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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:04:04 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01238
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB61066
Metabolite Identification
Common NameN-Acetylserotonin
DescriptionN-Acetylserotonin is an intermediate in the metabolic pathway of melatonin and indoleamine in the pineal gland of mammalians. Serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (SNAT), which regulates the rate of melatonin biosynthesis in the pineal gland, catalyzes the acetylation of 5HT to N-acetylserotonin (NAS). A methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine is transferred to NAS by hydroxyindole-O-methyltransferase (HIOMT), and finally NAS is converted to 5-methoxy-N-acetyltryptamine, or melatonin. In most mammalian species the content of NAS (and melatonin) in the pineal gland shows clear circadian changes with the highest level occurring during the dark period. This elevation of the contents of NAS (and melatonin) in the dark period is due to the increase of SNAT activity and the elevation of SNAT gene expression. Experimental studies show that N-acetylserotonin possess free radical scavenging activity. Acute administration of irreversible and reversible selective MAO-A inhibitors and high doses (or chronic administration of low doses) of relatively selective MAO-B inhibitors (but not of highly selective MAO-B inhibitors) suppressed MAO-A activity and stimulated N-acetylation of pineal serotonin into N-acetylserotonin, the immediate precursor of melatonin. N-acetylserotonin increase after MAO-A inhibitors might mediate their antidepressive and antihypertensive effects. N-Acetylserotonin is the product of the O-demethylation of melatonin mediated by cytochrome P-450 isoforms: Cytochrome p450, subfamily IIc, polypeptide 19 (CYP2C19, a clinically important enzyme that metabolizes a wide variety of drugs), with a minor contribution from Cytochrome p450, subfamily I, polypeptide (2CYP1A2, involved in O-deethylation of phenacetin). (PMID 15616152 , 11103901 , 10721079 , 10591054 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
N-(2-(5-Hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl)acetamideChEBI
N-Acetyl-5-hydroxytryptamineChEBI
5-Hydroxy-N-acetyltryptamineHMDB
5-HydroxymelatoninHMDB
ASEHMDB
DesmethylmelatoninHMDB
O-DemethylmelatoninHMDB
Chemical FormulaC12H14N2O2
Average Molecular Weight218.2518
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight218.105527702
IUPAC NameN-[2-(5-hydroxy-1H-indol-3-yl)ethyl]acetamide
Traditional NameN-acetylserotonin
CAS Registry Number1210-83-9
SMILES
CC(=O)NCCC1=CNC2=C1C=C(O)C=C2
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C12H14N2O2/c1-8(15)13-5-4-9-7-14-12-3-2-10(16)6-11(9)12/h2-3,6-7,14,16H,4-5H2,1H3,(H,13,15)
InChI KeyInChIKey=MVAWJSIDNICKHF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as serotonins. These are compounds containing a serotonin moiety, which consists of an indole that bears an aminoethyl a position 2 and a hydroxyl group at position 5.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassIndoles and derivatives
Sub ClassTryptamines and derivatives
Direct ParentSerotonins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Serotonin
  • Hydroxyindole
  • Indole
  • Benzenoid
  • Substituted pyrrole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Acetamide
  • Pyrrole
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Tryptophan metabolism
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.57 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.98ALOGPS
logP1ChemAxon
logS-2.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.56ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.94ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area65.12 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity61.8 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability23.59 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0f6x-0692000000-96e09fa6d98b96bcf1e4View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0fsm-0950000000-1bfd0dec31c3cbabefddView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0udl-0495000000-4408ea40213cdc89bf39View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-0159-0690000000-15c09141663fccc3546fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-0f6x-1592000000-742cca756ead51503626View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0f6x-2695000000-c377bb4d833e7c3880daView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-0920000000-9c0d187c13aabfa510d9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-0900000000-025ebd6d665bfe7141d3View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-1900000000-cdac2a24252af2ce8c65View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Tryptophan MetabolismSMP00063map00380
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00411
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022505
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID879
KEGG Compound IDC00978
BioCyc IDN-ACETYL-SEROTONIN
BiGG ID36527
Wikipedia LinkASE
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01238
Metagene LinkHMDB01238
METLIN ID366
PubChem Compound903
PDB IDASE
ChEBI ID17697
References
Synthesis ReferenceBalemans M G; Mans D; Smith I; Van Benthem J The influence of GABA on the synthesis of N-acetylserotonin, melatonin, O-acetyl-5-hydroxytryptophol and O-acetyl-5-methoxytryptophol in the pineal gland of the male Wistar rat. Reproduction, nutrition, development (1983), 23(1), 151-60.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Ma X, Idle JR, Krausz KW, Gonzalez FJ: Metabolism of melatonin by human cytochromes p450. Drug Metab Dispos. 2005 Apr;33(4):489-94. Epub 2004 Dec 22. [15616152 ]
  2. Harumi T, Matsushima S: Separation and assay methods for melatonin and its precursors. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 2000 Sep 29;747(1-2):95-110. [11103901 ]
  3. Reiter RJ, Tan DX, Cabrera J, D'Arpa D: Melatonin and tryptophan derivatives as free radical scavengers and antioxidants. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;467:379-87. [10721079 ]
  4. Oxenkrug GF: Antidepressive and antihypertensive effects of MAO-A inhibition: role of N-acetylserotonin. A review. Neurobiology (Bp). 1999;7(2):213-24. [10591054 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Controls the night/day rhythm of melatonin production in the pineal gland. Catalyzes the N-acetylation of serotonin into N-acetylserotonin, the penultimate step in the synthesis of melatonin.
Gene Name:
AANAT
Uniprot ID:
Q16613
Molecular weight:
23343.8
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Serotonin → Coenzyme A + N-Acetylserotonindetails
General function:
Involved in O-methyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Isoform 1 catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group onto N-acetylserotonin, producing melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine). Isoform 2 and isoform 3 lack enzyme activity.
Gene Name:
ASMT
Uniprot ID:
P46597
Molecular weight:
41660.34
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethionine + N-Acetylserotonin → S-Adenosylhomocysteine + Melatonindetails