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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-12-07 01:19:50 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000893
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00837
  • HMDB00893
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSuberic acid
DescriptionSuberic acid, also octanedioic acid, is a dicarboxylic acid, with formula C6H12(COOH)2. It is present in the urine of patients with fatty acid oxidation disorders (PMID 10404733 ). A metabolic breakdown product derived from oleic acid. Elevated levels of this unstaruated dicarboxylic acid are found in individuals with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD). Suberic acid is also found to be associated with carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency, malonyl-Coa decarboxylase deficiency, which are also inborn errors of metabolism.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1,6-DicarboxyhexaneChEBI
1,6-Hexanedicarboxylic acidChEBI
1,8-Octanedioic acidChEBI
Cork acidChEBI
Hexamethylenedicarboxylic acidChEBI
KorksaeureChEBI
Octane-1,8-dioic acidChEBI
Octanedioic acidChEBI
OktandisaeureChEBI
SuberinsaeureChEBI
SuberateGenerator
1,6-HexanedicarboxylateGenerator
1,8-OctanedioateGenerator
HexamethylenedicarboxylateGenerator
Octane-1,8-dioateGenerator
OctanedioateGenerator
Suberic acid, cadmium (1:1) saltMeSH
Suberic acid, dipotassium saltMeSH
Suberic acid, monosodium saltMeSH
Suberic acid, disodium saltMeSH
Suberic acid, manganese (+2) (1:1) saltMeSH
Chemical FormulaC8H14O4
Average Molecular Weight174.1944
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight174.089208936
IUPAC Nameoctanedioic acid
Traditional Namesuberic acid
CAS Registry Number505-48-6
SMILES
OC(=O)CCCCCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C8H14O4/c9-7(10)5-3-1-2-4-6-8(11)12/h1-6H2,(H,9,10)(H,11,12)
InChI KeyTYFQFVWCELRYAO-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as medium-chain fatty acids. These are fatty acids with an aliphatic tail that contains between 4 and 12 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acids and conjugates
Direct ParentMedium-chain fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

  Health condition:

Disposition

Source:

  Biological:

    Animal:

Route of exposure:

  Enteral:

Biological Location:

  Biofluid and excreta:

  Organ and components:

  Subcellular:

Role

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point144 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility11.9 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.8 g/LALOGPS
logP1ALOGPS
logP1.38ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.15ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity41.94 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability18.41 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kk-1910000000-952e95dc54b5db1c622bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-00kr-4910000000-5746b8e489013c10f927View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-066u-9000000000-a1f08eaef174c2d608c2View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kk-1910000000-e6b559f2a680d7643effView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kk-1910000000-952e95dc54b5db1c622bView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kr-4910000000-5746b8e489013c10f927View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-9500000000-ae7c5b26647d1fa9e9fcView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0079-9630000000-e4a77be109073df5c29dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-00di-0900000000-06eceea912f97922f307View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-053r-9400000000-89400a660cc11e2dbf37View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-053r-9200000000-fd72cf0bb8c1688e773eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (Unknown) , Positivesplash10-066u-9000000000-53eb5eaccee7a26c26c9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-844f655c35c880c5f7ddView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-a817a3858303459fad6eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-03e9-5900000000-5cd959b0437224a4617fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-053r-9200000000-36bb7dd756513f3371f9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-003r-9000000000-060ff759568c0e7409a3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0pb9-0900000000-d3f20c39439fdb1997c6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-052b-9800000000-3c750dfd59f5f942ad1dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0pc0-9600000000-ac31ff4a1eb241fe7a55View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0a5i-9100000000-f235866b0941a9c8e495View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9300000000-1abec6742a0a70596a3aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-844f655c35c880c5f7ddView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-03di-0900000000-a817a3858303459fad6eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-03e9-5900000000-13bb8c4a5147c1290eecView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-053r-9200000000-36bb7dd756513f3371f9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-003r-9000000000-c2d5f21cf3c5f42b1ee0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-0900000000-0ce1109135b91db83e1aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-056r-4900000000-497b35b2ed425bc2c1e0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-067l-9100000000-bb0a668a71757557492dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0900000000-a2ea6904052f6faa706bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-05fr-1900000000-0632d4666e090256224dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9300000000-da94304d9610cbd18197View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableView in JSpectraViewer
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Prostate
PathwaysNot Available
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified3.6 (0.0-10.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.7 +/- 1.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified23.307 +/- 19.00176 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.158 +/- 5.683 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.325 +/- 0.885 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNot Available details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.34 +/- 5.99 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1-6 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.298 +/- 1.947 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.947 +/- 3.894 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.00 +/- 1.3 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.947 +/- 3.894 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified13.630 +/- 7.789 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.120 +/- 9.0866 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified54.520 +/- 44.135 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified16.85 +/- 2.73 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.0 (4.0-20.0) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.47-1.1 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.317 +/- 3.66 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.5 (0.0-2.9) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.6 +/- 5.5 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified<13 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 18 years old)Both
Normal
    • BC Children's Hos...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0-0.6 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.0 (3.4-14.0) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.7 (6.3-10.6) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.7 (0.9-4.9) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.8 (0.6-7.0) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.6 (0.5-6.9) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.6 (0.9-2.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.44-0.76 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.2 (0.5-1.9) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified74 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Not Specified
Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency
details
UrineDetected and Quantified28-116 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothCarnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.281 +/- 2.82 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.288 +/- 10.275 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified22.717 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency
details
UrineDetected and Quantified25.962 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency
details
UrineDetected and Quantified54 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)MaleMalonyl-Coa decarboxylase deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified57.116 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency
details
UrineDetected and Quantified202.502 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency
details
UrineDetected and Quantified721.089 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency
details
UrineDetected and Quantified12-322 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)BothMedium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified80.386-290.677 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedMedium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency details
UrineDetected and Quantified34.00 +/- 7.00 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothMalnutrition (type kwashiorkor and marasmus) details
UrineDetected and Quantified14.956 +/- 18.528 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified9.5 +/- 3.9 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)FemaleAnorexia nervosa details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Schizophrenia
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency
  1. Tserng KY, Jin SJ, Kerr DS, Hoppel CL: Abnormal urinary excretion of unsaturated dicarboxylic acids in patients with medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency. J Lipid Res. 1990 May;31(5):763-71. [PubMed:2380628 ]
  2. Gregersen N, Kolvraa S, Rasmussen K, Mortensen PB, Divry P, David M, Hobolth N: General (medium-chain) acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (non-ketotic dicarboxylic aciduria): quantitative urinary excretion pattern of 23 biologically significant organic acids in three cases. Clin Chim Acta. 1983 Aug 15;132(2):181-91. [PubMed:6616873 ]
  3. Duran M, De Klerk JB, Wadman SK, Bruinvis L, Ketting D: The differential diagnosis of dicarboxylic aciduria. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1984;7 Suppl 1:48-51. [PubMed:6434845 ]
Anorexia nervosa
  1. Capo-chichi CD, Gueant JL, Lefebvre E, Bennani N, Lorentz E, Vidailhet C, Vidailhet M: Riboflavin and riboflavin-derived cofactors in adolescent girls with anorexia nervosa. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Apr;69(4):672-8. [PubMed:10197568 ]
Schizophrenia
  1. Yang J, Chen T, Sun L, Zhao Z, Qi X, Zhou K, Cao Y, Wang X, Qiu Y, Su M, Zhao A, Wang P, Yang P, Wu J, Feng G, He L, Jia W, Wan C: Potential metabolite markers of schizophrenia. Mol Psychiatry. 2013 Jan;18(1):67-78. doi: 10.1038/mp.2011.131. Epub 2011 Oct 25. [PubMed:22024767 ]
Malonyl-Coa decarboxylase deficiency
  1. Haan EA, Scholem RD, Croll HB, Brown GK: Malonyl coenzyme A decarboxylase deficiency. Clinical and biochemical findings in a second child with a more severe enzyme defect. Eur J Pediatr. 1986 Apr;144(6):567-70. [PubMed:3709568 ]
Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency
  1. Stanley CA, Hale DE, Berry GT, Deleeuw S, Boxer J, Bonnefont JP: Brief report: a deficiency of carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase in the inner mitochondrial membrane. N Engl J Med. 1992 Jul 2;327(1):19-23. [PubMed:1598097 ]
  2. Ogier de Baulny H, Slama A, Touati G, Turnbull DM, Pourfarzam M, Brivet M: Neonatal hyperammonemia caused by a defect of carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase. J Pediatr. 1995 Nov;127(5):723-8. [PubMed:7472823 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 606788 (Anorexia nervosa)
  • 181500 (Schizophrenia)
  • 201450 (Medium Chain Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency)
  • 248360 (Malonyl-Coa decarboxylase deficiency)
  • 212138 (Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency)
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003340
KNApSAcK IDC00001204
Chemspider ID10025
KEGG Compound IDC08278
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkSuberic acid
METLIN ID4243
PubChem Compound10457
PDB IDOCE
ChEBI ID9300
References
Synthesis ReferenceAyorinde, Folahan O.; Osman, Gamal; Shepard, Robert L.; Powers, Fiona T. Synthesis of azelaic acid and suberic acid from Vernonia galamensis oil. JAOCS, J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. (1988), 65(11), 1774-7.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  2. Shoemaker JD, Elliott WH: Automated screening of urine samples for carbohydrates, organic and amino acids after treatment with urease. J Chromatogr. 1991 Jan 2;562(1-2):125-38. [PubMed:2026685 ]
  3. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [PubMed:8087979 ]
  4. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. [PubMed:8412012 ]
  5. Jakobs C, Sweetman L, Wadman SK, Duran M, Saudubray JM, Nyhan WL: Prenatal diagnosis of glutaric aciduria type II by direct chemical analysis of dicarboxylic acids in amniotic fluid. Eur J Pediatr. 1984 Jan;141(3):153-7. [PubMed:6698061 ]
  6. Hagen T, Korson MS, Sakamoto M, Evans JE: A GC/MS/MS screening method for multiple organic acidemias from urine specimens. Clin Chim Acta. 1999 May;283(1-2):77-88. [PubMed:10404733 ]
  7. Hayakawa S: Microbial transformation of bile acids. A unified scheme for bile acid degradation, and hydroxylation of bile acids. Z Allg Mikrobiol. 1982;22(5):309-26. [PubMed:7123999 ]
  8. Truscott RJ, Hick L, Pullin C, Halpern B, Wilcken B, Griffiths H, Silink M, Kilham H, Grunseit F: Dicarboxylic aciduria: the response to fasting. Clin Chim Acta. 1979 May 16;94(1):31-9. [PubMed:455718 ]
  9. Yoshioka K, Shimojo N, Nakanishi T, Naka K, Okuda K: Measurements of urinary adipic acid and suberic acid using high-performance liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1994 May 13;655(2):189-93. [PubMed:8081464 ]
  10. Liang Y, Liu L, Wei H, Luo XP, Wang MT: [Late-onset riboflavin-responsive multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (glutaric aciduria type II)]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2003 Dec;41(12):916-20. [PubMed:14723814 ]
  11. Manjula BN, Roy RP, Smith PK, Acharya AS: Bissulfosuccinimidyl esters of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids: a new class of 'affinity directed' beta beta crosslinkers of HbA. Artif Cells Blood Substit Immobil Biotechnol. 1994;22(3):747-52. [PubMed:7994397 ]
  12. Ishiguro Y, Kajita M, Aoshima T, Watanabe K, Kimura M, Yamaguchi S: The first case of 4-hydroxybutyric aciduria in Japan. Brain Dev. 2001 Mar;23(2):128-30. [PubMed:11248463 ]