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Record Information
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2015-03-09 22:57:08 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHexanoylcarnitine
DescriptionHexanoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. Numerous disorders have been described that lead to disturbances in energy production and in intermediary metabolism in the organism which are characterized by the production and excretion of unusual acylcarnitines. A mutation in the gene coding for carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase or the OCTN2 transporter aetiologically causes a carnitine deficiency that results in poor intestinal absorption of dietary L-carnitine, its impaired reabsorption by the kidney and, consequently, in increased urinary loss of L-carnitine. Determination of the qualitative pattern of acylcarnitines can be of diagnostic and therapeutic importance. The betaine structure of carnitine requires special analytical procedures for recording. The ionic nature of L-carnitine causes a high water solubility which decreases with increasing chain length of the ester group in the acylcarnitines. Therefore, the distribution of L-carnitine and acylcarnitines in various organs is defined by their function and their physico-chemical properties as well. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) permits screening for free and total carnitine, as well as complete quantitative acylcarnitine determination, including the long-chain acylcarnitine profile. (PMID: 17508264 , Monatshefte fuer Chemie (2005), 136(8), 1279-1291., Int J Mass Spectrom. 1999;188:39-52.). Hexanoylcarnitine is a medium-chain acylcarnitine present in the urine of patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (PubMed ID 1635814 ).
  1. Caproylcarnitine
  2. Hexanoic acid ester with (3-carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethylammonium hydroxide inner salt
  3. Hexanoyl DL-carnitine
  4. Hexanoyl-D,L-carnitine
  5. Hexanoylcarnitine
Chemical FormulaC13H25NO4
Average Molecular Weight259.3419
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight259.178358293
IUPAC Name3-(hexanoyloxy)-4-(trimethylazaniumyl)butanoate
Traditional Namehexanoylcarnitine
CAS Registry Number6418-78-6
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyl carnitines. These are organic compounds containing a fatty acid with the carboxylic acid attached to carnitine through an ester bond.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acid esters
Direct ParentAcyl carnitines
Alternative Parents
  • Acyl-carnitine
  • Carnitine
  • Acyl choline
  • Choline
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
StatusDetected and Quantified
  • Endogenous
  • Food
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Lipid catabolism, Fatty acid transport, Energy production
  • Membrane integrity/stability
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.0043 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.22ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.43 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity91.07 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability29.12 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Location
  • Prostate
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.031 (0.015-0.053) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.001 (0.0-0.004) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothVery long-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (vLCAD) details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Very Long Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency
  1. Costa CG, Struys EA, Bootsma A, ten Brink HJ, Dorland L, Tavares de Almeida I, Duran M, Jakobs C: Quantitative analysis of plasma acylcarnitines using gas chromatography chemical ionization mass fragmentography. J Lipid Res. 1997 Jan;38(1):173-82. [9034211 ]
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022192
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4932273
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00705
Metagene LinkHMDB00705
PubChem Compound6426853
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceStrack, Erich; Lorenz, Irmgard. Synthesis of O-acyl derivatives of carnitine. Hoppe-Seyler's Zeitschrift fuer Physiologische Chemie (1966), 343(4-6), 231-9.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Ziadeh R, Hoffman EP, Finegold DN, Hoop RC, Brackett JC, Strauss AW, Naylor EW: Medium chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency in Pennsylvania: neonatal screening shows high incidence and unexpected mutation frequencies. Pediatr Res. 1995 May;37(5):675-8. [7603790 ]
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  3. Minkler PE, Hoppel CL: Quantification of free carnitine, individual short- and medium-chain acylcarnitines, and total carnitine in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Biochem. 1993 Aug 1;212(2):510-8. [8214594 ]
  4. Chalmers RA, Roe CR, Stacey TE, Hoppel CL: Urinary excretion of l-carnitine and acylcarnitines by patients with disorders of organic acid metabolism: evidence for secondary insufficiency of l-carnitine. Pediatr Res. 1984 Dec;18(12):1325-8. [6441143 ]
  5. Fontaine M, Briand G, Vallee L, Ricart G, Degand P, Divry P, Vianey-Saban C, Vamecq J: Acylcarnitine removal in a patient with acyl-CoA beta-oxidation deficiency disorder: effect of L-carnitine therapy and starvation. Clin Chim Acta. 1996 Aug 30;252(2):109-22. [8853559 ]
  6. Lee PJ, Harrison EL, Jones MG, Jones S, Leonard JV, Chalmers RA: L-carnitine and exercise tolerance in medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency: a pilot study. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2005;28(2):141-52. [15877203 ]
  7. Tyni T, Pourfarzam M, Turnbull DM: Analysis of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation intermediates by tandem mass spectrometry from intact mitochondria prepared from homogenates of cultured fibroblasts, skeletal muscle cells, and fresh muscle. Pediatr Res. 2002 Jul;52(1):64-70. [12084849 ]
  8. Caksen H, Tuncer O, Kirimi E, Fryns JP, Uner A, Unal O, Cinal A, Odabas D: Report of two Turkish infants with Norman-Roberts syndrome. Genet Couns. 2004;15(1):9-17. [15083694 ]
  9. Schmidt-Sommerfeld E, Penn D, Rinaldo P, Kossak D, Li BU, Huang ZH, Gage DA: Urinary medium-chain acylcarnitines in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency, medium-chain triglyceride feeding and valproic acid therapy: sensitivity and specificity of the radioisotopic exchange/high performance liquid chromatography method. Pediatr Res. 1992 Jun;31(6):545-51. [1635814 ]
  10. Shigematsu Y, Hata I, Nakai A, Kikawa Y, Sudo M, Tanaka Y, Yamaguchi S, Jakobs C: Prenatal diagnosis of organic acidemias based on amniotic fluid levels of acylcarnitines. Pediatr Res. 1996 Apr;39(4 Pt 1):680-4. [8848345 ]
  11. Schmidt-Sommerfeld E, Penn D, Duran M, Bennett MJ, Santer R, Stanley CA: Detection of inborn errors of fatty acid oxidation from acylcarnitine analysis of plasma and blood spots with the radioisotopic exchange-high-performance liquid chromatographic method. J Pediatr. 1993 May;122(5 Pt 1):708-14. [8496747 ]
  12. Bene J, Komlosi K, Gasztonyi B, Juhasz M, Tulassay Z, Melegh B: Plasma carnitine ester profile in adult celiac disease patients maintained on long-term gluten free diet. World J Gastroenterol. 2005 Nov 14;11(42):6671-5. [16425363 ]
  13. Bennett MJ, Coates PM, Hale DE, Millington DS, Pollitt RJ, Rinaldo P, Roe CR, Tanaka K: Analysis of abnormal urinary metabolites in the newborn period in medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1990;13(5):707-15. [2246856 ]
  14. Vallee L, Fontaine M, Nuyts JP, Ricart G, Krivosic I, Divry P, Vianey-Saban C, Lhermitte M, Vamecq J: Stroke, hemiparesis and deficient mitochondrial beta-oxidation. Eur J Pediatr. 1994 Aug;153(8):598-603. [7957409 ]
  15. Schmidt-Sommerfeld E, Penn D, Kerner J, Bieber LL, Rossi TM, Lebenthal E: Quantitation of urinary carnitine esters in a patient with medium-chain acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase deficiency: effect of metabolic state and L-carnitine therapy. J Pediatr. 1989 Oct;115(4):577-82. [2795349 ]
  16. Minkler PE, Hoppel CL: Quantification of carnitine and specific acylcarnitines by high-performance liquid chromatography: application to normal human urine and urine from patients with methylmalonic aciduria, isovaleric acidemia or medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. J Chromatogr. 1993 Apr 2;613(2):203-21. [8491807 ]
  17. Pierre G, Macdonald A, Gray G, Hendriksz C, Preece MA, Chakrapani A: Prospective treatment in carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2007 Oct;30(5):815. Epub 2007 May 12. [17508264 ]