Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for NAD (HMDB00902)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2005-11-16 08:48:42 -0700
Update Date 2013-02-08 17:09:33 -0700
HMDB ID HMDB00902
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name NAD
Description NAD (or Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is used extensively in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle of cellular respiration. The reducing potential stored in NADH can be converted to ATP through the electron transport chain or used for anabolic metabolism. ATP "energy" is necessary for an organism to live. Green plants obtain ATP through photosynthesis, while other organisms obtain it by cellular respiration. (wikipedia). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is a A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed).
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. 3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate inner salt
  2. 3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate inner salt
  3. 3-Carbamoyl-1-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  4. 3-Carbamoyl-1-delta-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  5. Adenine-nicotinamide dinucleotide
  6. beta-Diphosphopyridine nucleotide
  7. beta-NAD
  8. beta-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
  9. beta-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide trihydrate
  10. CO-I
  11. Codehydrase I
  12. Codehydrogenase I
  13. Coenzyme I
  14. Cozymase
  15. Cozymase I
  16. Diphosphopyridine nucleotide
  17. Diphosphopyridine nucleotide oxidized
  18. Endopride
  19. NAD trihydrate
  20. NAD-oxidized
  21. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
  22. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidized
  23. Nicotinamide dinucleotide
  24. Nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide
  25. Oxidized diphosphopyridine nucleotide
  26. Pyridine nucleotide diphosphate
  27. [(3S,2R,4R,5R)-5-(6-Aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl {[(3S,2R,4R,5R)-5-(3-carbamoylpyridyl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(hydroxyphosphoryl) hydrogen phosphate
  28. [adenylate-32-P]-NAD
Chemical Formula C21H28N7O14P2
Average Molecular Weight 664.433
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 664.116946663
IUPAC Name 1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-[({[({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)methyl]-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]-3-carbamoyl-1$l^{5}-pyridin-1-ylium
Traditional IUPAC Name 1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-{[({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy]methyl}-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]-3-carbamoyl-1$l^{5}-pyridin-1-ylium
CAS Registry Number 53-84-9
SMILES NC(=O)C1=C[N+](=CC=C1)[C@@H]1O[C@H](COP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OC[C@H]2O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]2O)N2C=NC3=C2N=CN=C3N)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/C21H27N7O14P2/c22-17-12-19(25-7-24-17)28(8-26-12)21-16(32)14(30)11(41-21)6-39-44(36,37)42-43(34,35)38-5-10-13(29)15(31)20(40-10)27-3-1-2-9(4-27)18(23)33/h1-4,7-8,10-11,13-16,20-21,29-32H,5-6H2,(H5-,22,23,24,25,33,34,35,36,37)/p+1/t10-,11-,13-,14-,15-,16-,20-,21-/m1/s1
InChI Key BAWFJGJZGIEFAR-NNYOXOHSSA-O
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Nucleosides, Nucleotides, and Analogues
Class Purine Nucleotides
Sub Class Purine Ribonucleotides
Other Descriptors
  • Aromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
  • NAD(ChEBI)
  • NAD(P)(+)(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diol
  • 1 Phosphoribosyl Imidazole
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Carboxamide Group
  • Disaccharide Phosphate
  • Glycosyl Compound
  • Imidazole
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • N Glycosyl Compound
  • Nicotinamide Nucleotide
  • Organic Hypophosphite
  • Organic Phosphite
  • Organic Pyrophosphate
  • Oxolane
  • Pentose Disaccharide
  • Phosphoric Acid Ester
  • Primary Carboxylic Acid Amide
  • Purine
  • Pyridine
  • Pyridine Nucleotide
  • Pyridinium
  • Pyrimidine
  • Saccharide
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct Parent Purine Ribonucleoside Diphosphates
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Aminosugars metabolism
  • Component of Androgen and estrogen metabolism
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Component of Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
  • Component of Bile acid biosynthesis
  • Component of Butanoate metabolism
  • Component of C21-Steroid hormone metabolism
  • Component of Cysteine metabolism
  • Component of D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Fatty acid metabolism
  • Component of Folate biosynthesis
  • Component of Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Component of Galactose metabolism
  • Component of Glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Glutathione metabolism
  • Component of Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Component of Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Component of Histidine metabolism
  • Component of Inositol metabolism
  • Component of Methane metabolism
  • Component of Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Component of Nitrogen metabolism
  • Component of Nucleotide sugars metabolism
  • Component of Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Component of Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Component of Propanoate metabolism
  • Component of Prostaglandin and leukotriene metabolism
  • Component of Purine metabolism
  • Component of Pyruvate metabolism
  • Component of Retinol metabolism
  • Component of Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Component of Tryptophan metabolism
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
  • Component of Ubiquinone biosynthesis
  • Component of beta-Alanine metabolism
Application Not Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
State Solid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 140.0 - 142.0 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility 752.5 mg/mL Not Available
LogP Not Available Not Available
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
Water Solubility 1.81 g/L ALOGPS
LogP -1.18 ALOGPS
LogP -10 ChemAxon
LogS -2.59 ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic) 1.86 ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic) 5 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 15 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 8 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 318.26 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 11 ChemAxon
Refractivity 142 ChemAxon
Polarizability 55.86 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 1 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge -1 ChemAxon
Spectra
1H NMR Spectrum
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 10
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 25
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 40
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
MS/MS Spectrum LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic)
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
Tissue Location
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Fibroblasts
  • Liver
  • Epidermis
  • Brain
  • Prostate
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Platelet
Pathways
Name SMPDB Link KEGG Link
Ammonia Recycling SMP00009 map00910 Link_out
Glycolysis SMP00040 map00010 Link_out
Citric Acid Cycle SMP00057 map00020 Link_out
Gluconeogenesis SMP00128 map00010 Link_out
Glutamate Metabolism SMP00072 map00250 Link_out
Glycerol Phosphate Shuttle SMP00124 Not Available
Glucose-Alanine Cycle SMP00127 Not Available
Nicotinate and Nicotinamide Metabolism SMP00048 map00760 Link_out
Mitochondrial Electron Transport Chain SMP00355 map00190 Link_out
Ketone Body Metabolism SMP00071 map00072 Link_out
Histidine Metabolism SMP00044 map00340 Link_out
Malate-Aspartate Shuttle SMP00129 Not Available
Glycerolipid Metabolism SMP00039 map00561 Link_out
Ethanol Degradation SMP00449 Not Available
Threonine and 2-Oxobutanoate Degradation SMP00452 Not Available
Carnitine Synthesis SMP00465 Not Available
Transfer of Acetyl Groups into Mitochondria SMP00466 Not Available
Plasmalogen Synthesis SMP00479 Not Available
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Short Chain Saturated Fatty Acids SMP00480 Not Available
Glycine and Serine Metabolism SMP00004 map00260 Link_out
Folate Metabolism SMP00053 map00670 Link_out
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Long Chain Saturated Fatty Acids SMP00482 Not Available
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Medium Chain Saturated Fatty Acids SMP00481 Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
24.00 (23.00-25.6) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Cellular Cytoplasm Detected and Quantified
88.7 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 29.00 (25.00-33.00) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Pellagra
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Pellagra
  • Creeke PI, Dibari F, Cheung E, van den Briel T, Kyroussis E, Seal AJ: Whole blood NAD and NADP concentrations are not depressed in subjects with clinical pellagra. J Nutr. 2007 Sep;137(9):2013-7. Pubmed: 17709435 Link_out
      Associated OMIM IDs None
      DrugBank ID Not Available
      DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
      Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
      Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
      FoodDB ID FDB022309
      KNApSAcK ID Not Available
      Chemspider ID 5682 Link_out
      KEGG Compound ID C00003 Link_out
      BioCyc ID NAD Link_out
      BiGG ID 33480 Link_out
      Wikipedia Link NAD Link_out
      NuGOwiki Link HMDB00902 Link_out
      Metagene Link HMDB00902 Link_out
      METLIN ID 5858 Link_out
      PubChem Compound 5893 Link_out
      PDB ID Not Available
      ChEBI ID 15846 Link_out
      References
      Synthesis Reference Hughes, N. A.; Kenner, G. W.; Todd, Alexander. Codehydrogenases. III. Synthesis of diphosphopyridine nucleotide (cozymase) and triphosphopyridine nucleotide. Journal of the Chemical Society (1957), 3733-8.
      Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
      General References
      1. Brautigam CA, Chuang JL, Tomchick DR, Machius M, Chuang DT: Crystal structure of human dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase: NAD+/NADH binding and the structural basis of disease-causing mutations. J Mol Biol. 2005 Jul 15;350(3):543-52. Pubmed: 15946682 Link_out
      2. Ying W: NAD+ and NADH in cellular functions and cell death. Front Biosci. 2006 Sep 1;11:3129-48. Pubmed: 16720381 Link_out
      3. Hamza A, Cho H, Tai HH, Zhan CG: Understanding human 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase binding with NAD+ and PGE2 by homology modeling, docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005 Jul 15;13(14):4544-51. Pubmed: 15908215 Link_out
      4. Begonja AJ, Gambaryan S, Geiger J, Aktas B, Pozgajova M, Nieswandt B, Walter U: Platelet NAD(P)H-oxidase-generated ROS production regulates alphaIIbbeta3-integrin activation independent of the NO/cGMP pathway. Blood. 2005 Oct 15;106(8):2757-60. Epub 2005 Jun 23. Pubmed: 15976180 Link_out
      5. Bruzzone S, Moreschi I, Guida L, Usai C, Zocchi E, De Flora A: Extracellular NAD+ regulates intracellular calcium levels and induces activation of human granulocytes. Biochem J. 2006 Feb 1;393(Pt 3):697-704. Pubmed: 16225456 Link_out
      6. Kim MY, Zhang T, Kraus WL: Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by PARP-1: 'PAR-laying' NAD+ into a nuclear signal. Genes Dev. 2005 Sep 1;19(17):1951-67. Pubmed: 16140981 Link_out
      7. Kunsman GW, Manno JE, Cockerham KR, Manno BR: A modification and validation of two urine ethanol procedures for use with the Monarch 2000 Chemistry System. J Anal Toxicol. 1991 May-Jun;15(3):130-5. Pubmed: 1943056 Link_out
      8. Nakayama Y, Kinoshita A, Tomita M: Dynamic simulation of red blood cell metabolism and its application to the analysis of a pathological condition. Theor Biol Med Model. 2005 May 9;2(1):18. Pubmed: 15882454 Link_out
      9. Orczyk J, Morre DM, Morre DJ: Periodic fluctuations in oxygen consumption comparing HeLa (cancer) and CHO (non-cancer) cells and response to external NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 May;273(1-2):161-7. Pubmed: 16013451 Link_out
      10. Krotz F, Sohn HY, Gloe T, Zahler S, Riexinger T, Schiele TM, Becker BF, Theisen K, Klauss V, Pohl U: NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent platelet superoxide anion release increases platelet recruitment. Blood. 2002 Aug 1;100(3):917-24. Pubmed: 12130503 Link_out
      11. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411 Link_out

      Enzymes

      Show all enzymes and transporters Important Only showing the first 50 enzymes. There are 261 enzymes in total.

      Name: Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit beta, mitochondrial
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: PDHB
      Uniprot ID: P11177 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, somatic form, mitochondrial
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: PDHA1
      Uniprot ID: P08559 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component subunit alpha, testis-specific form, mitochondrial
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: PDHA2
      Uniprot ID: P29803 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Methylmalonate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase [acylating], mitochondrial
      Reactions:
      2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoic acid + Coenzyme A + Water + NAD unknown Propionyl-CoA + Carbonic acid + NADH details
      Malonic semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD unknown Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      (S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD unknown Propionyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      (S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD unknown Methylmalonyl-CoA + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      Gene Name: ALDH6A1
      Uniprot ID: Q02252 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
      Reactions:
      Protein N(6)-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine + NAD unknown protein N(6)-(lipoyl)lysine + NADH details
      Dihydrolipoamide + NAD unknown Lipoamide + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      Dihydrolipoylprotein + NAD unknown Lipoylprotein + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      Enzyme N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine + NAD unknown Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      Gene Name: DLD
      Uniprot ID: P09622 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase component of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, mitochondrial
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: DLAT
      Uniprot ID: P10515 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C4
      Reactions:
      Androsterone + NAD unknown Androstanedione + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      Etiocholanolone + NAD unknown Etiocholanedione + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestane + NAD unknown 7a-Hydroxy-5b-cholestan-3-one + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      5-b-Cholestane-3a ,7a ,12a-triol + NAD unknown 7a,12a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-3-one + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      Tetrahydrocortisone + NAD unknown 17a,21-Dihydroxy-5b-pregnane-3,11,20-trione + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      Tetrahydrocortisol + NAD unknown Dihydrocortisol + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      3a,11b,21-Trihydroxy-20-oxo-5b-pregnan-18-al + NAD unknown 11b,21-Dihydroxy-3,20-oxo-5b-pregnan-18-al + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      Tetrahydrocorticosterone + NAD unknown 11b,21-Dihydroxy-5b-pregnane-3,20-dione + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      3a,21-Dihydroxy-5b-pregnane-11,20-dione + NAD unknown 21-Hydroxy-5b-pregnane-3,11,20-trione + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      3a-Hydroxy-5b-pregnane-20-one + NAD unknown 5a-Pregnane-3,20-dione + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      Gene Name: AKR1C4
      Uniprot ID: P17516 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase [NAD(+)]
      Reactions:
      (5Z,13E,15S)-11-alpha,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-5,13-dienoate + NAD unknown (5Z,13E)-11-alpha-hydroxy-9,15-dioxoprost-5,13-dienoate + NADH details
      Gene Name: HPGD
      Uniprot ID: P15428 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Tyrosinase
      Reactions:
      Tyramine + Oxygen + NADH + Hydrogen Ion unknown Dopamine + NAD + Water details
      Gene Name: TYR
      Uniprot ID: P14679 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Aldose reductase
      Reactions:
      Glycerol + NAD unknown Glyceraldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      Beta-D-Galactose + NADH + Hydrogen Ion unknown Galactitol + NAD details
      L-Arabitol + NAD unknown L-Arabinose + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      Lactaldehyde + NAD unknown Pyruvaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      Gene Name: AKR1B1
      Uniprot ID: P15121 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Short-chain specific acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
      Reactions:
      Butyryl-CoA + NAD unknown (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      Gene Name: ACADS
      Uniprot ID: P16219 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 1
      Reactions:
      NADH + Coenzyme Q10 unknown NAD + QH(2) details
      Gene Name: MT-ND1
      Uniprot ID: P03886 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFB1
      Uniprot ID: O75438 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase family member 1
      Reactions:
      NAD + Water unknown Adenosine monophosphate + beta-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotide details
      Gene Name: ENPP1
      Uniprot ID: P22413 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 2, mitochondrial
      Reactions:
      NADH + Coenzyme Q10 unknown NAD + QH(2) details
      NADH + acceptor unknown NAD + reduced acceptor details
      Gene Name: NDUFS2
      Uniprot ID: O75306 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 12
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFA12
      Uniprot ID: Q9UI09 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase 3
      Reactions:
      NADH + ferricytochrome b5 unknown NAD + Hydrogen Ion + ferrocytochrome b5 details
      Gene Name: CYB5R3
      Uniprot ID: P00387 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 1
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFA1
      Uniprot ID: O15239 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 4-like 2
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFA4L2
      Uniprot ID: Q9NRX3 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 3
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFA3
      Uniprot ID: O95167 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 8
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFA8
      Uniprot ID: P51970 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 4
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFA4
      Uniprot ID: O00483 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4L
      Reactions:
      NADH + Coenzyme Q10 unknown NAD + QH(2) details
      Gene Name: MT-ND4L
      Uniprot ID: P03901 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 11
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFA11
      Uniprot ID: Q86Y39 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Lathosterol oxidase
      Reactions:
      Lathosterol + NADH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen unknown 7-Dehydrocholesterol + NAD + Water details
      Gene Name: SC5DL
      Uniprot ID: O75845 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 4, mitochondrial
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFS4
      Uniprot ID: O43181 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Ribosyldihydronicotinamide dehydrogenase [quinone]
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NQO2
      Uniprot ID: P16083 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 5
      Reactions:
      NADH + Coenzyme Q10 unknown NAD + QH(2) details
      Gene Name: MT-ND5
      Uniprot ID: P03915 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 3, mitochondrial
      Reactions:
      NADH + Coenzyme Q10 unknown NAD + QH(2) details
      NADH + acceptor unknown NAD + reduced acceptor details
      Gene Name: NDUFS3
      Uniprot ID: O75489 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 5
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFS5
      Uniprot ID: O43920 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 2, mitochondrial
      Reactions:
      NADH + Coenzyme Q10 unknown NAD + QH(2) details
      NADH + acceptor unknown NAD + reduced acceptor details
      Gene Name: NDUFV2
      Uniprot ID: P19404 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 10, mitochondrial
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFA10
      Uniprot ID: O95299 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 6
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFA6
      Uniprot ID: P56556 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 4
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFB4
      Uniprot ID: O95168 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 8, mitochondrial
      Reactions:
      NADH + Coenzyme Q10 unknown NAD + QH(2) details
      NADH + acceptor unknown NAD + reduced acceptor details
      Gene Name: NDUFS8
      Uniprot ID: O00217 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 2
      Reactions:
      NADH + Coenzyme Q10 unknown NAD + QH(2) details
      Gene Name: MT-ND2
      Uniprot ID: P03891 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
      Reactions:
      L-Glutamic gamma-semialdehyde + NAD + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NAD + Water unknown L-Glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      Pyrroline hydroxycarboxylic acid + NAD + Water unknown 4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion unknown L-4-Hydroxyglutamate semialdehyde + NAD + Water details
      Gene Name: ALDH4A1
      Uniprot ID: P30038 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 7
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFA7
      Uniprot ID: O95182 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 2
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFA2
      Uniprot ID: O43678 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 75 kDa subunit, mitochondrial
      Reactions:
      NADH + Coenzyme Q10 unknown NAD + QH(2) details
      NADH + acceptor unknown NAD + reduced acceptor details
      Gene Name: NDUFS1
      Uniprot ID: P28331 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 5, mitochondrial
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFB5
      Uniprot ID: O43674 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 subunit C2
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFC2
      Uniprot ID: O95298 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 3
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFB3
      Uniprot ID: O43676 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 beta subcomplex subunit 7
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFB7
      Uniprot ID: P17568 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Acyl carrier protein, mitochondrial
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFAB1
      Uniprot ID: O14561 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 5
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFA5
      Uniprot ID: Q16718 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 9, mitochondrial
      Reactions: Not Available
      Gene Name: NDUFA9
      Uniprot ID: Q16795 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4
      Reactions:
      NADH + Coenzyme Q10 unknown NAD + QH(2) details
      Gene Name: MT-ND4
      Uniprot ID: P03905 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] iron-sulfur protein 7, mitochondrial
      Reactions:
      NADH + Coenzyme Q10 unknown NAD + QH(2) details
      NADH + acceptor unknown NAD + reduced acceptor details
      Gene Name: NDUFS7
      Uniprot ID: O75251 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA
      Name: Xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase
      Reactions:
      Hypoxanthine + NAD + Water unknown Xanthine + NADH details
      Hypoxanthine + NAD + Water unknown Xanthine + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      Xanthine + NAD + Water unknown Uric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion details
      Gene Name: XDH
      Uniprot ID: P47989 Link_out
      Protein Sequence: FASTA
      Gene Sequence: FASTA