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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:09:33 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00902
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameNAD
DescriptionNAD (or Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is used extensively in glycolysis and the citric acid cycle of cellular respiration. The reducing potential stored in NADH can be converted to ATP through the electron transport chain or used for anabolic metabolism. ATP "energy" is necessary for an organism to live. Green plants obtain ATP through photosynthesis, while other organisms obtain it by cellular respiration. (wikipedia). Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide is a A coenzyme composed of ribosylnicotinamide 5'-diphosphate coupled to adenosine 5'-phosphate by pyrophosphate linkage. It is found widely in nature and is involved in numerous enzymatic reactions in which it serves as an electron carrier by being alternately oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH). (Dorland, 27th ed).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate inner salt
  2. 3-Carbamoyl-1-beta-delta-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate inner salt
  3. 3-Carbamoyl-1-D-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  4. 3-Carbamoyl-1-delta-ribofuranosylpyridinium hydroxide 5'-ester with adenosine 5'-pyrophosphate
  5. Adenine-nicotinamide dinucleotide
  6. beta-Diphosphopyridine nucleotide
  7. beta-NAD
  8. beta-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
  9. beta-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide trihydrate
  10. CO-I
  11. Codehydrase I
  12. Codehydrogenase I
  13. Coenzyme I
  14. Cozymase
  15. Cozymase I
  16. Diphosphopyridine nucleotide
  17. Diphosphopyridine nucleotide oxidized
  18. Endopride
  19. NAD trihydrate
  20. NAD-oxidized
  21. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
  22. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide oxidized
  23. Nicotinamide dinucleotide
  24. Nicotineamide adenine dinucleotide
  25. Oxidized diphosphopyridine nucleotide
  26. Pyridine nucleotide diphosphate
  27. [(3S,2R,4R,5R)-5-(6-Aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methyl {[(3S,2R,4R,5R)-5-(3-carbamoylpyridyl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(hydroxyphosphoryl) hydrogen phosphate
  28. [adenylate-32-P]-NAD
Chemical FormulaC21H28N7O14P2
Average Molecular Weight664.433
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight664.116946663
IUPAC Name1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-[({[({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)methyl]-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]-3-carbamoyl-1$l^{5}-pyridin-1-ylium
Traditional IUPAC Name1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-5-{[({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy]methyl}-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]-3-carbamoyl-1$l^{5}-pyridin-1-ylium
CAS Registry Number53-84-9
SMILES
NC(=O)C1=C[N+](=CC=C1)[C@@H]1O[C@H](COP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OC[C@H]2O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]2O)N2C=NC3=C2N=CN=C3N)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H27N7O14P2/c22-17-12-19(25-7-24-17)28(8-26-12)21-16(32)14(30)11(41-21)6-39-44(36,37)42-43(34,35)38-5-10-13(29)15(31)20(40-10)27-3-1-2-9(4-27)18(23)33/h1-4,7-8,10-11,13-16,20-21,29-32H,5-6H2,(H5-,22,23,24,25,33,34,35,36,37)/p+1/t10-,11-,13-,14-,15-,16-,20-,21-/m1/s1
InChI KeyBAWFJGJZGIEFAR-NNYOXOHSSA-O
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, Nucleotides, and Analogues
ClassPurine Nucleotides
Sub ClassPurine Ribonucleotides
Other Descriptors
  • Aromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
  • NAD(ChEBI)
  • NAD(P)(+)(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diol
  • 1 Phosphoribosyl Imidazole
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Carboxamide Group
  • Disaccharide Phosphate
  • Glycosyl Compound
  • Imidazole
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • N Glycosyl Compound
  • Nicotinamide Nucleotide
  • Organic Hypophosphite
  • Organic Phosphite
  • Organic Pyrophosphate
  • Oxolane
  • Pentose Disaccharide
  • Phosphoric Acid Ester
  • Primary Carboxylic Acid Amide
  • Purine
  • Pyridine
  • Pyridine Nucleotide
  • Pyridinium
  • Pyrimidine
  • Saccharide
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct ParentPurine Ribonucleoside Diphosphates
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Aminosugars metabolism
  • Component of Androgen and estrogen metabolism
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Component of Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
  • Component of Bile acid biosynthesis
  • Component of Butanoate metabolism
  • Component of C21-Steroid hormone metabolism
  • Component of Cysteine metabolism
  • Component of D-Glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Fatty acid metabolism
  • Component of Folate biosynthesis
  • Component of Fructose and mannose metabolism
  • Component of Galactose metabolism
  • Component of Glutamate metabolism
  • Component of Glutathione metabolism
  • Component of Glycerolipid metabolism
  • Component of Glycerophospholipid metabolism
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Component of Glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism
  • Component of Histidine metabolism
  • Component of Inositol metabolism
  • Component of Methane metabolism
  • Component of Nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism
  • Component of Nitrogen metabolism
  • Component of Nucleotide sugars metabolism
  • Component of Phenylalanine metabolism
  • Component of Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Component of Propanoate metabolism
  • Component of Prostaglandin and leukotriene metabolism
  • Component of Purine metabolism
  • Component of Pyruvate metabolism
  • Component of Retinol metabolism
  • Component of Starch and sucrose metabolism
  • Component of Tryptophan metabolism
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
  • Component of Ubiquinone biosynthesis
  • Component of beta-Alanine metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point140.0 - 142.0 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility752.5 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility1.81 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.2ALOGPS
logP-10ChemAxon
logS-2.6ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)1.86ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)5ChemAxon
physiological charge-1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count15ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count8ChemAxon
polar surface area318.26ChemAxon
rotatable bond count11ChemAxon
refractivity142ChemAxon
polarizability55.86ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS/MSLC-MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
Tissue Location
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Liver
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009map00910
Carnitine SynthesisSMP00465Not Available
Citric Acid CycleSMP00057map00020
Ethanol DegradationSMP00449Not Available
Folate MetabolismSMP00053map00670
GluconeogenesisSMP00128map00010
Glucose-Alanine CycleSMP00127Not Available
Glutamate MetabolismSMP00072map00250
Glycerol Phosphate ShuttleSMP00124Not Available
Glycerolipid MetabolismSMP00039map00561
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
GlycolysisSMP00040map00010
Histidine MetabolismSMP00044map00340
Ketone Body MetabolismSMP00071map00072
Malate-Aspartate ShuttleSMP00129Not Available
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Long Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsSMP00482Not Available
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Medium Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsSMP00481Not Available
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Short Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsSMP00480Not Available
Mitochondrial Electron Transport ChainSMP00355map00190
Nicotinate and Nicotinamide MetabolismSMP00048map00760
Plasmalogen SynthesisSMP00479Not Available
Threonine and 2-Oxobutanoate DegradationSMP00452Not Available
Transfer of Acetyl Groups into MitochondriaSMP00466Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified24.00 (23.00-25.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified88.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified29.00 (25.00-33.00) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothPellagra details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Pellagra
  1. Creeke PI, Dibari F, Cheung E, van den Briel T, Kyroussis E, Seal AJ: Whole blood NAD and NADP concentrations are not depressed in subjects with clinical pellagra. J Nutr. 2007 Sep;137(9):2013-7. Pubmed: 17709435
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022309
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5682
KEGG Compound IDC00003
BioCyc IDNAD
BiGG ID33480
Wikipedia LinkNAD
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00902
Metagene LinkHMDB00902
METLIN ID5858
PubChem Compound5893
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15846
References
Synthesis ReferenceHughes, N. A.; Kenner, G. W.; Todd, Alexander. Codehydrogenases. III. Synthesis of diphosphopyridine nucleotide (cozymase) and triphosphopyridine nucleotide. Journal of the Chemical Society (1957), 3733-8.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Brautigam CA, Chuang JL, Tomchick DR, Machius M, Chuang DT: Crystal structure of human dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase: NAD+/NADH binding and the structural basis of disease-causing mutations. J Mol Biol. 2005 Jul 15;350(3):543-52. Pubmed: 15946682
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
  3. Nakayama Y, Kinoshita A, Tomita M: Dynamic simulation of red blood cell metabolism and its application to the analysis of a pathological condition. Theor Biol Med Model. 2005 May 9;2(1):18. Pubmed: 15882454
  4. Ying W: NAD+ and NADH in cellular functions and cell death. Front Biosci. 2006 Sep 1;11:3129-48. Pubmed: 16720381
  5. Hamza A, Cho H, Tai HH, Zhan CG: Understanding human 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase binding with NAD+ and PGE2 by homology modeling, docking and molecular dynamics simulation. Bioorg Med Chem. 2005 Jul 15;13(14):4544-51. Pubmed: 15908215
  6. Begonja AJ, Gambaryan S, Geiger J, Aktas B, Pozgajova M, Nieswandt B, Walter U: Platelet NAD(P)H-oxidase-generated ROS production regulates alphaIIbbeta3-integrin activation independent of the NO/cGMP pathway. Blood. 2005 Oct 15;106(8):2757-60. Epub 2005 Jun 23. Pubmed: 15976180
  7. Bruzzone S, Moreschi I, Guida L, Usai C, Zocchi E, De Flora A: Extracellular NAD+ regulates intracellular calcium levels and induces activation of human granulocytes. Biochem J. 2006 Feb 1;393(Pt 3):697-704. Pubmed: 16225456
  8. Kim MY, Zhang T, Kraus WL: Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation by PARP-1: 'PAR-laying' NAD+ into a nuclear signal. Genes Dev. 2005 Sep 1;19(17):1951-67. Pubmed: 16140981
  9. Kunsman GW, Manno JE, Cockerham KR, Manno BR: A modification and validation of two urine ethanol procedures for use with the Monarch 2000 Chemistry System. J Anal Toxicol. 1991 May-Jun;15(3):130-5. Pubmed: 1943056
  10. Orczyk J, Morre DM, Morre DJ: Periodic fluctuations in oxygen consumption comparing HeLa (cancer) and CHO (non-cancer) cells and response to external NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H. Mol Cell Biochem. 2005 May;273(1-2):161-7. Pubmed: 16013451
  11. Krotz F, Sohn HY, Gloe T, Zahler S, Riexinger T, Schiele TM, Becker BF, Theisen K, Klauss V, Pohl U: NAD(P)H oxidase-dependent platelet superoxide anion release increases platelet recruitment. Blood. 2002 Aug 1;100(3):917-24. Pubmed: 12130503

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 261 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHB
Uniprot ID:
P11177
Molecular weight:
39233.1
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHA1
Uniprot ID:
P08559
Molecular weight:
43295.255
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the aldehyde or oxo group of donors, disulfide as acceptor
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
PDHA2
Uniprot ID:
P29803
Molecular weight:
42932.855
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Plays a role in valine and pyrimidine metabolism. Binds fatty acyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
ALDH6A1
Uniprot ID:
Q02252
Molecular weight:
57839.31
Reactions
2-Methyl-3-oxopropanoic acid + Coenzyme A + Water + NAD → Propionyl-CoA + Carbonic acid + NADHdetails
Malonic semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD → Acetyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD → Propionyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + Coenzyme A + NAD → Methylmalonyl-CoA + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Lipoamide dehydrogenase is a component of the glycine cleavage system as well as of the alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complexes. Involved in the hyperactivation of spermatazoa during capacitation and in the spermatazoal acrosome reaction.
Gene Name:
DLD
Uniprot ID:
P09622
Molecular weight:
54176.91
Reactions
Protein N(6)-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine + NAD → protein N(6)-(lipoyl)lysine + NADHdetails
Dihydrolipoamide + NAD → Lipoamide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Dihydrolipoylprotein + NAD → Lipoylprotein + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Enzyme N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine + NAD → Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex catalyzes the overall conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO(2), and thereby links the glycolytic pathway to the tricarboxylic cycle.
Gene Name:
DLAT
Uniprot ID:
P10515
Molecular weight:
68996.03
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transformation of the potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) into the less active form, 5-alpha-androstan-3-alpha,17-beta-diol (3-alpha-diol). Also has some 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity. The biotransformation of the pesticide chlordecone (kepone) to its corresponding alcohol leads to increased biliary excretion of the pesticide and concomitant reduction of its neurotoxicity since bile is the major excretory route.
Gene Name:
AKR1C4
Uniprot ID:
P17516
Molecular weight:
37094.57
Reactions
Androsterone + NAD → Androstanedione + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Etiocholanolone + NAD → Etiocholanedione + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestane + NAD → 7a-Hydroxy-5b-cholestan-3-one + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
5-b-Cholestane-3a ,7a ,12a-triol + NAD → 7a,12a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-3-one + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Tetrahydrocortisone + NAD → 17a,21-Dihydroxy-5b-pregnane-3,11,20-trione + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Tetrahydrocortisol + NAD → Dihydrocortisol + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3a,11b,21-Trihydroxy-20-oxo-5b-pregnan-18-al + NAD → 11b,21-Dihydroxy-3,20-oxo-5b-pregnan-18-al + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Tetrahydrocorticosterone + NAD → 11b,21-Dihydroxy-5b-pregnane-3,20-dione + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3a,21-Dihydroxy-5b-pregnane-11,20-dione + NAD → 21-Hydroxy-5b-pregnane-3,11,20-trione + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3a-Hydroxy-5b-pregnane-20-one + NAD → 5a-Pregnane-3,20-dione + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Prostaglandin inactivation. Contributes to the regulation of events that are under the control of prostaglandin levels. Catalyzes the NAD-dependent dehydrogenation of lipoxin A4 to form 15-oxo-lipoxin A4. Inhibits in vivo proliferation of colon cancer cells.
Gene Name:
HPGD
Uniprot ID:
P15428
Molecular weight:
28977.105
Reactions
(5Z,13E,15S)-11-alpha,15-dihydroxy-9-oxoprost-5,13-dienoate + NAD → (5Z,13E)-11-alpha-hydroxy-9,15-dioxoprost-5,13-dienoate + NADHdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6-dihydroxyindole to indole-5,6 quinone.
Gene Name:
TYR
Uniprot ID:
P14679
Molecular weight:
60392.69
Reactions
Tyramine + Oxygen + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → Dopamine + NAD + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols with a broad range of catalytic efficiencies.
Gene Name:
AKR1B1
Uniprot ID:
P15121
Molecular weight:
35853.125
Reactions
Glycerol + NAD → Glyceraldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Beta-D-Galactose + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → Galactitol + NADdetails
L-Arabitol + NAD → L-Arabinose + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Lactaldehyde + NAD → Pyruvaldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACADS
Uniprot ID:
P16219
Molecular weight:
44296.705
Reactions
Butyryl-CoA + NAD → (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidation reduction
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND1
Uniprot ID:
P03886
Molecular weight:
35660.055
Reactions
NADH + Coenzyme Q10 → NAD + QH(2)details
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFB1
Uniprot ID:
O75438
Molecular weight:
6961.2
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Involved primarily in ATP hydrolysis at the plasma membrane. Plays a role in regulating pyrophosphate levels, and functions in bone mineralization and soft tissue calcification. In vitro, has a broad specificity, hydrolyzing other nucleoside 5' triphosphates such as GTP, CTP, TTP and UTP to their corresponding monophosphates with release of pyrophosphate and diadenosine polyphosphates, and also 3',5'-cAMP to AMP. May also be involved in the regulation of the availability of nucleotide sugars in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, and the regulation of purinergic signaling. Appears to modulate insulin sensitivity.
Gene Name:
ENPP1
Uniprot ID:
P22413
Molecular weight:
104923.58
Reactions
NAD + Water → Adenosine monophosphate + beta-nicotinamide D-ribonucleotidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on NADH or NADPH
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFS2
Uniprot ID:
O75306
Molecular weight:
51851.59
Reactions
NADH + Coenzyme Q10 → NAD + QH(2)details
NADH + acceptor → NAD + reduced acceptordetails
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFA12
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI09
Molecular weight:
17114.4
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Desaturation and elongation of fatty acids, cholesterol biosynthesis, drug metabolism, and, in erythrocyte, methemoglobin reduction.
Gene Name:
CYB5R3
Uniprot ID:
P00387
Molecular weight:
34234.55
Reactions
NADH + ferricytochrome b5 → NAD + Hydrogen Ion + ferrocytochrome b5details
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFA1
Uniprot ID:
O15239
Molecular weight:
8072.3
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
NDUFA4L2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NRX3
Molecular weight:
9965.6
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFA3
Uniprot ID:
O95167
Molecular weight:
9278.8
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFA8
Uniprot ID:
P51970
Molecular weight:
20104.9
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed to be not involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFA4
Uniprot ID:
O00483
Molecular weight:
9369.8
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on NADH or NADPH
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND4L
Uniprot ID:
P03901
Molecular weight:
10741.005
Reactions
NADH + Coenzyme Q10 → NAD + QH(2)details
General function:
Involved in protein transporter activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFA11
Uniprot ID:
Q86Y39
Molecular weight:
14852.0
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes a dehydrogenation to introduce C5-6 double bond into lathosterol.
Gene Name:
SC5DL
Uniprot ID:
O75845
Molecular weight:
35300.55
Reactions
Lathosterol + NADH + Hydrogen Ion + Oxygen → 7-Dehydrocholesterol + NAD + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on NADH or NADPH
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFS4
Uniprot ID:
O43181
Molecular weight:
20107.8
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
The enzyme apparently serves as a quinone reductase in connection with conjugation reactions of hydroquinones involved in detoxification pathways as well as in biosynthetic processes such as the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation of glutamate residues in prothrombin synthesis.
Gene Name:
NQO2
Uniprot ID:
P16083
Molecular weight:
25918.4
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND5
Uniprot ID:
P03915
Molecular weight:
67025.67
Reactions
NADH + Coenzyme Q10 → NAD + QH(2)details
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on NADH or NADPH
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFS3
Uniprot ID:
O75489
Molecular weight:
30241.245
Reactions
NADH + Coenzyme Q10 → NAD + QH(2)details
NADH + acceptor → NAD + reduced acceptordetails
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFS5
Uniprot ID:
O43920
Molecular weight:
12517.4
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFV2
Uniprot ID:
P19404
Molecular weight:
27391.36
Reactions
NADH + Coenzyme Q10 → NAD + QH(2)details
NADH + acceptor → NAD + reduced acceptordetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFA10
Uniprot ID:
O95299
Molecular weight:
40750.3
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed to be not involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFA6
Uniprot ID:
P56556
Molecular weight:
17870.7
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFB4
Uniprot ID:
O95168
Molecular weight:
15208.4
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity). May donate electrons to ubiquinone.
Gene Name:
NDUFS8
Uniprot ID:
O00217
Molecular weight:
23704.795
Reactions
NADH + Coenzyme Q10 → NAD + QH(2)details
NADH + acceptor → NAD + reduced acceptordetails
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND2
Uniprot ID:
P03891
Molecular weight:
38960.47
Reactions
NADH + Coenzyme Q10 → NAD + QH(2)details
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Irreversible conversion of delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), derived either from proline or ornithine, to glutamate. This is a necessary step in the pathway interconnecting the urea and tricarboxylic acid cycles. The preferred substrate is glutamic gamma-semialdehyde, other substrates include succinic, glutaric and adipic semialdehydes.
Gene Name:
ALDH4A1
Uniprot ID:
P30038
Molecular weight:
55117.24
Reactions
L-Glutamic gamma-semialdehyde + NAD + Water → L-Glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NAD + Water → L-Glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Pyrroline hydroxycarboxylic acid + NAD + Water → 4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → L-4-Hydroxyglutamate semialdehyde + NAD + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFA7
Uniprot ID:
O95182
Molecular weight:
12551.3
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFA2
Uniprot ID:
O43678
Molecular weight:
10921.4
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity). This is the largest subunit of complex I and it is a component of the iron-sulfur (IP) fragment of the enzyme. It may form part of the active site crevice where NADH is oxidized.
Gene Name:
NDUFS1
Uniprot ID:
P28331
Molecular weight:
67523.595
Reactions
NADH + Coenzyme Q10 → NAD + QH(2)details
NADH + acceptor → NAD + reduced acceptordetails
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFB5
Uniprot ID:
O43674
Molecular weight:
21750.0
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFC2
Uniprot ID:
O95298
Molecular weight:
14187.3
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFB3
Uniprot ID:
O43676
Molecular weight:
11401.9
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFB7
Uniprot ID:
P17568
Molecular weight:
16401.8
General function:
Involved in acyl carrier activity
Specific function:
Carrier of the growing fatty acid chain in fatty acid biosynthesis in mitochondria. Accessory and non-catalytic subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), which functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain
Gene Name:
NDUFAB1
Uniprot ID:
O14561
Molecular weight:
17417.1
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on NADH or NADPH
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFA5
Uniprot ID:
Q16718
Molecular weight:
13458.6
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Accessory subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I), that is believed not to be involved in catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone
Gene Name:
NDUFA9
Uniprot ID:
Q16795
Molecular weight:
42509.2
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MT-ND4
Uniprot ID:
P03905
Molecular weight:
51580.26
Reactions
NADH + Coenzyme Q10 → NAD + QH(2)details
General function:
Involved in NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) activity
Specific function:
Core subunit of the mitochondrial membrane respiratory chain NADH dehydrogenase (Complex I) that is believed to belong to the minimal assembly required for catalysis. Complex I functions in the transfer of electrons from NADH to the respiratory chain. The immediate electron acceptor for the enzyme is believed to be ubiquinone (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NDUFS7
Uniprot ID:
O75251
Molecular weight:
23563.3
Reactions
NADH + Coenzyme Q10 → NAD + QH(2)details
NADH + acceptor → NAD + reduced acceptordetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular weight:
146422.99
Reactions
Hypoxanthine + NAD + Water → Xanthine + NADHdetails
Hypoxanthine + NAD + Water → Xanthine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Xanthine + NAD + Water → Uric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 261 proteins in total.