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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:03:25 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00855
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameNicotinamide riboside
DescriptionNicotinamide riboside is involved in nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism. Nicotinamide riboside was originally identified as a nutrient in milk. It is a useful compound for elevation of NAD+ levels in humans. Nicotinamide riboside has recently been discovered to be an NAD(+) precursor that is converted to nicotinamide mononucleotide by specific nicotinamide riboside kinases, Nrk1 and Nrk2. It has been shown that exogenous nicotinamide riboside promotes Sir2-dependent repression of recombination, improves gene silencing, and extends the lifespan of certain animal models without calorie restriction [PMID:17482543 ]. Supplementation in mammalian cells and mouse tissues increases NAD(+) levels and activates SIRT1 and SIRT3, culminating in enhanced oxidative metabolism and protection against high-fat diet-induced metabolic abnormalities. (PMID:22682224 ). Recent data suggest that nicotinamide riboside may be the only vitamin precursor that supports neuronal NAD+ synthesis (PMID: 18429699 ). Nicotinamide riboside kinase has an essential role for phosphorylation of nicotinamide riboside and the cancer drug tiazofurin (PMID 15137942 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1-(beta-D-Ribofuranosyl)nicotinamideChEBI
beta-Nicotinamide D-ribosideChEBI
Nicotinamide ribonucleosideChEBI
Nicotinamide riboseChEBI
Nicotinamide ribosideChEBI
Nicotinamide-beta-ribosideChEBI
1-(b-D-Ribofuranosyl)nicotinamideGenerator
1-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)nicotinamideGenerator
1-b-D-Ribosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamideHMDB
1-beta-D-Ribosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamideHMDB
1-beta-delta-Ribosyl-3-pyridinecarboxamideHMDB
3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-beta-D-ribofuranosyl-pyridiniumHMDB
3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosyl-pyridiniumHMDB
N-RibosylnicotinamideHMDB
RibosylnicotinamideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC11H15N2O5
Average Molecular Weight255.2472
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight255.0980966
IUPAC Name3-carbamoyl-1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-(hydroxymethyl)oxolan-2-yl]-1λ⁵-pyridin-1-ylium
Traditional Namenicotinamide ribose
CAS Registry Number1341-23-7
SMILES
NC(=O)C1=C[N+](=CC=C1)[C@@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C11H14N2O5/c12-10(17)6-2-1-3-13(4-6)11-9(16)8(15)7(5-14)18-11/h1-4,7-9,11,14-16H,5H2,(H-,12,17)/p+1/t7-,8-,9-,11-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=JLEBZPBDRKPWTD-TURQNECASA-O
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glycosylamines. These are compounds consisting of an amine with a beta-N-glycosidic bond to a carbohydrate, thus forming a cyclic hemiaminal ether bond (alpha-amino ether).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Sub ClassGlycosyl compounds
Direct ParentGlycosylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Nicotinamide
  • Pyridinium
  • Pyridine
  • Monosaccharide
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Oxolane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Primary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • 1,2-diol
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Organic cation
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.45 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.3ALOGPS
logP-6.1ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.39ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area116.89 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity60.83 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability24.73 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-0090000000-e25d1beb47cb1fe9e4cbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-002b-3090000000-03687e9ef697eda1d6c8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052g-9300000000-2755bde4df843d2227f2View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0090000000-809be1146b2a2c8d96a7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-1390000000-2fc72cf0619f182e044fView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0k96-9300000000-4d5b96b192f3484b1b8aView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Nicotinate and Nicotinamide MetabolismSMP00048map00760
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022281
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID388956
KEGG Compound IDC03150
BioCyc IDNICOTINAMIDE_RIBOSE
BiGG ID41300
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00855
Metagene LinkHMDB00855
METLIN ID5818
PubChem Compound439924
PDB IDNNR
ChEBI ID15927
References
Synthesis ReferenceFranchetti, Palmarisa; Pasqualini, Michela; Petrelli, Riccardo; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vita, Patrizia; Cappellacci, Loredana. Stereoselective synthesis of nicotinamide b-riboside and nucleoside analogs. Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters (2004), 14(18), 4655-4658 Yang, T, Chan NY, Sauve AA. Syntheses of nicotinamide riboside and deriviatives.. J. Med Chem. 50:6458-61 (2007)..
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Bieganowski P, Brenner C: Discoveries of nicotinamide riboside as a nutrient and conserved NRK genes establish a Preiss-Handler independent route to NAD+ in fungi and humans. Cell. 2004 May 14;117(4):495-502. [15137942 ]
  2. Wall KA, Klis M, Kornet J, Coyle D, Ame JC, Jacobson MK, Slama JT: Inhibition of the intrinsic NAD+ glycohydrolase activity of CD38 by carbocyclic NAD analogues. Biochem J. 1998 Nov 1;335 ( Pt 3):631-6. [9794804 ]
  3. Pankiewicz KW, Watanabe KA, Lesiak-Watanabe K, Goldstein BM, Jayaram HN: The chemistry of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) analogues containing C-nucleosides related to nicotinamide riboside. Curr Med Chem. 2002 Apr;9(7):733-41. [11966436 ]
  4. Magni G, Amici A, Emanuelli M, Orsomando G, Raffaelli N, Ruggieri S: Enzymology of NAD+ homeostasis in man. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2004 Jan;61(1):19-34. [14704851 ]
  5. Schalk-Hihi C, Zhang YZ, Markham GD: The conformation of NADH bound to inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase determined by transferred nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy. Biochemistry. 1998 May 19;37(20):7608-16. [9585576 ]
  6. Bogan KL, Brenner C: Nicotinic acid, nicotinamide, and nicotinamide riboside: a molecular evaluation of NAD+ precursor vitamins in human nutrition. Annu Rev Nutr. 2008;28:115-30. doi: 10.1146/annurev.nutr.28.061807.155443. [18429699 ]
  7. Belenky P, Racette FG, Bogan KL, McClure JM, Smith JS, Brenner C: Nicotinamide riboside promotes Sir2 silencing and extends lifespan via Nrk and Urh1/Pnp1/Meu1 pathways to NAD+. Cell. 2007 May 4;129(3):473-84. [17482543 ]
  8. Canto C, Houtkooper RH, Pirinen E, Youn DY, Oosterveer MH, Cen Y, Fernandez-Marcos PJ, Yamamoto H, Andreux PA, Cettour-Rose P, Gademann K, Rinsch C, Schoonjans K, Sauve AA, Auwerx J: The NAD(+) precursor nicotinamide riboside enhances oxidative metabolism and protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity. Cell Metab. 2012 Jun 6;15(6):838-47. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2012.04.022. [22682224 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides.
Gene Name:
NT5E
Uniprot ID:
P21589
Molecular weight:
57948.125
Reactions
beta-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide + Water → Nicotinamide riboside + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides. Helps to regulate adenosine levels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NT5C1B
Uniprot ID:
Q96P26
Molecular weight:
68803.055
Reactions
beta-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide + Water → Nicotinamide riboside + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides and has a broad substrate specificity. Helps to regulate adenosine levels in heart during ischemia and hypoxia.
Gene Name:
NT5C1A
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXI3
Molecular weight:
41020.145
Reactions
beta-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide + Water → Nicotinamide riboside + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides, with a preference for dUMP and dTMP, intermediate activity towards dGMP, and low activity towards dCMP and dAMP.
Gene Name:
NT5C
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCD5
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
beta-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide + Water → Nicotinamide riboside + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates specifically the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of uracil and thymine deoxyribonucleotides, and so protects mitochondrial DNA replication from excess dTTP. Has only marginal activity towards dIMP and dGMP.
Gene Name:
NT5M
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPB1
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
beta-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide + Water → Nicotinamide riboside + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
The enzyme apparently serves as a quinone reductase in connection with conjugation reactions of hydroquinones involved in detoxification pathways as well as in biosynthetic processes such as the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation of glutamate residues in prothrombin synthesis.
Gene Name:
NQO2
Uniprot ID:
P16083
Molecular weight:
25918.4
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Can act both as nucleotidase and as phosphotransferase.
Gene Name:
NT5C3
Uniprot ID:
Q9H0P0
Molecular weight:
33914.91
Reactions
beta-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide + Water → Nicotinamide riboside + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in 5'-nucleotidase activity
Specific function:
May have a critical role in the maintenance of a constant composition of intracellular purine/pyrimidine nucleotides in cooperation with other nucleotidases. Preferentially hydrolyzes inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) and other purine nucleotides.
Gene Name:
NT5C2
Uniprot ID:
P49902
Molecular weight:
64969.2
Reactions
beta-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide + Water → Nicotinamide riboside + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in purine-nucleoside phosphorylase activity
Specific function:
The purine nucleoside phosphorylases catalyze the phosphorolytic breakdown of the N-glycosidic bond in the beta-(deoxy)ribonucleoside molecules, with the formation of the corresponding free purine bases and pentose-1-phosphate.
Gene Name:
PNP
Uniprot ID:
P00491
Molecular weight:
32117.69
Reactions
Nicotinamide riboside + Phosphoric acid → Niacinamide + Ribose 1-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinic acid riboside (NaR) to form nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN). The enzyme also phosphorylates the antitumor drugs tiazofurin and 3-deazaguanosine.
Gene Name:
NMRK1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NWW6
Molecular weight:
20152.76
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Nicotinamide riboside → ADP + beta-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotidedetails
General function:
Nucleotide transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinic acid riboside (NaR) to form nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN). Reduces laminin matrix deposition and cell adhesion to laminin, but not to fibronectin. Involved in the regulation of PXN at the protein level and of PXN tyrosine phosphorylation. May play a role in the regulation of terminal myogenesis.
Gene Name:
NMRK2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPI5
Molecular weight:
26045.335
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Nicotinamide riboside → ADP + beta-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotidedetails