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Record Information
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-03-02 21:26:14 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTauroursodeoxycholic acid
DescriptionTauroursodeoxycholic acid is a bile acid also known as TUDCA formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with taurine, usually as the sodium salt. TUDCA is able to prevent apoptosis and protect mitochondria from cellular elements that would otherwise interfere with energy production. One of these elements is a protein called Bax. TUDCA plays an important role in preventing Bax from being transported to the mitochondria. Bile acids are steroid acids found predominantly in bile of mammals. The distinction between different bile acids is minute, depends only on presence or absence of hydroxyl groups on positions 3, 7, and 12. Bile acids are physiological detergents that facilitate excretion, absorption, and transport of fats and sterols in the intestine and liver. Bile acids are also steroidal amphipathic molecules derived from the catabolism of cholesterol. They modulate bile flow and lipid secretion, are essential for the absorption of dietary fats and vitamins, and have been implicated in the regulation of all the key enzymes involved in cholesterol homeostasis. Bile acids recirculate through the liver, bile ducts, small intestine and portal vein to form an enterohepatic circuit. They exist as anions at physiological pH and, consequently, require a carrier for transport across the membranes of the enterohepatic tissues. The unique detergent properties of bile acids are essential for the digestion and intestinal absorption of hydrophobic nutrients. Bile acids have potent toxic properties (e.g., membrane disruption) and there are a plethora of mechanisms to limit their accumulation in blood and tissues. (PMID: 11316487 , 16037564 , 12576301 , 11907135 ).
2-(((3-alpha,5-beta,7-beta)-3,7-Dihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl) amino)ethanesulfonateHMDB
2-(((3-alpha,5-beta,7-beta)-3,7-Dihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl) amino)ethanesulfonic acidHMDB
2-(((3-alpha,5-beta,7-beta)-3,7-Dihydroxy-24-oxocholan-24-yl)amino)-ethanesulfonic acidHMDB
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid, monosodium salt, (3alpha,5beta,7alpha)-isomerMeSH
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid, (3alpha,5alpha,7alpha)-isomerMeSH
Tauroursodeoxycholic acid, monosodium salt, (3alpha,7alpha)-isomerMeSH
Chemical FormulaC26H45NO6S
Average Molecular Weight499.704
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight499.296758867
IUPAC Name2-[(4R)-4-[(1S,2S,5R,9S,10R,11S,14R,15R)-5,9-dihydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadecan-14-yl]pentanamido]ethane-1-sulfonic acid
Traditional Name2-[(4R)-4-[(1S,2S,5R,9S,10R,11S,14R,15R)-5,9-dihydroxy-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadecan-14-yl]pentanamido]ethanesulfonic acid
CAS Registry Number14605-22-2
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
StatusDetected and Quantified
  • Endogenous
  • Food
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Hormones, Membrane component
  • Membrane integrity/stability
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.0075 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-0.99ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)0.18ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area123.93 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity130.68 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability56.31 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
Tissue Location
  • Gall Bladder
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified2.0 (0.1-4.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
FecesDetected and Quantified0.30 +/- 0.37 nmol/g of fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022294
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID25949321
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00874
Metagene LinkHMDB00874
PubChem Compound12443252
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceZhuo, Chao; Feng, Wei; Wu, Da-jun; Xiong, Zhi-gang. Synthesis of tauroursodeoxycholic acid. Hecheng Huaxue (2002), 10(5), 444-446.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Rolo AP, Palmeira CM, Holy JM, Wallace KB: Role of mitochondrial dysfunction in combined bile acid-induced cytotoxicity: the switch between apoptosis and necrosis. Toxicol Sci. 2004 May;79(1):196-204. Epub 2004 Feb 19. [PubMed:14976352 ]
  2. Tessier E, Neirinck L, Zhu Z: High-performance liquid chromatographic mass spectrometric method for the determination of ursodeoxycholic acid and its glycine and taurine conjugates in human plasma. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Dec 25;798(2):295-302. [PubMed:14643509 ]
  3. Yamaguchi Y, Itami S, Nishida K, Ando Y, Okamoto S, Hosokawa K, Yoshikawa K: Taurin-conjugated ursodeoxycholic acid has a reversible inhibitory effect on human keratinocyte growth. J Dermatol Sci. 1998 Sep;18(1):35-42. [PubMed:9747660 ]
  4. Shekels LL, Beste JE, Ho SB: Tauroursodeoxycholic acid protects in vitro models of human colonic cancer cells from cytotoxic effects of hydrophobic bile acids. J Lab Clin Med. 1996 Jan;127(1):57-66. [PubMed:8592097 ]
  5. Lee DK, Park SY, Baik SK, Kwon SO, Chung JM, Oh ES, Kim HS: [Deoxycholic acid-induced signal transduction in HT-29 cells: role of NF-kappa B and interleukin-8]. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2004 Mar;43(3):176-85. [PubMed:15034288 ]
  6. Cai W, Khaoustov VI, Xie Q, Pan T, Le W, Yoffe B: Interferon-alpha-induced modulation of glucocorticoid and serotonin receptors as a mechanism of depression. J Hepatol. 2005 Jun;42(6):880-7. Epub 2005 Apr 7. [PubMed:15885359 ]
  7. Loria P, Bozzoli M, Concari M, Guicciardi ME, Carubbi F, Bertolotti M, Piani D, Nistri A, Angelico M, Romani M, Carulli N: Effect of taurohyodeoxycholic acid on biliary lipid secretion in humans. Hepatology. 1997 Jun;25(6):1306-14. [PubMed:9185744 ]
  8. Henzel K, Thorborg C, Hofmann M, Zimmer G, Leuschner U: Toxicity of ethanol and acetaldehyde in hepatocytes treated with ursodeoxycholic or tauroursodeoxycholic acid. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004 Feb 2;1644(1):37-45. [PubMed:14741743 ]
  9. St-Pierre MV, Kullak-Ublick GA, Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ: Transport of bile acids in hepatic and non-hepatic tissues. J Exp Biol. 2001 May;204(Pt 10):1673-86. [PubMed:11316487 ]
  10. Claudel T, Staels B, Kuipers F: The Farnesoid X receptor: a molecular link between bile acid and lipid and glucose metabolism. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2005 Oct;25(10):2020-30. Epub 2005 Jul 21. [PubMed:16037564 ]
  11. Chiang JY: Bile acid regulation of hepatic physiology: III. Bile acids and nuclear receptors. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 Mar;284(3):G349-56. [PubMed:12576301 ]
  12. Davis RA, Miyake JH, Hui TY, Spann NJ: Regulation of cholesterol-7alpha-hydroxylase: BAREly missing a SHP. J Lipid Res. 2002 Apr;43(4):533-43. [PubMed:11907135 ]