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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:04:07 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01252
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameBetaine aldehyde
DescriptionBetaine aldehyde is an intermediate in the metabolism of glycine, serine and threonine. The human aldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1.2.1.3) facilitates the conversion of betaine aldehyde to glycine betaine. Betaine aldehyde is a substrate for Choline dehydrogenase (mitochondrial). (PMID: 12467448 , 7646513 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
Glycine betaine aldehydeChEBI
(Formylmethyl)trimethyl-ammoniumHMDB
(Formylmethyl)trimethylammoniumHMDB
BTLHMDB
N,N,N-Trimethyl-2-oxo ethanaminiumHMDB
N,N,N-Trimethyl-2-oxo-ethanaminiumHMDB
Trimethyl(formylmethyl)ammoniumHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H12NO
Average Molecular Weight102.1549
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight102.091889011
IUPAC Nametrimethyl(2-oxoethyl)azanium
Traditional Namebetaine aldehyde
CAS Registry Number7418-61-3
SMILES
C[N+](C)(C)CC=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H12NO/c1-6(2,3)4-5-7/h5H,4H2,1-3H3/q+1
InChI KeyInChIKey=SXKNCCSPZDCRFD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as quaternary ammonium salts. These are compounds containing positively charged polyatomic ion of the structure NR4+, R being an alkyl group or an aryl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
ClassQuaternary ammonium salts
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentQuaternary ammonium salts
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aldehyde
  • Organic cation
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Osmolyte
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.93 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-2.7ALOGPS
logP-4.7ChemAxon
logS-2.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-8.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area17.07 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity41.06 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.64 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Neuron
  • Stratum Corneum
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Betaine MetabolismSMP00123map00260
sarcosine oncometabolite pathway SMP02313Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022513
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID244
KEGG Compound IDC00576
BioCyc IDBETAINE_ALDEHYDE
BiGG ID35400
Wikipedia LinkBTL
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01252
Metagene LinkHMDB01252
METLIN ID278
PubChem Compound249
PDB IDBTL
ChEBI ID15710
References
Synthesis ReferenceCromwell, B. T.; Rennie, S. D. Biosynthesis and metabolism of betaines in plants. II. Biosynthesis of glycinebetaine(betaine) in higher plants. Biochemical Journal (1954), 58 318-22.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Nalecz KA, Miecz D, Berezowski V, Cecchelli R: Carnitine: transport and physiological functions in the brain. Mol Aspects Med. 2004 Oct-Dec;25(5-6):551-67. [15363641 ]
  2. Peterson CG, Eklund E, Taha Y, Raab Y, Carlson M: A new method for the quantification of neutrophil and eosinophil cationic proteins in feces: establishment of normal levels and clinical application in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002 Jul;97(7):1755-62. [12135031 ]
  3. Wang L, Dean DA, Macdonald RC: Effect of vinblastine on transfection: influence of cell types, cationic lipids and promoters. Curr Drug Deliv. 2005 Jan;2(1):93-6. [16305411 ]
  4. Prester L, Simeon V: Kinetics of the inhibition of human serum cholinesterase phenotypes with the dimethylcarbamate of (2-hydroxy-5-phenylbenzyl)-trimethylammonium bromide (Ro 02-0683). Biochem Pharmacol. 1991 Nov 27;42(12):2313-6. [1764116 ]
  5. Chesnoy S, Durand D, Doucet J, Couarraze G: Structural parameters involved in the permeation of propranolol HCl by iontophoresis and enhancers. J Control Release. 1999 Mar 29;58(2):163-75. [10053189 ]
  6. Scott JE, Newton DJ: The recovery and characterization of acid glycosaminoglycans in normal human urine. Influence of a circadian rhythm. Connect Tissue Res. 1975;3(2):157-64. [126843 ]
  7. Desfosses B, Cittanova N, Urbach W, Waks M: Ligand binding at membrane mimetic interfaces. Human serum albumin in reverse micelles. Eur J Biochem. 1991 Jul 1;199(1):79-87. [1712302 ]
  8. Yilmaz JL, Bulow L: Enhanced stress tolerance in Escherichia coli and Nicotiana tabacum expressing a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase/choline dehydrogenase fusion protein. Biotechnol Prog. 2002 Nov-Dec;18(6):1176-82. [12467448 ]
  9. Chern MK, Pietruszko R: Human aldehyde dehydrogenase E3 isozyme is a betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1995 Aug 15;213(2):561-8. [7646513 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH-OH group of donors
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CHDH
Uniprot ID:
Q8NE62
Molecular weight:
65358.005
Reactions
Choline + acceptor → Betaine aldehyde + reduced acceptordetails
Choline + Acceptor → Betaine aldehyde + Reduced acceptordetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Multifunctional enzyme mediating important protective effects. Metabolizes betaine aldehyde to betaine, an important cellular osmolyte and methyl donor. Protects cells from oxidative stress by metabolizing a number of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes. Involved in lysine catabolism.
Gene Name:
ALDH7A1
Uniprot ID:
P49419
Molecular weight:
58486.74
Reactions
Betaine aldehyde + NAD + Water → Trimethylammonioacetate + NADHdetails
Betaine aldehyde + NAD + Water → Trimethylammonioacetate + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Betaine aldehyde + NADP + Water → Trimethylammonioacetate + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name:
ADH5
Uniprot ID:
P11766
Molecular weight:
39723.945
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1B
Uniprot ID:
P00325
Molecular weight:
39835.17
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Could function in retinol oxidation for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone important for cellular differentiation. Medium-chain (octanol) and aromatic (m-nitrobenzaldehyde) compounds are the best substrates. Ethanol is not a good substrate but at the high ethanol concentrations reached in the digestive tract, it plays a role in the ethanol oxidation and contributes to the first pass ethanol metabolism.
Gene Name:
ADH7
Uniprot ID:
P40394
Molecular weight:
41480.985
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1A
Uniprot ID:
P07327
Molecular weight:
39858.37
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH6
Uniprot ID:
P28332
Molecular weight:
39072.275
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1C
Uniprot ID:
P00326
Molecular weight:
39867.27