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Record Information
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-03-02 21:26:27 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCoumarin
DescriptionCoumarin is a chemical compound/poison found in many plants, notably in high concentration in the tonka bean, woodruff, and bison grass. It has a sweet scent, readily recognised as the scent of newly-mown hay. It has clinical value as the precursor for several anticoagulants, notably warfarin. --Wikipedia. Coumarins, as a class, are comprised of numerous naturally occurring benzo-alpha-pyrone compounds with important and diverse physiological activities. The parent compound, coumarin, occurs naturally in many plants, natural spices, and foods such as tonka bean, cassia (bastard cinnamon or Chinese cinnamon), cinnamon, melilot (sweet clover), green tea, peppermint, celery, bilberry, lavender, honey (derived both from sweet clover and lavender), and carrots, as well as in beer, tobacco, wine, and other foodstuffs. Coumarin concentrations in these plants, spices, and foods range from <1 mg/kg in celery, 7000 mg/kg in cinnamon, and up to 87,000 mg/kg in cassia. An estimate of human exposure to coumarin from the diet has been calculated to be 0.02 mg/kg/day. Coumarin is used as an additive in perfumes and fragranced consumer products at concentrations ranging from <0.5% to 6.4% in fine fragrances to <0.01% in detergents. An estimate for systemic exposure of humans from the use of fragranced cosmetic products is 0.04 mg/kg BW/day, assuming complete dermal penetration. The use of coumarin as a food additive was banned by the FDA in 1954 based on reports of hepatotoxicity in rats. Due to its potential hepatotoxic effects in humans, the European Commission restricted coumarin from naturals as a direct food additive to 2 mg/kg food/day, with exceptions granting higher levels for alcoholic beverages, caramel, chewing gum, and certain 'traditional foods'. In addition to human exposure to coumarin from dietary sources and consumer products, coumarin is also used clinically as an antineoplastic and for the treatment of lymphedema and venous insufficiency. Exposure ranges from 11 mg/day for consumption of natural food ingredients to 7 g/day following clinical administration. Although adverse effects in humans following coumarin exposure are rare, and only associated with clinical doses, recent evidence indicates coumarin causes liver tumors in rats and mice and Clara cell toxicity and lung tumors in mice. The multiple effects as well as the ongoing human exposure to coumarin have resulted in a significant research effort focused on understanding the mechanism of coumarin induced toxicity/carcinogenicity and its human relevance. These investigations have revealed significant species differences in coumarin metabolism and toxicity such that the mechanism of coumarin induced effects in rodents, and the relevance of these findings for the safety assessment of coumarin exposure in humans are now better understood. In October 2004, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA, 2004) reviewed coumarin to establish a tolerable daily intake (TDI) in foods. EFSA issued an opinion indicating that coumarin is not genotoxic, and that a threshold approach to safety assessment was most appropriate. EFSA recommended a TDI of 0 to 0.1 mg/kg BW/day. Including dietary contributions, the total human exposure is estimated to be 0.06 mg/kg/day. As a pharmaceutical, coumarin has been used in diverse applications with a wide variety of dosing regimens. Unlike coumadin and other coumarin derivatives, coumarin has no anti-coagulant activity. However, at low doses (typically 7 to 10 mg/day), coumarin has been used as a 'venotonic' to promote vein health and small venule blood flow. Additionally, coumarin has been used clinically in the treatment of high-protein lymphedema of various etiologies. (PMID: 16203076 ).
2-Propenoic acid, 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-, D-lactoneChEBI
2-Propenoic acid, 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-, delta-lactoneChEBI
cis-O-Coumarinic acid lactoneChEBI
Coumarinic anhydrideChEBI
O-Hydroxycinnamic acid delta-lactoneChEBI
O-Hydroxycinnamic acid lactoneChEBI
Tonka bean camphorChEBI
2-Propenoate, 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-, D-lactoneGenerator
2-Propenoate, 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-, delta-lactoneGenerator
2-Propenoate, 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-, δ-lactoneGenerator
2-Propenoic acid, 3-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-, δ-lactoneGenerator
cis-O-Coumarinate lactoneGenerator
O-Hydroxycinnamate delta-lactoneGenerator
O-Hydroxycinnamate δ-lactoneGenerator
O-Hydroxycinnamic acid δ-lactoneGenerator
O-Hydroxycinnamate lactoneGenerator
1, 2-BenzopyroneHMDB
2H-Chromen-2-one (acd/name 4.0)HMDB
O-Hydroxycinnamic lactoneHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H6O2
Average Molecular Weight146.145
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight146.036779433
IUPAC Name2H-chromen-2-one
Traditional Namecoumarin
CAS Registry Number91-64-5
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as coumarins and derivatives. These are polycyclic aromatic compounds containing a 1-benzopyran moiety with a ketone group at the C2 carbon atom (1-benzopyran-2-one).
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
Sub ClassCoumarins and derivatives
Direct ParentCoumarins and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Coumarin
  • 1-benzopyran
  • Benzopyran
  • Pyranone
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyran
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Lactone
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
StatusDetected but not Quantified
  • Drug
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point71 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.9 mg/mLNot Available
LogP2.23Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility1.0 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity41.55 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability14.36 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-014v-6900000000-3e901733dc003512f338View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0002-0900000000-6ef9288c71771dd56774View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9100000000-93154d9b40c4d0fdd1aeView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-9000000000-72ec22913d1d574be75bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7L) , Positivesplash10-00kb-8900000000-89e86d11a0dc2841af42View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6M) , Positivesplash10-014i-7900000000-25bab36f91f71ac65817View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-AX-505-H) , Positivesplash10-02tj-9600000000-6e4062e14fc72534c96aView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-e5519a8faf9232fc0fccView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-a6dc6c6c3032891bd134View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0udi-4900000000-139cc9674e0b2836e441View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-e1154242f99d56bc5ed4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0002-0900000000-d6df7c01bbecf91182c9View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0udi-1900000000-961e88f9b351b2d27becView in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00kb-9700000000-7a649c1e257a7ad17b9dView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Saliva
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB04665
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound ID635
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB011938
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID13848793
KEGG Compound IDC05851
BiGG ID46647
Wikipedia LinkCoumarin
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01218
Metagene LinkHMDB01218
PubChem Compound323
ChEBI ID28794
Synthesis ReferenceHuang, Zhong-jing. Synthesis of coumarin under microwave irradiation. Guangxi Huagong (2001), 30(3), 1-2.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Felter SP, Vassallo JD, Carlton BD, Daston GP: A safety assessment of coumarin taking into account species-specificity of toxicokinetics. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006 Apr;44(4):462-75. Epub 2005 Oct 3. [16203076 ]


General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Active in the metabolic activation of hexamethylphosphoramide, N,N-dimethylaniline, 2'-methoxyacetophenone, N-nitrosomethylphenylamine, and the tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. Possesses phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight: