-beta-1,4-Xyl covalently bound to a Ser residue at the glycosaminylglycan attachment site of proteoglycans. Can also play a role in the biosynthesis of l2/HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope on glycoproteins. Shows strict specificity for Gal-beta-1,3-Gal-beta-1,4-Xyl, exhibiting negligible incorporation into other galactoside substrates including Galbeta1-3Gal beta1-O-benzyl, Galbeta1-4GlcNAc and Galbeta1-4Glc.
Gene Name:
B3GAT3
Uniprot ID:
O94766
Molecular weight:
37121.52
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Required for the lysosomal degradation of heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate.
Gene Name:
IDS
Uniprot ID:
P22304
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in cell adhesion
Specific function:
The LG3 peptide has anti-angiogenic properties that require binding of calcium ions for full activity
Gene Name:
HSPG2
Uniprot ID:
P98160
Molecular weight:
468794.4
General function:
Involved in cytoskeletal protein binding
Specific function:
Cell surface proteoglycan that bears both heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate and that links the cytoskeleton to the interstitial matrix
Gene Name:
SDC1
Uniprot ID:
P18827
Molecular weight:
32461.4
General function:
Involved in cytoskeletal protein binding
Specific function:
Cell surface proteoglycan that bears heparan sulfate
Gene Name:
SDC4
Uniprot ID:
P31431
Molecular weight:
21641.3
General function:
Involved in galactosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase that transfers galactose from UDP-galactose to substrates with a terminal beta-linked galactose residue. Has a preference for galactose-beta-1,4-xylose that is found in the linker region of glycosaminoglycans, such as heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate. Has no activity towards substrates with terminal glucosamine or galactosamine residues.
Gene Name:
B3GALT6
Uniprot ID:
Q96L58
Molecular weight:
37137.08
General function:
Involved in cytoskeletal protein binding
Specific function:
Cell surface proteoglycan that bears heparan sulfate
Gene Name:
SDC2
Uniprot ID:
P34741
Molecular weight:
22159.6