You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version4.0
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-09-27 08:02:56 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001097
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01097
Metabolite Identification
Common NameProtoporphyrinogen IX
DescriptionProtoporphyrinogen IX is an intermediate in heme biosynthesis. It is a porphyrinogen in which 2 pyrrole rings each have one methyl and one propionate side chain and the other two pyrrole rings each have one methyl and one vinyl side chain. 15 isomers are possible but only one, type IX, occurs naturally. Protoporphyrinogen is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
7,12-Diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-5,10,15,20,22,24-hexahydroporphyrin-2,18-dipropanoic acidChEBI
7,12-Diethenyl-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-5,10,15,20,22,24-hexahydroporphyrin-2,18-dipropanoateGenerator
5,10,15,20,22,24-hexahydro Protoporphyrin IX deriv.HMDB
7,12-Diethenyl-5,10,15,20,22,24-hexahydro-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoateHMDB
7,12-Diethenyl-5,10,15,20,22,24-hexahydro-3,8,13,17-tetramethyl-21H,23H-porphine-2,18-dipropanoic acidHMDB
ProtoporphyrinogenHMDB
Protoporphyrinogen-IXHMDB
Chemical FormulaC34H40N4O4
Average Molecular Weight568.7058
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight568.304955788
IUPAC Name3-[20-(2-carboxyethyl)-10,15-diethenyl-5,9,14,19-tetramethyl-21,22,23,24-tetraazapentacyclo[16.2.1.1³,⁶.1⁸,¹¹.1¹³,¹⁶]tetracosa-1(20),3,5,8,10,13,15,18-octaen-4-yl]propanoic acid
Traditional Nameprotoporphyrinogen
CAS Registry Number7412-77-3
SMILES
CC1=C2CC3=C(C)C(C=C)=C(CC4=C(C)C(C=C)=C(CC5=C(C)C(CCC(O)=O)=C(CC(N2)=C1CCC(O)=O)N5)N4)N3
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C34H40N4O4/c1-7-21-17(3)25-13-26-19(5)23(9-11-33(39)40)31(37-26)16-32-24(10-12-34(41)42)20(6)28(38-32)15-30-22(8-2)18(4)27(36-30)14-29(21)35-25/h7-8,35-38H,1-2,9-16H2,3-6H3,(H,39,40)(H,41,42)
InChI KeyUHSGPDMIQQYNAX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as porphyrins. These are compounds containing a fundamental skeleton of four pyrrole nuclei united through the alpha-positions by four methine groups to form a macrocyclic structure.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Sub ClassTetrapyrroles and derivatives
Direct ParentPorphyrins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Porphyrin
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Substituted pyrrole
  • Pyrrole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Organ and components:

  Tissue and substructures:

Source:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Biochemical pathway:

Physiological effect

Health effect:

  Health condition:

Role

Indirect biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0055 g/LALOGPS
logP3.44ALOGPS
logP6.2ChemAxon
logS-5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.07ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area137.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity169.42 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability64.5 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0pi3-1000190000-2785151d048ffcfdafc1View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00bc-9000053000-45009d4bbcc7a57d2e8bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0000190000-7c4ce83e3be73bfccdf6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0pi0-0000490000-affa2d20d85ce7a5a2a1View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03dj-0020900000-a1714c4d96457c66da57View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0000090000-4148fa37b5b91e3b5a92View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-05tb-1000090000-27a9f5ba745bc29e2b22View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000260000-392765703d0911aa98fcView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • Liver
  • Placenta
Pathways
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
Acute Intermittent PorphyriaPw000174Pw000174 greyscalePw000174 simpleNot Available
Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria (CEP) or Gunther DiseasePw000176Pw000176 greyscalePw000176 simpleNot Available
Hereditary Coproporphyria (HCP)Pw000211Pw000211 greyscalePw000211 simpleNot Available
Porphyria Variegata (PV)Pw000175Pw000175 greyscalePw000175 simpleNot Available
Porphyrin MetabolismPw000158Pw000158 greyscalePw000158 simpleMap00860
Displaying all 5 entries
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022425
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID108741
KEGG Compound IDC01079
BioCyc IDPROTOPORPHYRINOGEN
BiGG ID36764
Wikipedia LinkProtoporphyrinogen IX
METLIN ID6003
PubChem Compound121893
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15435
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Wan J, Zhang L, Yang G, Zhan CG: Quantitative structure-activity relationship for cyclic imide derivatives of protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors: a study of quantum chemical descriptors from density functional theory. J Chem Inf Comput Sci. 2004 Nov-Dec;44(6):2099-105. [PubMed:15554680 ]
  2. Herrick AL, Moore MR, Thompson GG, Ford GP, McColl KE: Cholelithiasis in patients with variegate porphyria. J Hepatol. 1991 Jan;12(1):50-3. [PubMed:2007776 ]
  3. Krijt J, Stranska P, Maruna P, Vokurka M, Sanitrak J: Herbicide-induced experimental variegate porphyria in mice: tissue porphyrinogen accumulation and response to porphyrogenic drugs. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1997 Oct-Nov;75(10-11):1181-7. [PubMed:9431441 ]
  4. Bloomer JR: Enzyme defects in the porphyrias and their relevance to the biochemical abnormalities in these disorders. J Invest Dermatol. 1981 Jul;77(1):102-6. [PubMed:7252240 ]
  5. de Villiers JN, Kotze MJ, van Heerden CJ, Sadie A, Gardner HF, Liebenberg J, van Zyl R, du Plessis L, Kimberg M, Frank J, Warnich L: Overrepresentation of the founder PPOX gene mutation R59W in a South African patient with severe clinical manifestation of porphyria. Exp Dermatol. 2005 Jan;14(1):50-5. [PubMed:15660919 ]
  6. Corrigall AV, Hift RJ, Adams PA, Kirsch RE: Inhibition of mammalian protoporphyrinogen oxidase by acifluorfen. Biochem Mol Biol Int. 1994 Dec;34(6):1283-9. [PubMed:7697001 ]
  7. Cox TM, Jack N, Lofthouse S, Watling J, Haines J, Warren MJ: King George III and porphyria: an elemental hypothesis and investigation. Lancet. 2005 Jul 23-29;366(9482):332-5. [PubMed:16039338 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in heme biosynthesis. Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of propionic acid side chains of rings A and B of coproporphyrinogen III.
Gene Name:
CPOX
Uniprot ID:
P36551
Molecular weight:
50151.605
Reactions
Coproporphyrinogen III + Oxygen + Hydrogen Ion → Protoporphyrinogen IX + CO(2) + Waterdetails
Coproporphyrinogen III + Oxygen → Protoporphyrinogen IX + Carbon dioxide + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the 6-electron oxidation of protoporphyrinogen-IX to form protoporphyrin-IX.
Gene Name:
PPOX
Uniprot ID:
P50336
Molecular weight:
50764.8
Reactions
Protoporphyrinogen IX + Oxygen → Protoporphyrin IX + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Protoporphyrinogen IX + Oxygen → Protoporphyrin IX + Hydrogen peroxidedetails