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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-10-29 21:46:08 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01256
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSpermine
DescriptionSpermine is a biogenic polyamine formed from spermidine. It is found in a wide variety of organisms and tissues and is an essential growth factor in some bacteria. It is found as a polycation at all pH values. Spermine is associated with nucleic acids, particularly in viruses, and is thought to stabilize the helical structure.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 1,5,10,14-Tetraazatetradecane
  2. 4,9-Diaza-1,12-dodecanediamine
  3. 4,9-Diazadodecamethylenediamine
  4. 4,9-Diazadodecane-1,12-diamine
  5. Diaminopropyl-tetramethylenediamine
  6. Diaminopropyltetramethylenediamine
  7. Gerontine
  8. Musculamine
  9. N,N'-Bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,4-Butanediamine
  10. N,N'-Bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,4-tetramethylenediamine
  11. N,N'-Bis(3-aminopropyl)butane-1,4-diamine
  12. N1,N4-bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,4-butanediamine
  13. Neuridine
  14. Spermin
  15. Spermine
  16. Spermine dihydrate
  17. Spermine puriss
  18. SPM
Chemical FormulaC10H26N4
Average Molecular Weight202.3402
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight202.215746852
IUPAC Name(3-aminopropyl)({4-[(3-aminopropyl)amino]butyl})amine
Traditional Namespermine
CAS Registry Number71-44-3
SMILES
NCCCNCCCCNCCCN
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H26N4/c11-5-3-9-13-7-1-2-8-14-10-4-6-12/h13-14H,1-12H2
InChI KeyPFNFFQXMRSDOHW-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAliphatic Acyclic Compounds
ClassAlkylamines
Sub ClassPolyamines
Other Descriptors
  • Alkylamines
  • polyazaalkane(ChEBI)
  • tetraamine(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentPolyamines
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Component of beta-Alanine metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point29 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility2.19ALOGPS
logP-0.66ALOGPS
logP-1.5ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)11.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area76.1 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count11ChemAxon
Refractivity62.56 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability26.4 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MSMS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Erythrocyte
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Liver
  • Muscle
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skin
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Spermidine and Spermine BiosynthesisSMP00445Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified9.97 +/- 3.26 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.03 +/- 0.04 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.14 +/- 0.01 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.63 +/- 0.67 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Dame, ZT. et al. ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.04 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.00733 +/- 0.0381 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0665 +/- 0.0665 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0962 +/- 0.262 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.242 +/- 0.565 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.08 (0.01-0.28) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.058 +/- 0.026 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNot Available details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.019 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.13 +/- 0.065 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0092 +/- 0.0076 uMAdult (>18 years old)Bothuremia details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothLeukemia details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.463 +/- 0.214 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothLeukemia details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00127
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003225
KNApSAcK IDC00001432
Chemspider ID1072
KEGG Compound IDC00750
BioCyc IDSPERMINE
BiGG ID35875
Wikipedia LinkSpermine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01256
Metagene LinkHMDB01256
METLIN ID255
PubChem Compound1103
PDB IDSPM
ChEBI ID15746
References
Synthesis ReferenceWrede, Fritz; Strack, Erich; Hettche, Otto. Spermine. VII. Z. physiol. Chem. (1928), 173 61-8.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
  2. Mollica F, Li Volti S, Rapisarda A, Longo G, Pavone L, Vanella A: Increased erythrocytic spermine in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Pediatr Res. 1980 Nov;14(11):1196-8. Pubmed: 7454431
  3. Swift TA, Dias JA: Effects of the polyamine spermine on binding of follicle-stimulating hormone to membrane-bound immature bovine testis receptors. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1986 Feb 21;885(2):221-30. Pubmed: 3004602
  4. Cipolla BG, Ziade J, Bansard JY, Moulinoux JP, Staerman F, Quemener V, Lobel B, Guille F: Pretherapeutic erythrocyte polyamine spermine levels discriminate high risk relapsing patients with M1 prostate carcinoma. Cancer. 1996 Sep 1;78(5):1055-65. Pubmed: 8780544
  5. Venza M, Visalli M, Cicciu D, Teti D: Determination of polyamines in human saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 2001 Jun 5;757(1):111-7. Pubmed: 11419735
  6. Uehara N, Shirakawa S, Uchino H, Saeki Y: Elevated contents of spermidine and spermine in the erythrocytes of cancer patients. Cancer. 1980 Jan 1;45(1):108-11. Pubmed: 7350997
  7. Jensen PK, Therkelsen AJ: Selective inhibition of fibroblasts by spermine in primary cultures of normal human skin epithelial cells. In Vitro. 1982 Oct;18(10):867-71. Pubmed: 7173947
  8. Loser C, Folsch UR, Paprotny C, Creutzfeldt W: Polyamines in colorectal cancer. Evaluation of polyamine concentrations in the colon tissue, serum, and urine of 50 patients with colorectal cancer. Cancer. 1990 Feb 15;65(4):958-66. Pubmed: 2297664
  9. Proctor MS, Fletcher HV Jr, Shukla JB, Rennert OM: Elevated spermidine and spermine levels in the blood of psoriasis patients. J Invest Dermatol. 1975 Oct;65(4):409-11. Pubmed: 1176793
  10. Lorenz B, Francis F, Gempel K, Boddrich A, Josten M, Schmahl W, Schmidt J, Lehrach H, Meitinger T, Strom TM: Spermine deficiency in Gy mice caused by deletion of the spermine synthase gene. Hum Mol Genet. 1998 Mar;7(3):541-7. Pubmed: 9467015
  11. Hosseinkhani H, Azzam T, Tabata Y, Domb AJ: Dextran-spermine polycation: an efficient nonviral vector for in vitro and in vivo gene transfection. Gene Ther. 2004 Jan;11(2):194-203. Pubmed: 14712304
  12. El Baze P, Milano G, Verrando P, Renee N, Ortonne JP: Polyamine levels in normal human skin. A comparative study of pure epidermis, pure dermis, and suction blister fluid. Arch Dermatol Res. 1983;275(4):218-21. Pubmed: 6625645

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine > spermidine = spermine >> N(1)acetylspermine = putrescine.
Gene Name:
SAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q96F10
Molecular weight:
19154.905
References
  1. Chen Y, Vujcic S, Liang P, Diegelman P, Kramer DL, Porter CW: Genomic identification and biochemical characterization of a second spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase. Biochem J. 2003 Aug 1;373(Pt 3):661-7. Pubmed: 12803540
  2. Coleman CS, Stanley BA, Jones AD, Pegg AE: Spermidine/spermine-N1-acetyltransferase-2 (SSAT2) acetylates thialysine and is not involved in polyamine metabolism. Biochem J. 2004 Nov 15;384(Pt 1):139-48. Pubmed: 15283699
  3. Vogel NL, Boeke M, Ashburner BP: Spermidine/Spermine N1-Acetyltransferase 2 (SSAT2) functions as a coactivator for NF-kappaB and cooperates with CBP and P/CAF to enhance NF-kappaB-dependent transcription. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Oct;1759(10):470-7. Epub 2006 Aug 30. Pubmed: 17011643
  4. Limsuwun K, Jones PG: Spermidine acetyltransferase is required to prevent spermidine toxicity at low temperatures in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2000 Oct;182(19):5373-80. Pubmed: 10986239
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine = spermidine >> spermine > N(1)-acetylspermine > putrescine. This highly regulated enzyme allows a fine attenuation of the intracellular concentration of polyamines. Also involved in the regulation of polyamine transport out of cells. Acts on 1,3-diaminopropane, 1,5-diaminopentane, putrescine, spermidine (forming N(1)- and N(8)-acetylspermidine), spermine, N(1)-acetylspermidine and N(8)-acetylspermidine.
Gene Name:
SAT1
Uniprot ID:
P21673
Molecular weight:
20023.8
References
  1. Vujcic S, Halmekyto M, Diegelman P, Gan G, Kramer DL, Janne J, Porter CW: Effects of conditional overexpression of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase on polyamine pool dynamics, cell growth, and sensitivity to polyamine analogs. J Biol Chem. 2000 Dec 8;275(49):38319-28. Pubmed: 10978316
  2. Hegardt C, Andersson G, Oredsson SM: Changes in polyamine metabolism during glucocorticoid-induced programmed cell death in mouse thymus. Cell Biol Int. 2000;24(12):871-80. Pubmed: 11114236
  3. Marverti G, Bettuzzi S, Astancolle S, Pinna C, Monti MG, Moruzzi MS: Differential induction of spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase activity in cisplatin-sensitive and -resistant ovarian cancer cells in response to N1,N12-bis(ethyl)spermine involves transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Eur J Cancer. 2001 Jan;37(2):281-9. Pubmed: 11166157
  4. Scorcioni F, Corti A, Davalli P, Astancolle S, Bettuzzi S: Manipulation of the expression of regulatory genes of polyamine metabolism results in specific alterations of the cell-cycle progression. Biochem J. 2001 Feb 15;354(Pt 1):217-23. Pubmed: 11171097
  5. Min SH, Simmen RC, Alhonen L, Halmekyto M, Porter CW, Janne J, Simmen FA: Altered levels of growth-related and novel gene transcripts in reproductive and other tissues of female mice overexpressing spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT). J Biol Chem. 2002 Feb 1;277(5):3647-57. Epub 2001 Nov 14. Pubmed: 11709547
  6. Limsuwun K, Jones PG: Spermidine acetyltransferase is required to prevent spermidine toxicity at low temperatures in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol. 2000 Oct;182(19):5373-80. Pubmed: 10986239
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular weight:
146422.99
References
  1. Lovaas E, Carlin G: Spermine: an anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Free Radic Biol Med. 1991;11(5):455-61. Pubmed: 1663062
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH-OH group of donors
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CHDH
Uniprot ID:
Q8NE62
Molecular weight:
65358.005
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
DMGDH
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI17
Molecular weight:
96810.135
General function:
Involved in spermine synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the production of spermine from spermidine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM).
Gene Name:
SMS
Uniprot ID:
P52788
Molecular weight:
35278.2
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethioninamine + Spermidine → 5'-Methylthioadenosine + Sperminedetails
References
  1. Lopatin AN, Shantz LM, Mackintosh CA, Nichols CG, Pegg AE: Modulation of potassium channels in the hearts of transgenic and mutant mice with altered polyamine biosynthesis. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2000 Nov;32(11):2007-24. Pubmed: 11040105
  2. Korhonen VP, Niiranen K, Halmekyto M, Pietila M, Diegelman P, Parkkinen JJ, Eloranta T, Porter CW, Alhonen L, Janne J: Spermine deficiency resulting from targeted disruption of the spermine synthase gene in embryonic stem cells leads to enhanced sensitivity to antiproliferative drugs. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):231-8. Pubmed: 11160858
  3. Cason AL, Ikeguchi Y, Skinner C, Wood TC, Holden KR, Lubs HA, Martinez F, Simensen RJ, Stevenson RE, Pegg AE, Schwartz CE: X-linked spermine synthase gene (SMS) defect: the first polyamine deficiency syndrome. Eur J Hum Genet. 2003 Dec;11(12):937-44. Pubmed: 14508504
  4. Wang X, Ikeguchi Y, McCloskey DE, Nelson P, Pegg AE: Spermine synthesis is required for normal viability, growth, and fertility in the mouse. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 3;279(49):51370-5. Epub 2004 Sep 30. Pubmed: 15459188
  5. Schwartz CE, Wang X, Stevenson RE, Pegg AE: Spermine synthase deficiency resulting in X-linked intellectual disability (Snyder-Robinson syndrome). Methods Mol Biol. 2011;720:437-45. Pubmed: 21318891
  6. Wang X, Pegg AE: Use of (Gyro) Gy and spermine synthase transgenic mice to study functions of spermine. Methods Mol Biol. 2011;720:159-70. Pubmed: 21318872
  7. Theiss C, Bohley P, Voigt J: Regulation by polyamines of ornithine decarboxylase activity and cell division in the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Plant Physiol. 2002 Apr;128(4):1470-9. Pubmed: 11950995
  8. Krauss M, Langnaese K, Richter K, Brunk I, Wieske M, Ahnert-Hilger G, Veh RW, Laube G: Spermidine synthase is prominently expressed in the striatal patch compartment and in putative interneurones of the matrix compartment. J Neurochem. 2006 Apr;97(1):174-89. Epub 2006 Mar 3. Pubmed: 16515550
  9. Kobayashi M, Takao K, Shiota Y, Sugita Y, Takahashi M, Nakae D, Samejima K: Inhibition of putrescine aminopropyltransferase influences rat liver regeneration. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 May;29(5):863-7. Pubmed: 16651710
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the production of spermidine from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM). Has a strong preference for putrescine as substrate, and has very low activity towards 1,3-diaminopropane. Has extremely low activity towards spermidine.
Gene Name:
SRM
Uniprot ID:
P19623
Molecular weight:
33824.455
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethioninamine + Spermidine → 5'-Methylthioadenosine + Sperminedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Converts gamma-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde into gamma-butyrobetaine. Catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of a broad range of aldehydes to the corresponding acids in an NAD-dependent reaction.
Gene Name:
ALDH9A1
Uniprot ID:
P49189
Molecular weight:
56291.485
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine.
Gene Name:
BBOX1
Uniprot ID:
O75936
Molecular weight:
44714.6
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the degradation of compounds such as putrescine, histamine, spermine, and spermidine, substances involved in allergic and immune responses, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation, tumor formation, and possibly apoptosis. Placental DAO is thought to play a role in the regulation of the female reproductive function.
Gene Name:
ABP1
Uniprot ID:
P19801
Molecular weight:
85377.1
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring pentosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine (MTA) to adenine and 5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate. Involved in the breakdown of MTA, a major by-product of polyamine biosynthesis. Responsible for the first step in the methionine salvage pathway after MTA has been generated from S-adenosylmethionine. Has broad substrate specificity with 6-aminopurine nucleosides as preferred substrates.
Gene Name:
MTAP
Uniprot ID:
Q13126
Molecular weight:
31235.76
General function:
Involved in adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AMD1
Uniprot ID:
P17707
Molecular weight:
21301.015
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of guanidinoacetate, the immediate precursor of creatine. Creatine plays a vital role in energy metabolism in muscle tissues. May play a role in embryonic and central nervous system development. May be involved in the response to heart failure by elevating local creatine synthesis.
Gene Name:
GATM
Uniprot ID:
P50440
Molecular weight:
48455.01
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Involved in the regulation of homocysteine metabolism. Converts betaine and homocysteine to dimethylglycine and methionine, respectively. This reaction is also required for the irreversible oxidation of choline.
Gene Name:
BHMT
Uniprot ID:
Q93088
Molecular weight:
44998.205
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SARDH
Uniprot ID:
Q9UL12
Molecular weight:
101035.985
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of histamine from histidine.
Gene Name:
HDC
Uniprot ID:
P19113
Molecular weight:
74139.825
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ODC1
Uniprot ID:
P11926
Molecular weight:
51147.73
References
  1. Nilsson J, Grahn B, Heby O: Antizyme inhibitor is rapidly induced in growth-stimulated mouse fibroblasts and releases ornithine decarboxylase from antizyme suppression. Biochem J. 2000 Mar 15;346 Pt 3:699-704. Pubmed: 10698696
  2. Ray RM, Viar MJ, Yuan Q, Johnson LR: Polyamine depletion delays apoptosis of rat intestinal epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2000 Mar;278(3):C480-9. Pubmed: 10712236
  3. Korhonen VP, Niiranen K, Halmekyto M, Pietila M, Diegelman P, Parkkinen JJ, Eloranta T, Porter CW, Alhonen L, Janne J: Spermine deficiency resulting from targeted disruption of the spermine synthase gene in embryonic stem cells leads to enhanced sensitivity to antiproliferative drugs. Mol Pharmacol. 2001 Feb;59(2):231-8. Pubmed: 11160858
  4. Rohn G, Els T, Hell K, Ernestus RI: Regional distribution of ornithine decarboxylase activity and polyamine levels in experimental cat brain tumors. Neurochem Int. 2001 Aug;39(2):135-40. Pubmed: 11408092
  5. Ernestus RI, Rohn G, Schroder R, Els T, Klekner A, Paschen W, Klug N: Polyamine metabolism in brain tumours: diagnostic relevance of quantitative biochemistry. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2001 Jul;71(1):88-92. Pubmed: 11413269
  6. [No authors listed] Pubmed: 21140446
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Flavoenzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of spermine to spermidine. Can also use N(1)-acetylspermine and spermidine as substrates, with different affinity depending on the isoform (isozyme) and on the experimental conditions. Plays an important role in the regulation of polyamine intracellular concentration and has the potential to act as a determinant of cellular sensitivity to the antitumor polyamine analogs. May contribute to beta-alanine production via aldehyde dehydrogenase conversion of 3-amino-propanal.
Gene Name:
SMOX
Uniprot ID:
Q9NWM0
Molecular weight:
65006.29
Reactions
Spermine + Oxygen + Water → Spermidine + 3-Aminopropionaldehyde + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
References
  1. Binda C, Angelini R, Federico R, Ascenzi P, Mattevi A: Structural bases for inhibitor binding and catalysis in polyamine oxidase. Biochemistry. 2001 Mar 6;40(9):2766-76. Pubmed: 11258887
  2. Vujcic S, Diegelman P, Bacchi CJ, Kramer DL, Porter CW: Identification and characterization of a novel flavin-containing spermine oxidase of mammalian cell origin. Biochem J. 2002 Nov 1;367(Pt 3):665-75. Pubmed: 12141946
  3. Vujcic S, Liang P, Diegelman P, Kramer DL, Porter CW: Genomic identification and biochemical characterization of the mammalian polyamine oxidase involved in polyamine back-conversion. Biochem J. 2003 Feb 15;370(Pt 1):19-28. Pubmed: 12477380
  4. Wang Y, Murray-Stewart T, Devereux W, Hacker A, Frydman B, Woster PM, Casero RA Jr: Properties of purified recombinant human polyamine oxidase, PAOh1/SMO. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 May 16;304(4):605-11. Pubmed: 12727196
  5. Bacchi CJ, Rattendi D, Faciane E, Yarlett N, Weiss LM, Frydman B, Woster P, Wei B, Marton LJ, Wittner M: Polyamine metabolism in a member of the phylum Microspora (Encephalitozoon cuniculi): effects of polyamine analogues. Microbiology. 2004 May;150(Pt 5):1215-24. Pubmed: 15133083
General function:
Involved in agmatinase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AGMAT
Uniprot ID:
Q9BSE5
Molecular weight:
37660.065
General function:
Involved in oxidation reduction
Specific function:
Converts trimethyllysine (TML) into hydroxytrimethyllysine (HTML).
Gene Name:
TMLHE
Uniprot ID:
Q9NVH6
Molecular weight:
44048.895
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Involved in the regulation of homocysteine metabolism. Converts homocysteine to methionine using S-methylmethionine (SMM) as a methyl donor.
Gene Name:
BHMT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9H2M3
Molecular weight:
33166.69
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Decreases the sensitivity of PDP1 to magnesium ions, and this inhibition is reversed by the polyamine spermine
Gene Name:
PDPR
Uniprot ID:
Q8NCN5
Molecular weight:
99363.7
General function:
Involved in enzyme inhibitor activity
Specific function:
Binds to, and destabilizes, ornithine decarboxylase which is then degraded. Also inhibits cellular uptake of polyamines by inactivating the polyamine uptake transporter. SMAD1/OAZ1/PSMB4 complex mediates the degradation of the CREBBP/EP300 repressor SNIP1
Gene Name:
OAZ1
Uniprot ID:
P54368
Molecular weight:
25405.3
General function:
Involved in leucine zipper domain binding
Specific function:
Part of the MIS12 complex which is required for normal chromosome alignment and segregation and kinetochore formation during mitosis. May act as a cotranscription partner of NFE2L2 involved in regulation of polyamine-induced transcription of SSAT
Gene Name:
PMF1
Uniprot ID:
Q6P1K2
Molecular weight:
23339.2

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET)
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular weight:
62154.5
References
  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. Pubmed: 10215651
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)- N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine, and metformin. The transport of organic cations is inhibited by a broad array of compounds like tetramethylammonium (TMA), cocaine, lidocaine, NMDA receptor antagonists, atropine, prazosin, cimetidine, TEA and NMN, guanidine, cimetidine, choline, procainamide, quinine, tetrabutylammonium, and tetrapentylammonium. Translocates organic cations in an electrogenic and pH-independent manner. Translocates organic cations across the plasma membrane in both directions. Transports the polyamines spermine and spermidine. Transports pramipexole across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. The choline transport is activated by MMTS. Regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways including inhibition by protein kinase A activation, and endogenously activation by the calmodulin complex, the calmodulin- dependent kinase II and LCK tyrosine kinase
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular weight:
61187.4
References
  1. Busch AE, Quester S, Ulzheimer JC, Waldegger S, Gorboulev V, Arndt P, Lang F, Koepsell H: Electrogenic properties and substrate specificity of the polyspecific rat cation transporter rOCT1. J Biol Chem. 1996 Dec 20;271(51):32599-604. Pubmed: 8955087