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Record Information
Version4.0
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-09-27 08:00:29 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001051
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01051
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGlyceraldehyde
DescriptionGlyceraldehyde is a triose monosaccharide with chemical formula C3H6O3. It is the simplest of all common aldoses. It is a sweet colorless crystalline solid that is an intermediate compound in carbohydrate metabolism. The word comes from combining glycerine and aldehyde, as glyceraldehyde is merely glycerine with one hydroxide changed to an aldehyde.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(+-)-GlyceraldehydeChEBI
2,3-DihydroxypropanalChEBI
2,3-DihydroxypropionaldehydeChEBI
AldotrioseChEBI
alpha,beta-DihydroxypropionaldehydeChEBI
DL-GlyceraldehydeChEBI
GliceraldehidoChEBI
GlyceraldehydChEBI
Glyceric aldehydeChEBI
GlycerinaldehydChEBI
GlycerinaldehydeChEBI
GlycerinformalChEBI
GlyceroseChEBI
GlyzerinaldehydChEBI
a,b-DihydroxypropionaldehydeGenerator
α,β-dihydroxypropionaldehydeGenerator
(+/-)-2,3-dihydroxy-propanalHMDB
(+/-)-glyceraldehydeHMDB
D-(+)-GlyceraldehydeHMDB
D-2,3-DihydroxypropanalHMDB
D-2,3-DihydroxypropionaldehydeHMDB
D-AldotrioseHMDB
D-GlyceraldehydeHMDB
D-GlyceroseHMDB
delta-(+)-GlyceraldehydeHMDB
delta-2,3-DihydroxypropanalHMDB
delta-2,3-DihydroxypropionaldehydeHMDB
delta-AldotrioseHMDB
delta-GlyceraldehydeHMDB
delta-GlyceroseHMDB
DihydroxypropionaldehydeHMDB
Chemical FormulaC3H6O3
Average Molecular Weight90.0779
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight90.031694058
IUPAC Name2,3-dihydroxypropanal
Traditional Name(+/-)-glyceraldehyde
CAS Registry Number56-82-6
SMILES
OCC(O)C=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H6O3/c4-1-3(6)2-5/h1,3,5-6H,2H2
InChI KeyMNQZXJOMYWMBOU-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as monosaccharides. These are compounds containing one carbohydrate unit not glycosidically linked to another such unit, and no set of two or more glycosidically linked carbohydrate units. Monosaccharides have the general formula CnH2nOn.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentMonosaccharides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Monosaccharide
  • Alpha-hydroxyaldehyde
  • Secondary alcohol
  • 1,2-diol
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Short-chain aldehyde
  • Primary alcohol
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aldehyde
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

  Health condition:

Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

Source:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Biochemical pathway:

Role

Indirect biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point145 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility17 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility814 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.6ALOGPS
logP-1.7ChemAxon
logS0.96ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.8ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity19.46 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability8.07 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0udj-1900000000-66c3a7fb073f6c5c86a0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0udi-1900000000-3fd8dc5205f5abb770caView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0udi-0900000000-228dd3700017b511ddd9View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-Bsplash10-0w2a-0910000000-74411a9433752c08b424View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0udj-1900000000-66c3a7fb073f6c5c86a0View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOFsplash10-0udi-1900000000-3fd8dc5205f5abb770caView in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-9000000000-25cf3a1adcc93448a673View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-c5b3efaddb77bd3470a0View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-01ox-9000000000-ff6b63535e8104e1a60fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-ca32a106d1461e63eea5View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Neuron
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
D-glyceric aciduraPw000505Pw000505 greyscalePw000505 simpleNot Available
Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiencyPw000506Pw000506 greyscalePw000506 simpleNot Available
Fructose and Mannose DegradationPw000025Pw000025 greyscalePw000025 simpleMap00051
Fructose intolerance, hereditaryPw000702Pw000702 greyscalePw000702 simpleNot Available
FructosuriaPw000537Pw000537 greyscalePw000537 simpleNot Available
Displaying entries 1 - 5 of 7 in total
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified1476.0 +/- 655.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified50.00 +/- 50.00 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)BothCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)BothUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUlcerative colitis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Children (6 - 18 years old)Not SpecifiedUnclassified IBD details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)FemaleInterstitial cystits details
UrineDetected and Quantified6407.7 +/- 6030.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothRenal fanconi syndrome details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Fanconi syndrome
  1. Jonas AJ, Lin SN, Conley SB, Schneider JA, Williams JC, Caprioli RC: Urine glyceraldehyde excretion is elevated in the renal Fanconi syndrome. Kidney Int. 1989 Jan;35(1):99-104. [PubMed:2709665 ]
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022392
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID731
KEGG Compound IDC02154
BioCyc IDGLYCERALD
BiGG ID35402
Wikipedia LinkGlyceraldehyde
METLIN ID4176
PubChem Compound751
PDB ID1W3T
ChEBI ID5445
References
Synthesis ReferenceWan, Xin-Jun; Song, Ming-You; Wu, Rong; Chu, Dao-Bao. Synthesis of glyceraldehyde by indirect electrooxidation. Yingyong Huaxue (2003), 20(6), 578-581.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Gugliucci A: A practical method to study functional impairment of proteins by glycation and effects of inhibitors using current coagulation/fibrinolysis reagent kits. Clin Biochem. 2003 Mar;36(2):155-8. [PubMed:12633766 ]
  2. Beard KM, Shangari N, Wu B, O'Brien PJ: Metabolism, not autoxidation, plays a role in alpha-oxoaldehyde- and reducing sugar-induced erythrocyte GSH depletion: relevance for diabetes mellitus. Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Oct;252(1-2):331-8. [PubMed:14577607 ]
  3. Iwata H, Ukeda H, Maruyama T, Fujino T, Sawamura M: Effect of carbonyl compounds on red blood cells deformability. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004 Aug 27;321(3):700-6. [PubMed:15358163 ]
  4. Zakrzewska I, Prokopowicz J, Worowski K, Skrzydlewska E, Puchalski Z, Piotrowski Z: Low molecular organic inactivators in differentiating organ origin of alpha-amylase in humans. Part I. Mater Med Pol. 1989 Oct-Dec;21(4):274-6. [PubMed:2518736 ]
  5. Phillipou G, Seaborn CJ, Phillips PJ: Re-evaluation of the fructosamine reaction. Clin Chem. 1988 Aug;34(8):1561-4. [PubMed:3402055 ]
  6. Fujita T, Funako T, Hayashi H: 8-Hydroxydaidzein, an aldose reductase inhibitor from okara fermented with Aspergillus sp. HK-388. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2004 Jul;68(7):1588-90. [PubMed:15277768 ]
  7. Haraguchi H, Hayashi R, Ishizu T, Yagi A: A flavone from Manilkara indica as a specific inhibitor against aldose reductase in vitro. Planta Med. 2003 Sep;69(9):853-5. [PubMed:14598214 ]
  8. Yamagishi S, Nakamura K, Inoue H, Kikuchi S, Takeuchi M: Serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels of glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end products (AGEs) may be a promising biomarker for early detection of Alzheimer's disease. Med Hypotheses. 2005;64(6):1205-7. [PubMed:15823718 ]
  9. Choei H, Sasaki N, Takeuchi M, Yoshida T, Ukai W, Yamagishi S, Kikuchi S, Saito T: Glyceraldehyde-derived advanced glycation end products in Alzheimer's disease. Acta Neuropathol. 2004 Sep;108(3):189-93. Epub 2004 Jun 17. [PubMed:15221334 ]
  10. Jonas AJ, Lin SN, Conley SB, Schneider JA, Williams JC, Caprioli RC: Urine glyceraldehyde excretion is elevated in the renal Fanconi syndrome. Kidney Int. 1989 Jan;35(1):99-104. [PubMed:2709665 ]
  11. Takeuchi M, Yamagishi S: Alternative routes for the formation of glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs (TAGE) in vivo. Med Hypotheses. 2004;63(3):453-5. [PubMed:15288367 ]
  12. Nagaraj RH, Oya-Ito T, Padayatti PS, Kumar R, Mehta S, West K, Levison B, Sun J, Crabb JW, Padival AK: Enhancement of chaperone function of alpha-crystallin by methylglyoxal modification. Biochemistry. 2003 Sep 16;42(36):10746-55. [PubMed:12962499 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols with a broad range of catalytic efficiencies.
Gene Name:
AKR1B1
Uniprot ID:
P15121
Molecular weight:
35853.125
Reactions
Glycerol + NAD(P)(+) → Glyceraldehyde + NAD(P)Hdetails
Glycerol + NAD → Glyceraldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glycerol + NADP → Glyceraldehyde + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Converts gamma-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde into gamma-butyrobetaine. Catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of a broad range of aldehydes to the corresponding acids in an NAD-dependent reaction.
Gene Name:
ALDH9A1
Uniprot ID:
P49189
Molecular weight:
56291.485
Reactions
Glyceraldehyde + NAD + Water → Glyceric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Multifunctional enzyme mediating important protective effects. Metabolizes betaine aldehyde to betaine, an important cellular osmolyte and methyl donor. Protects cells from oxidative stress by metabolizing a number of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes. Involved in lysine catabolism.
Gene Name:
ALDH7A1
Uniprot ID:
P49419
Molecular weight:
58486.74
Reactions
Glyceraldehyde + NAD + Water → Glyceric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH2
Uniprot ID:
P05091
Molecular weight:
56380.93
Reactions
Glyceraldehyde + NAD + Water → Glyceric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to fatty acids. Active on a variety of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes between 6 and 24 carbons in length. Responsible for conversion of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) degradation product hexadecenal to hexadecenoic acid.
Gene Name:
ALDH3A2
Uniprot ID:
P51648
Molecular weight:
54847.36
Reactions
Glyceraldehyde + NAD + Water → Glyceric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation.
Gene Name:
ALDH1B1
Uniprot ID:
P30837
Molecular weight:
57248.96
Reactions
Glyceraldehyde + NAD + Water → Glyceric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of mevaldate to mevalonic acid and of glyceraldehyde to glycerol. Has broad substrate specificity. In vitro substrates include succinic semialdehyde, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, 1,2-naphthoquinone, methylglyoxal, and D-glucuronic acid. Plays a role in the activation of procarcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon trans-dihydrodiols, and in the metabolism of various xenobiotics and drugs, including the anthracyclines doxorubicin (DOX) and daunorubicin (DAUN).
Gene Name:
AKR1A1
Uniprot ID:
P14550
Molecular weight:
36572.71
Reactions
Glycerol + NADP → Glyceraldehyde + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in fructose-bisphosphate aldolase activity
Specific function:
Plays a key role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In addition, may also function as scaffolding protein (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDOA
Uniprot ID:
P04075
Molecular weight:
39419.675
Reactions
Fructose 1-phosphate → Dihydroxyacetone phosphate + Glyceraldehydedetails
General function:
Involved in fructose-bisphosphate aldolase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDOC
Uniprot ID:
P09972
Molecular weight:
39455.505
Reactions
Fructose 1-phosphate → Dihydroxyacetone phosphate + Glyceraldehydedetails
General function:
Involved in fructose-bisphosphate aldolase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDOB
Uniprot ID:
P05062
Molecular weight:
39472.715
Reactions
Fructose 1-phosphate → Dihydroxyacetone phosphate + Glyceraldehydedetails
General function:
Carbohydrate transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes both the phosphorylation of dihydroxyacetone and of glyceraldehyde, and the splitting of ribonucleoside diphosphate-X compounds among which FAD is the best substrate.
Gene Name:
DAK
Uniprot ID:
Q3LXA3
Molecular weight:
58946.49
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Glyceraldehyde → ADP + D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphatedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Acts as all-trans-retinaldehyde reductase. Can efficiently reduce aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes, and is less active on hexoses (in vitro). May be responsible for detoxification of reactive aldehydes in the digested food before the nutrients are passed on to other organs.
Gene Name:
AKR1B10
Uniprot ID:
O60218
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Glycerol + NAD → Glyceraldehyde + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glycerol + NADP → Glyceraldehyde + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails