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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:03:29 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00892
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameValeric acid
DescriptionValeric acid, or pentanoic acid, is a straight chain alkyl carboxylic acid with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)3COOH. Like other low molecular weight carboxylic acids, it has a very unpleasant odor. It is found naturally in the perennial flowering plant valerian (Valeriana officinalis), from which it gets its name. Its primary use is in the synthesis of its esters. Volatile esters of valeric acid tend to have pleasant odors and are used in perfumes and cosmetics. Ethyl valerate and pentyl valerate are used as food additives because of their fruity flavors.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
ValerateKegg
Pentanoic acidKegg
Valerianic acidKegg
N-PentanoateKegg
N-Valeric acidKegg
PentanoateGenerator
ValerianateGenerator
N-Pentanoic acidGenerator
N-ValerateGenerator
1-ButanecarboxylateHMDB
1-Butanecarboxylic acidHMDB
1-PentanoateHMDB
1-Pentanoic acidHMDB
ButanecarboxylateHMDB
Butanecarboxylic acidHMDB
Kyselina valerovaHMDB
N-C4H9COOHHMDB
PentoateHMDB
Pentoic acidHMDB
PropylacetateHMDB
Propylacetic acidHMDB
ValeriansaureHMDB
Valeric acid normalHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H10O2
Average Molecular Weight102.1317
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight102.068079564
IUPAC Namepentanoic acid
Traditional NameN-valeric acid
CAS Registry Number109-52-4
SMILES
CCCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H10O2/c1-2-3-4-5(6)7/h2-4H2,1H3,(H,6,7)
InChI KeyInChIKey=NQPDZGIKBAWPEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as straight chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with a straight aliphatic chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentStraight chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Straight chain fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-34 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility24.0 mg/mLNot Available
LogP1.39HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility40.3 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.34ALOGPS
logP1.37ChemAxon
logS-0.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)5.01ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area37.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity26.47 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.23 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0kdi-9200000000-68de4edfab1763d25290View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-5807dc032b484168ad7fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-6815adcb2b82e3f1f29fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6M) , Positivesplash10-03fr-9000000000-5ef705125c3c70ad3df3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-03di-9000000000-90144d1440b06340fe7eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-99bad9fba8cf3bc081e3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-0900000000-95b1b8722cad92c490e7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0udi-2900000000-d6ebac4ebed40b98b291View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0udi-9000000000-94459eb26bcb7c315bcdView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-e212c5cbe08c4eb40b95View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-03di-9000000000-9246123374d3104316a3View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Bladder
  • Nervous Tissues
  • Neuron
  • Skin
  • Stratum Corneum
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.6 (0.3-1.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0 - 119.91 ppmChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified3306.907 +/- 1256.417 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified1433.443 +/- 873.382 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified1250 +/- 520 nmol/g of fecesAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified31.24 +/- 16.53 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified40 +/- 160 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified50 +/- 150 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified20 +/- 60 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.00 +/- 20 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified10 +/- 20 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.00 +/- 20 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.00 +/- 20 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified>10 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.038 +/- 4.509 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected and Quantified0 - 202.69 ppmChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Treated celiac disease
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Diarrhea-predominant IBS
details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.459 +/- 4.538 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB02406
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003230
KNApSAcK IDC00001208
Chemspider ID7701
KEGG Compound IDC00803
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkValeric acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00892
Metagene LinkHMDB00892
METLIN ID110
PubChem Compound7991
PDB IDLEA
ChEBI ID17418
References
Synthesis ReferenceRuiz, Maria Olga; Cabezas, Jose Luis; Escudero, Isabel; Coca, Jose. Valeric acid extraction with tri-n-butyl phosphate impregnated in a macroporous resin: II. Studies in fixed bed columns. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology (2006), 81(3), 275-281.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [12097436 ]
  2. Vuotto ML, Miranda R, Ritieni A, Basile A, Ricciardi L, Di Prisco R, Nicolosi G, Mascolo N: Improvement of (+)-catechin inhibitory activity on human PMN respiratory burst by (+)-3-O-propionyl and (-)-3-O-valeryl substitution. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;55(3):399-405. [12724048 ]
  3. Nielsen FH, Honore E, Kristoffersen K, Secher NJ, Pedersen GT: Changes in serum lipids during treatment with norgestrel, oestradiol-valerate and cycloprogynon. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 1977;56(4):367-70. [602705 ]
  4. Siddiqui O, Roberts MS, Polack AE: Percutaneous absorption of steroids: relative contributions of epidermal penetration and dermal clearance. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1989 Aug;17(4):405-24. [2614679 ]
  5. Sudo S, Sudo M, Simons CT, Dessirier JM, Carstens E: Sensitization of trigeminal caudalis neuronal responses to intraoral acid and salt stimuli and desensitization by nicotine. Pain. 2002 Aug;98(3):277-86. [12127029 ]
  6. Punnonen R, Lovgren T, Kouvonen I: Demonstration of estrogen receptors in the skin. J Endocrinol Invest. 1980 Jul-Sep;3(3):217-21. [7430556 ]
  7. Kuznetsov DD, Alsikafi NF, O'Connor RC, Steinberg GD: Intravesical valrubicin in the treatment of carcinoma in situ of the bladder. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2001 Jun;2(6):1009-13. [11585003 ]
  8. Punnonen R, Lovgren T, Kouvonen I: Demonstration of estrogen receptors in the skin. J Endocrinol Invest. 1980 Jul-Sep;3(3):217-21. [6152964 ]
  9. Kubota K, Maibach HI: In vitro percutaneous permeation of betamethasone and betamethasone 17-valerate. J Pharm Sci. 1993 Oct;82(10):1039-45. [8254489 ]
  10. Tauber VU: [Percutaneous absorption of diflucortolone valerate in guinea pigs and man (author's transl)] Arzneimittelforschung. 1976;26(7b):1479-84. [1036943 ]
  11. Saunders DM, Hunter JC, Shutt DA, O'Neill BJ: The effect of oestradiol valerate therapy on coagulation factors and lipid and oestrogen levels in oophorectomised women. Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 1978 Aug;18(3):198-201. [283783 ]
  12. Abuknesha RA, Luk C: Paraquat enzyme-immunoassays in biological samples: assessment of the effects of hapten-protein bridge structures on assay sensitivity. Analyst. 2005 Jun;130(6):956-63. Epub 2005 Apr 25. [15912246 ]
  13. Wilbur DS, Hamlin DK, Chyan MK, Kegley BB, Pathare PM: Biotin reagents for antibody pretargeting. 5. Additional studies of biotin conjugate design to provide biotinidase stability. Bioconjug Chem. 2001 Jul-Aug;12(4):616-23. [11459467 ]
  14. Tauber VU, Amin M, Fuchs P, Speck U: [Comparative studies in man on the percutaneous absorption of diflucortolone valerate, betamethasone-17-valerate, beclomethasone dipropionate and fluocinolone acetonide] Arzneimittelforschung. 1976;26(7b):1492-5. [1036945 ]
  15. Lotti M, Moretto A: Promotion of organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy by certain esterase inhibitors. Chem Biol Interact. 1999 May 14;119-120:519-24. [10421491 ]
  16. Jacob TJ, Fraser C, Wang L, Walker V, O'Connor S: Psychophysical evaluation of responses to pleasant and mal-odour stimulation in human subjects; adaptation, dose response and gender differences. Int J Psychophysiol. 2003 Apr;48(1):67-80. [12694902 ]
  17. Vilska S, Punnonen R, Rauramo L: Long-term post-menopausal hormone therapy and serum HDL-C, total cholesterol and triglycerides. Maturitas. 1983 Aug;5(2):97-104. [6415365 ]
  18. Bottcher MF, Nordin EK, Sandin A, Midtvedt T, Bjorksten B: Microflora-associated characteristics in faeces from allergic and nonallergic infants. Clin Exp Allergy. 2000 Nov;30(11):1590-6. [11069568 ]
  19. Gysler A, Kleuser B, Sippl W, Lange K, Korting HC, Holtje HD, Korting HC: Skin penetration and metabolism of topical glucocorticoids in reconstructed epidermis and in excised human skin. Pharm Res. 1999 Sep;16(9):1386-91. [10496654 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro). Functions as GTP-dependent lipoate-activating enzyme that generates the substrate for lipoyltransferase (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACSM1
Uniprot ID:
Q08AH1
Molecular weight:
65272.74
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACSM6
Uniprot ID:
Q6P461
Molecular weight:
53584.545
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACSM2A
Uniprot ID:
Q08AH3
Molecular weight:
64223.7
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro).
Gene Name:
ACSM2B
Uniprot ID:
Q68CK6
Molecular weight:
64270.78
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACSM3
Uniprot ID:
Q53FZ2
Molecular weight:
66152.235
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACSM5
Uniprot ID:
Q6NUN0
Molecular weight:
64759.55
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ACSM4
Uniprot ID:
P0C7M7
Molecular weight:
65702.225