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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:03:23 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00811
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameMurocholic acid
DescriptionMurocholic acid is a bile acid. Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, depends only on presence or absence of hydroxyl groups on positions 3, 7, and 12. Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. Bile acids are also steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH and, consequently, require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. The unique detergent properties of bile acids are essential for the digestion and intestinal absorption of hydrophobic nutrients. Bile acids have potent toxic properties (e.g., membrane disruption) and there are a plethora of mechanisms to limit their accumulation in blood and tissues. (PMID: 11316487 , 16037564 , 12576301 , 11907135 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3alpha,6beta-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholanic acidChEBI
6beta-HydroxylithocholateChEBI
6beta-Hydroxylithocholic acidChEBI
MurideoxycholateChEBI
Murocholic acidChEBI
3a,6b-Dihydroxy-5b-cholanateGenerator
3a,6b-Dihydroxy-5b-cholanic acidGenerator
3alpha,6beta-Dihydroxy-5beta-cholanateGenerator
3α,6β-dihydroxy-5β-cholanateGenerator
3α,6β-dihydroxy-5β-cholanic acidGenerator
6b-HydroxylithocholateGenerator
6b-Hydroxylithocholic acidGenerator
6β-hydroxylithocholateGenerator
6β-hydroxylithocholic acidGenerator
MurocholateGenerator
3a,6b-Dihydroxy-5b-cholan-24-OateHMDB
3a,6b-Dihydroxy-5b-cholan-24-Oic acidHMDB
3a,6b-Dihydroxy-5b-cholanoateHMDB
3a,6b-Dihydroxy-5b-cholanoic acidHMDB
3a,6b-DihydroxycholanoateHMDB
3a,6b-Dihydroxycholanoic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC24H40O4
Average Molecular Weight392.572
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight392.292659768
IUPAC Name(4R)-4-[(1S,2R,5R,7R,8R,10S,11S,14R,15R)-5,8-dihydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadecan-14-yl]pentanoic acid
Traditional Namemurideoxycholic acid
CAS Registry Number668-49-5
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@H]([C@H](C)CCC(O)=O)[C@@]1(C)CC[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])C[C@@H](O)[C@]2([H])C[C@H](O)CC[C@]12C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C24H40O4/c1-14(4-7-22(27)28)17-5-6-18-16-13-21(26)20-12-15(25)8-10-24(20,3)19(16)9-11-23(17,18)2/h14-21,25-26H,4-13H2,1-3H3,(H,27,28)/t14-,15-,16+,17-,18+,19+,20+,21-,23-,24-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=DGABKXLVXPYZII-PLYQRAMGSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dihydroxy bile acids, alcohols and derivatives. These are compounds containing or derived from a bile acid or alcohol, and which bears exactly two carboxylic acid groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassBile acids, alcohols and derivatives
Direct ParentDihydroxy bile acids, alcohols and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Dihydroxy bile acid, alcohol, or derivatives
  • 3-alpha-hydroxysteroid
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • 6-hydroxysteroid
  • 3-hydroxysteroid
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fat solubilization and Waste products
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP3.08RODA,A ET AL. (1990)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.015 mg/mLALOGPS
logP2.98ALOGPS
logP3.71ChemAxon
logS-4.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.79ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area77.76 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count4ChemAxon
Refractivity109.27 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability46.36 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • Gall Bladder
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022259
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4446909
KEGG Compound IDC15515
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00811
Metagene LinkHMDB00811
METLIN ID5775
PubChem Compound5283821
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID52030
References
Synthesis ReferenceMitropoulos, K. A.; Myant, Nicolas B. Formation of lithocholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and other bile acids from 3b-hydroxychol-5-enoic acid in vitro and in vivo. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Lipids and Lipid Metabolism (1967), 144(2), 430-9.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Iida T, Tazawa S, Ohshima Y, Niwa T, Goto J, Nambara T: Analysis of conjugated bile acids in human biological fluids. Synthesis of hyodeoxycholic acid 3- and 6-glycosides and related compounds. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1994 Jul;42(7):1479-84. [7923472 ]
  2. Khallou J, Legrand-Defretin V, Parquet M, Coste T, Rautureau J, Lutton C: Metabolism and time-course excretion of murideoxycholic acid, a 6 beta-hydroxylated bile acid, in humans. J Hepatol. 1993 Mar;17(3):364-72. [8315264 ]
  3. St-Pierre MV, Kullak-Ublick GA, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Transport of bile acids in hepatic and non-hepatic tissues. J Exp Biol. 2001 May;204(Pt 10):1673-86. [11316487 ]
  4. Claudel T, Staels B, Kuipers F: The Farnesoid X receptor: a molecular link between bile acid and lipid and glucose metabolism. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Oct;25(10):2020-30. Epub 2005 Jul 21. [16037564 ]
  5. Chiang JY: Bile acid regulation of hepatic physiology: III. Bile acids and nuclear receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Mar;284(3):G349-56. [12576301 ]
  6. Davis RA, Miyake JH, Hui TY, Spann NJ: Regulation of cholesterol-7alpha-hydroxylase: BAREly missing a SHP. J Lipid Res. 2002 Apr;43(4):533-43. [11907135 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in binding
Specific function:
Ileal protein which stimulates gastric acid and pepsinogen secretion. Seems to be able to bind to bile salts and bilirubins. Isoform 2 is essential for the survival of colon cancer cells to bile acid-induced apoptosis
Gene Name:
FABP6
Uniprot ID:
P51161
Molecular weight:
14371.2
References
  1. Kurz M, Brachvogel V, Matter H, Stengelin S, Thuring H, Kramer W: Insights into the bile acid transportation system: the human ileal lipid-binding protein-cholyltaurine complex and its comparison with homologous structures. Proteins. 2003 Feb 1;50(2):312-28. [12486725 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, taurocholate, triiodothyronine (T3), leukotriene C4, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), methotrexate and sulfobromophthalein (BSP)
Gene Name:
SLCO1B3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPD5
Molecular weight:
77402.2
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as pravastatin, taurocholate, methotrexate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, 17-beta-glucuronosyl estradiol, estrone sulfate, prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2, leukotriene C3, leukotriene E4, thyroxine and triiodothyronine. May play an important role in the clearance of bile acids and organic anions from the liver
Gene Name:
SLCO1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6L6
Molecular weight:
76448.0
References
  1. Michalski C, Cui Y, Nies AT, Nuessler AK, Neuhaus P, Zanger UM, Klein K, Eichelbaum M, Keppler D, Konig J: A naturally occurring mutation in the SLC21A6 gene causing impaired membrane localization of the hepatocyte uptake transporter. J Biol Chem. 2002 Nov 8;277(45):43058-63. Epub 2002 Aug 23. [12196548 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May act as an inducible transporter in the biliary and intestinal excretion of organic anions. Acts as an alternative route for the export of bile acids and glucuronides from cholestatic hepatocytes
Gene Name:
ABCC3
Uniprot ID:
O15438
Molecular weight:
169341.1
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Involved in the ATP-dependent secretion of bile salts into the canaliculus of hepatocytes
Gene Name:
ABCB11
Uniprot ID:
O95342
Molecular weight:
146405.8
General function:
Involved in bile acid:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
Plays a critical role in the sodium-dependent reabsorption of bile acids from the lumen of the small intestine. Plays a key role in cholesterol metabolism
Gene Name:
SLC10A2
Uniprot ID:
Q12908
Molecular weight:
37697.4
References
  1. Kramer W, Girbig F, Glombik H, Corsiero D, Stengelin S, Weyland C: Identification of a ligand-binding site in the Na+/bile acid cotransporting protein from rabbit ileum. J Biol Chem. 2001 Sep 21;276(38):36020-7. Epub 2001 Jul 10. [11447228 ]
General function:
Involved in bile acid:sodium symporter activity
Specific function:
The hepatic sodium/bile acid uptake system exhibits broad substrate specificity and transports various non-bile acid organic compounds as well. It is strictly dependent on the extracellular presence of sodium.
Gene Name:
SLC10A1
Uniprot ID:
Q14973
Molecular weight:
38118.64
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as sulfobromophthalein (BSP) and conjugated (taurocholate) and unconjugated (cholate) bile acids
Gene Name:
SLCO1A2
Uniprot ID:
P46721
Molecular weight:
74144.1
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates the Na(+)-independent transport of organic anions such as the thyroid hormones T3 (triiodo-L-thyronine), T4 (thyroxine) and rT3, and of estrone-3-sulfate and taurocholate
Gene Name:
SLCO4A1
Uniprot ID:
Q96BD0
Molecular weight:
77192.5