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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-08-17 21:42:21 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB00956
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTartaric acid
DescriptionTartaric acid is a white crystalline organic acid. It occurs naturally in many plants, particularly grapes and tamarinds, and is one of the main acids found in wine. It is added to other foods to give a sour taste, and is used as an antioxidant. Salts of tartaric acid are known as tartrates. It is a dihydroxy derivative of dicarboxylic acid. Tartaric acid is a muscle toxin, which works by inhibiting the production of malic acid, and in high doses causes paralysis and death. The minimum recorded fatal dose for a human is about 12 grams. In spite of that, it is included in many foods, especially sour-tasting sweets. As a food additive, tartaric acid is used as an antioxidant with E number E334, tartrates are other additives serving as antioxidants or emulsifiers. Naturally-occurring tartaric acid is chiral, meaning that it has molecules that are non-superimposable on their mirror-images. It is a useful raw material in organic chemistry for the synthesis of other chiral molecules. The naturally occurring form of the acid is L-(+)-tartaric acid or dextrotartaric acid. The mirror-image (enantiomeric) form, levotartaric acid or D-(-)-tartaric acid, and the achiral form, mesotartaric acid, can be made artificially. Tartarate is believed to play a role in inhibiting kidney stone formation. Most tartarate that is consumed by humans is metabolized by bacteria in the gastrointestinal tract -- primarily in the large instestine. Only about 15-20% of consumed tartaric acid is secreted in the urine unchanged.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(+)-(R,R)-Tartaric acidChEBI
(+)-L-Tartaric acidChEBI
(+)-Tartaric acidChEBI
(+)-WeinsaeureChEBI
(2R,3R)-2,3-DihydroxybernsteinsaeureChEBI
(2R,3R)-2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acidChEBI
(2R,3R)-Tartaric acidChEBI
(R,R)-(+)-Tartaric acidChEBI
(R,R)-Tartaric acidChEBI
L(+)-TARTARIC ACIDChEBI
L-Threaric acidChEBI
RechtsweinsaeureChEBI
WeinsteinsaeureChEBI
(+)-(2R,3R)-Tartaric acidHMDB
(+)-TartarateHMDB
(1R,2R)-1,2-Dihydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acidHMDB
(2R,3R)-2,3-DihydroxybutanedioateHMDB
(2R,3R)-2,3-Dihydroxybutanedioic acidHMDB
(2R,3R)-2,3-Tartaric acidHMDB
(2R,3R)-TartarateHMDB
(R,R)-TartarateHMDB
(R,R)-TartrateHMDB
1,2-Dihydroxyethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acidHMDB
2,3-Dihydroxy-succinateHMDB
2,3-Dihydroxy-succinic acidHMDB
2,3-DihydroxybutanedioateHMDB
2,3-Dihydroxybutanedioic acidHMDB
2,3-Dihydroxysuccinic acidHMDB
D-a,b-Dihydroxysuccinic acidHMDB
D-Tartaric acidHMDB
Dextrotartaric acidHMDB
L-(+)-Tartaric acidHMDB
L-TartarateHMDB
Natural tartaric acidHMDB
TARHMDB
TartarateHMDB
TartrateHMDB
Threaric acidHMDB
TLAHMDB
WeinsaeureHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H6O6
Average Molecular Weight150.0868
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight150.016437924
IUPAC Name(2R,3R)-2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acid
Traditional NameL(+)-tartaric acid
CAS Registry Number87-69-4
SMILES
O[C@H]([C@@H](O)C(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H6O6/c5-1(3(7)8)2(6)4(9)10/h1-2,5-6H,(H,7,8)(H,9,10)/t1-,2-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=FEWJPZIEWOKRBE-JCYAYHJZSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar acids and derivatives. These are compounds containing a saccharide unit which bears a carboxylic acid group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganooxygen compounds
ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Sub ClassSugar acids and derivatives
Direct ParentSugar acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Sugar acid
  • Short-chain hydroxy acid
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Monosaccharide
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-diol
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Food
  • Microbial
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point169 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility582 mg/mL at 20 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility161.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-1.3ALOGPS
logP-1.8ChemAxon
logS0.03ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.72ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area115.06 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity26.21 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.33 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0002-0930000000-19235937e21066a9c484View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-000f-0961000000-559c31b016f4fb3700d2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000b-7900000000-d247ec12b77f427e9a76View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-05fu-9000000000-4bf01ad116d24a453817View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-4da65da10f3a34f77688View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-ecb902731b9f6eb3764dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-0072-9700000000-1e8e6f410c1d71af856eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-f13ad2560d3e6818db9cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-05fu-9000000000-f46a01eb933ba6fbceacView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-08dec35ca6a80add253aView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified38.183 +/- 53.107 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified12 (1.3-46) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.8 (2.6-64.4) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected and Quantified5 (0-25) umol/mmol creatinineNot SpecifiedBothLung cancer details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) details
UrineDetected and Quantified13.217 +/- 13.438 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Lung Cancer
  1. Stretch C, Eastman T, Mandal R, Eisner R, Wishart DS, Mourtzakis M, Prado CM, Damaraju S, Ball RO, Greiner R, Baracos VE: Prediction of skeletal muscle and fat mass in patients with advanced cancer using a metabolomic approach. J Nutr. 2012 Jan;142(1):14-21. doi: 10.3945/jn.111.147751. Epub 2011 Dec 7. [22157537 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB001113
KNApSAcK IDC00001206
Chemspider ID392277
KEGG Compound IDC00898
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTartaric acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB00956
Metagene LinkHMDB00956
METLIN ID4197
PubChem Compound444305
PDB IDTLA
ChEBI ID15671
References
Synthesis ReferenceMilas, N. A.; Terry, Ethel M. Oxidation of fumaric and of maleic acids to tartaric acid. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1925), 47 1412-8.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  2. Petrarulo M, Marangella M, Bianco O, Linari F: Ion-chromatographic determination of L-tartrate in urine samples. Clin Chem. 1991 Jan;37(1):90-3. [1988215 ]
  3. Lord RS, Burdette CK, Bralley JA: Significance of urinary tartaric acid. Clin Chem. 2005 Mar;51(3):672-3. [15738524 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Involved in osteopontin/bone sialoprotein dephosphorylation. Its expression seems to increase in certain pathological states such as Gaucher and Hodgkin diseases, the hairy cell, the B-cell, and the T-cell leukemias.
Gene Name:
ACP5
Uniprot ID:
P13686
Molecular weight:
36598.47
General function:
Involved in acid phosphatase activity
Specific function:
A non-specific tyrosine phosphatase that dephosphorylates a diverse number of substrates under acidic conditions (pH 4-6) including alkyl, aryl, and acyl orthophosphate monoesters and phosphorylated proteins. Has lipid phosphatase activity and inactivates lysophosphatidic acid in seminal plasma. Isoform 2: the cellular form also has ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Generates adenosine from AMP which acts as a pain suppressor. Acts as a tumor suppressor of prostate cancer through dephosphorylation of ERBB2 and deactivation of MAPK-mediated signaling.
Gene Name:
ACPP
Uniprot ID:
P15309
Molecular weight:
44565.715
General function:
Involved in acid phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes lysophosphatidic acid to monoacylglycerol.
Gene Name:
ACP6
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPH0
Molecular weight:
48853.955
General function:
Involved in acid phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates receptor tyrosine-protein kinase erbB-4 and inhibits the ligand-induced proteolytic cleavage.
Gene Name:
ACPT
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZG2
Molecular weight:
46089.015
General function:
Involved in protein tyrosine phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACP1
Uniprot ID:
B5MCC7
Molecular weight:
12230.0