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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-12-07 01:19:27 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000707
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00707
Metabolite Identification
Common Name4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid
Description4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid (4-HPPA) is a keto acid that is involved in the tyrosine catabolism pathway. It is a product of the enzyme (R)-4-hydroxyphenyllactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.222) and is formed during tyrosine metabolism. The conversion from tyrosine to 4-HPPA is catalyzed by tyrosine aminotransferase. Additionally, 4-HPPA can be converted to homogentisic acid which is one of the precursors to ochronotic pigment. The enzyme 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase (HPD) catalyzes the reaction that converts 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid to homogentisic acid. A deficiency in the catalytic activity of HPD is known to lead to tyrosinemia type III, an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by elevated levels of blood tyrosine and massive excretion of tyrosine derivatives into urine. It has been shown that hawkinsinuria, an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the excretion of 'hawkinsin,' may also be a result of HPD deficiency (PMID: 11073718 ). Moreover, 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid is also found to be associated in phenylketonuria, which is also an inborn error of metabolism. There are two isomers of HPPA, specifically 4HPPA and 3HPPA, of which 4HPPA is the most common.
Structure
Thumb
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC9H8O4
Average Molecular Weight180.1574
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.042258744
IUPAC NameNot Available
Traditional NameNot Available
CAS Registry Number156-39-8
SMILESNot Available
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H8O4/c10-7-3-1-6(2-4-7)5-8(11)9(12)13/h1-4,10H,5H2,(H,12,13)
InChI KeyKKADPXVIOXHVKN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

  Health condition:

Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

  Organ and components:

Source:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Biochemical pathway:

Role

Industrial application:

  Pharmaceutical industry:

Indirect biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point219 - 220 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted PropertiesNot Available
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-002f-1920000000-75b07d9c09371340939fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00xr-9340000000-087aad2497b3493d27c0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 2 TMS)splash10-002o-5910000000-fd1e55c84c79bfeca559View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 2 TMS)splash10-002f-1941000000-2b4c87544657895fcaf6View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 3 TMS)splash10-014i-3492100000-483bdcea11d60fe4d306View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 3 TMS)splash10-014i-6791000000-ddc0a3b695cd1d0769f2View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-002f-1951000000-ecd071a64b26ca77684cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-002f-1920000000-75b07d9c09371340939fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00xr-9340000000-087aad2497b3493d27c0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-002o-5910000000-fd1e55c84c79bfeca559View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-002f-1941000000-2b4c87544657895fcaf6View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-3492100000-483bdcea11d60fe4d306View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-6791000000-ddc0a3b695cd1d0769f2View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-2920000000-469469dfaad745fa78e8View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-002o-2910000000-4f336335a2366e7dd6dbView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-6900000000-91bfe3ee54a36877251bView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0adi-6961000000-670161f1542fda9ff1feView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-12033042c41b550bed42View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-6e8a3701c6d254cc824dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0560-1900000000-8082c68e259d24234d05View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-2416d7f64101b9473cbbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-2900000000-b4c21b3d9751b9e56d67View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0005-9400000000-708e258e692a0abfbc92View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0002-9100000000-7d75e23ae6944c1e9c6dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-001m-9000000000-fb80dcbab23323a042afView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-2416d7f64101b9473cbbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-2900000000-ad1f1fabdf6b1579fff7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0005-9400000000-708e258e692a0abfbc92View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0002-9100000000-7d75e23ae6944c1e9c6dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-001m-9000000000-fb80dcbab23323a042afView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-001i-1900000000-76ae33b45e4348d50b07View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-08gr-0900000000-be3cb913118057f499d1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-06rj-0900000000-6bebea0fda2ef3a2263bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-6900000000-ede11b81a97e891c66e3View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-0900000000-2584f872c980915c1739View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01s9-1900000000-249c71cfa9cefe2a8020View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-001l-3900000000-66991d861a91be9b9286View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a59-5900000000-6c003e26816579df31caView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
AlkaptonuriaPw000180Pw000180 greyscalePw000180 simpleNot Available
Disulfiram PathwayPw000431Pw000431 greyscalePw000431 simpleNot Available
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencyPw000474Pw000474 greyscalePw000474 simpleNot Available
HawkinsinuriaPw000181Pw000181 greyscalePw000181 simpleNot Available
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)Pw000509Pw000509 greyscalePw000509 simpleNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.37 +/- 0.23 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.65 (0.15-8.74) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.66 (0.23-2.50) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.9 (4.9-4.9) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.6 (0.1-21.3) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.8 (0.1-4.5) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.5 (0.6-3.4) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.8 (1.2-4.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.669 +/- 16.944 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.0820 +/- 49.577 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.413 +/- 18.199 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Cardiosvacular risk
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0 - 3.4 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothHawkinsinuria details
UrineDetected and Quantified102.8 -537.4 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothHawkinsinuria details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.447 +/- 20.710 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothPhenylketonuria details
UrineDetected and Quantified33.261 +/- 20.0820 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Phenylketonuria
details
UrineDetected and Quantified24.00 +/- 30.5 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothPhenylketonuria details
UrineDetected and Quantified33.261 +/- 26.985 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Phenylketonuria
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Hawkinsinuria
  1. Thodi G, Schulpis KH, Dotsikas Y, Pavlides C, Molou E, Chatzidaki M, Triantafylli O, Loukas YL: Hawkinsinuria in two unrelated Greek newborns: identification of a novel variant, biochemical findings and treatment. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2016 Jan;29(1):15-20. doi: 10.1515/jpem-2015-0132. [PubMed:26226126 ]
  2. G.Frauendienst-Egger, Friedrich K. Trefz (2017). MetaGene: Metabolic & Genetic Information Center (MIC: http://www.metagene.de). METAGENE consortium.
Phenylketonuria
  1. Monch E, Kneer J, Jakobs C, Arnold M, Diehl H, Batzler U: Examination of urine metabolites in the newborn period and during protein loading tests at 6 months of age--Part 1. Eur J Pediatr. 1990;149 Suppl 1:S17-24. [PubMed:2091926 ]
  2. Rampini S, Vollmin JA, Bosshard HR, Muller M, Curtius HC: Aromatic acids in urine of healthy infants, persistent hyperphenylalaninemia, and phenylketonuria, before and after phenylalanine load. Pediatr Res. 1974 Jul;8(7):704-9. [PubMed:4837567 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022193
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID954
KEGG Compound IDC01179
BioCyc IDP-HYDROXY-PHENYLPYRUVATE
BiGG ID37006
Wikipedia LinkHydroxyphenylpyruvic acid
METLIN ID5675
PubChem Compound979
PDB IDENO
ChEBI ID15999
References
Synthesis ReferenceBillek, Gerhard. p-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid. Organic Syntheses (1963), 43 49-54.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Tomoeda K, Awata H, Matsuura T, Matsuda I, Ploechl E, Milovac T, Boneh A, Scott CR, Danks DM, Endo F: Mutations in the 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase gene are responsible for tyrosinemia type III and hawkinsinuria. Mol Genet Metab. 2000 Nov;71(3):506-10. [PubMed:11073718 ]
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  3. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [PubMed:8087979 ]
  4. Endo F, Katoh H, Yamamoto S, Matsuda I: A murine model for type III tyrosinemia: lack of immunologically detectable 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid dioxygenase enzyme protein in a novel mouse strain with hypertyrosinemia. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Apr;48(4):704-9. [PubMed:2014797 ]
  5. Shoda J, Tanaka N, Osuga T, Matsuura K, Miyazaki H: Altered bile acid metabolism in liver disease: concurrent occurrence of C-1 and C-6 hydroxylated bile acid metabolites and their preferential excretion into urine. J Lipid Res. 1990 Feb;31(2):249-59. [PubMed:2324645 ]
  6. Wolff JA, Barshop B, Nyhan WL, Leslie J, Seegmiller JE, Gruber H, Garst M, Winter S, Michals K, Matalon R: Effects of ascorbic acid in alkaptonuria: alterations in benzoquinone acetic acid and an ontogenic effect in infancy. Pediatr Res. 1989 Aug;26(2):140-4. [PubMed:2771520 ]
  7. Deutsch JC: Determination of p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate, p-hydroxyphenyllactate and tyrosine in normal human plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry isotope-dilution assay. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1997 Mar 7;690(1-2):1-6. [PubMed:9106023 ]
  8. Muskiet FA, Fremouw-Ottevangers DC, Nagel GT, Wolthers BG, de Vries JA: Determination of 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol, and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylmandelic acid in urine by mass fragmentography, with use of deuterium-labeled internal standards. Clin Chem. 1978 Nov;24(11):2001-8. [PubMed:709835 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in cell surface binding
Specific function:
Pro-inflammatory cytokine. Involved in the innate immune response to bacterial pathogens. The expression of MIF at sites of inflammation suggests a role as mediator in regulating the function of macrophages in host defense. Counteracts the anti-inflammatory activity of glucocorticoids. Has phenylpyruvate tautomerase and dopachrome tautomerase activity (in vitro), but the physiological substrate is not known. It is not clear whether the tautomerase activity has any physiological relevance, and whether it is important for cytokine activity.
Gene Name:
MIF
Uniprot ID:
P14174
Molecular weight:
12476.19
Reactions
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid → 2-Hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propenoic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase activity
Specific function:
Transaminase involved in tyrosine breakdown. Converts tyrosine to p-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Can catalyze the reverse reaction, using glutamic acid, with 2-oxoglutarate as cosubstrate (in vitro). Has much lower affinity and transaminase activity towards phenylalanine.
Gene Name:
TAT
Uniprot ID:
P17735
Molecular weight:
50398.895
Reactions
L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GOT1
Uniprot ID:
P17174
Molecular weight:
46247.14
Reactions
L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism. Important for metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol. Facilitates cellular uptake of long-chain free fatty acids.
Gene Name:
GOT2
Uniprot ID:
P00505
Molecular weight:
47517.285
Reactions
L-Tyrosine + Oxoglutaric acid → 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid → 6-[4-(2-carboxy-2-oxoethyl)phenoxy]-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid → 3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-{[3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-oxopropanoyl]oxy}oxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in the degradation of tyrosine.
Gene Name:
HPD
Uniprot ID:
P32754
Molecular weight:
40497.105
Reactions
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + Oxygen → Homogentisic acid + CO(2)details
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + Oxygen → Homogentisic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Lysosomal L-amino-acid oxidase with highest specific activity with phenylalanine. May play a role in lysosomal antigen processing and presentation (By similarity).
Gene Name:
IL4I1
Uniprot ID:
Q96RQ9
Molecular weight:
65327.26
Reactions
L-Tyrosine + Water + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of phenolic monoamines (neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) and phenolic and catechol drugs.
Gene Name:
SULT1A3
Uniprot ID:
P0DMM9
Molecular weight:
34195.96
Reactions
4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic acid → 2-oxo-3-[4-(sulfooxy)phenyl]propanoic aciddetails