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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:04:07 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01257
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSpermidine
DescriptionSpermidine is a polyamine formed from putrescine. It is found in almost all tissues in association with nucleic acids. It is found as a cation at all pH values, and is thought to help stabilize some membranes and nucleic acid structures. It is a precursor of spermine.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
1,5,10-TriazadecaneChEBI
4-AzaoctamethylenediamineChEBI
4-Azaoctane-1,8-diamineChEBI
N-(3-Aminopropyl)-1,4-butane-diamineChEBI
SpermidinChEBI
1,8-diamino-4-AzaoctaneHMDB
AminopropylbutandiamineHMDB
N-(3-Aminopropyl)-1,4-butanediamineHMDB
N-(3-Aminopropyl)-1,4-diamino-butaneHMDB
N-(3-Aminopropyl)-1,4-diaminobutaneHMDB
N-(3-Aminopropyl)-4-aminobutylamineHMDB
N-(4-Aminobutyl)-1,3-diaminopropaneHMDB
N-(gamma-Aminopropyl)tetramethylenediamineHMDB
SPDHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H19N3
Average Molecular Weight145.2459
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight145.157897623
IUPAC Name(4-aminobutyl)(3-aminopropyl)amine
Traditional Namespermidine
CAS Registry Number124-20-9
SMILES
NCCCCNCCCN
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H19N3/c8-4-1-2-6-10-7-3-5-9/h10H,1-9H2
InChI KeyInChIKey=ATHGHQPFGPMSJY-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as dialkylamines. These are organic compounds containing a dialkylamine group, characterized by two alkyl groups bonded to the amino nitrogen.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganonitrogen compounds
ClassAmines
Sub ClassSecondary amines
Direct ParentDialkylamines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Arginine and proline metabolism
  • Component of beta-Alanine metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point< 25 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility32.7 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.62ALOGPS
logP-1.1ChemAxon
logS-0.65ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area64.07 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count7ChemAxon
Refractivity44.97 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.8 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS)splash10-00di-5910000000-48794a2dc9d682aab28fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS)splash10-066u-1910000000-9fe6c1c8e8f166270be1View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)splash10-00rf-1900000000-c88ed717e55f237cf01cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (5 TMS)splash10-00di-6900000000-56396208515d9020bfebView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-0uki-5920000000-4aac8aba8d9635a96f1cView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-00rf-1900000000-f4b7d8b055a8d5025036View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (5 TMS)splash10-00di-1900000000-1be27daaf9f6d9e03752View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00dj-9800000000-02b200749ad6548a5872View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-c294fdb7876cfc47c089View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-9000000000-d3055c2a8763c8034bd2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-052b-0900000000-f08a2a9ba7333f5b725cView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00b9-7900000000-062e21e4525351cbd0d4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-31b90f68c9fde4e03f60View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0002-0920000000-28adf399f8ddd0affc22View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0udj-0930000000-3ac88b6d5c40c65f1314View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-953c054969edecf62533View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-00b9-7900000000-8b03c45141b38c718dacView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-ITFT (LTQ Orbitrap XL, Thermo Scientfic) , Positivesplash10-004i-0900000000-1e157eec324aa34dd64eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-0900000000-f2ca6698501cf6a406dfView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9300000000-2f23967aa87f8e5f5bc1View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-91aef1c8b5a2507a16e9View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-18cdaecf173b5d79902aView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-f0b03de09cb13146e794View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-004j-1900000000-300fe40eb32167464ab8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0729-9800000000-1a8be3c6776f3924c8b7View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0abc-9000000000-6401e12d220b44018fdfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-1900000000-79940496e89b73bb1682View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-3900000000-eb4eaf0bb3e88f274a1dView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00du-9000000000-fe762fb3fcd81e27f9c7View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Erythrocyte
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Liver
  • Neuron
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skin
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Cystathionine Beta-Synthase DeficiencySMP00177Not Available
Glycine N-methyltransferase DeficiencySMP00222Not Available
Homocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia due to defect in cobalamin metabolism, cblG complementation typeSMP00570Not Available
HypermethioninemiaSMP00341Not Available
Methionine Adenosyltransferase DeficiencySMP00221Not Available
Methionine MetabolismSMP00033map00270
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)SMP00340Not Available
S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) Hydrolase DeficiencySMP00214Not Available
Spermidine and Spermine BiosynthesisSMP00445Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified10.3 +/- 3.78 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified8.47 +/- 2.02 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.07 +/- 0.04 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.12 +/- 0.04 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.78 +/- 1.65 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.21 +/- 6.80 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.05 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.27 +/- 1.70 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.38 +/- 2.59 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.331 +/- 0.265 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.402 +/- 0.320 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.487 +/- 1.02 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.552 +/- 0.329 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.05 (0.01-0.09) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.112 +/- 0.008 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNot Available details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.1 +/- 0.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.026 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.069 +/- 0.053 uMAdult (>18 years old)Bothuremia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.46 +/- 0.14 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.72 +/- 0.39 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleFrontotemporal lobe dementia details
SalivaDetected and Quantified1.19 +/- 1.70 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothLewy body disease details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothLeukemia details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.347 +/- 0.147 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothLeukemia details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB03566
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012039
KNApSAcK IDC00001431
Chemspider ID1071
KEGG Compound IDC00315
BioCyc IDSPERMIDINE
BiGG ID34593
Wikipedia LinkSpermidine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01257
Metagene LinkHMDB01257
METLIN ID254
PubChem Compound1102
PDB IDSPD
ChEBI ID16610
References
Synthesis ReferenceBergeron, Raymond J., Jr. Preparation and formulation spermidine analogues for pharmaceutical use as tumor growth inhibitors. U.S. (2001), 31 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  2. Venza M, Visalli M, Cicciu D, Teti D: Determination of polyamines in human saliva by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 2001 Jun 5;757(1):111-7. [11419735 ]
  3. Uehara N, Shirakawa S, Uchino H, Saeki Y: Elevated contents of spermidine and spermine in the erythrocytes of cancer patients. Cancer. 1980 Jan 1;45(1):108-11. [7350997 ]
  4. Proctor MS, Fletcher HV Jr, Shukla JB, Rennert OM: Elevated spermidine and spermine levels in the blood of psoriasis patients. J Invest Dermatol. 1975 Oct;65(4):409-11. [1176793 ]
  5. El Baze P, Milano G, Verrando P, Renee N, Ortonne JP: Polyamine levels in normal human skin. A comparative study of pure epidermis, pure dermis, and suction blister fluid. Arch Dermatol Res. 1983;275(4):218-21. [6625645 ]
  6. Mirzoian PA, Promyslov MSh: [Contents of putrescine, spermidine and spermine in tissue of the human brain glial tumors] Ukr Biokhim Zh. 1979 Sep-Oct;51(5):474-6. [516181 ]
  7. Chaisiri P, Harper ME, Blamey RW, Peeling WB, Griffiths K: Plasma spermidine concentrations in patients with tumours of the breast or prostate or testis. Clin Chim Acta. 1980 Jul 1;104(3):367-75. [6156039 ]
  8. Martinet N, Beninati S, Nigra TP, Folk JE: N1N8-bis(gamma-glutamyl)spermidine cross-linking in epidermal-cell envelopes. Comparison of cross-link levels in normal and psoriatic cell envelopes. Biochem J. 1990 Oct 15;271(2):305-8. [2241917 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Enzyme which catalyzes the acetylation of polyamines. Substrate specificity: norspermidine = spermidine >> spermine > N(1)-acetylspermine > putrescine. This highly regulated enzyme allows a fine attenuation of the intracellular concentration of polyamines. Also involved in the regulation of polyamine transport out of cells. Acts on 1,3-diaminopropane, 1,5-diaminopentane, putrescine, spermidine (forming N(1)- and N(8)-acetylspermidine), spermine, N(1)-acetylspermidine and N(8)-acetylspermidine.
Gene Name:
SAT1
Uniprot ID:
P21673
Molecular weight:
20023.8
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Abolishes BNIP3-mediated apoptosis and mitochondrial damage.
Gene Name:
ACAA2
Uniprot ID:
P42765
Molecular weight:
41923.82
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Flavoenzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of N(1)-acetylspermine to spermidine and is thus involved in the polyamine back-conversion. Can also oxidize N(1)-acetylspermidine to putrescine. Substrate specificity: N(1)-acetylspermine = N(1)-acetylspermidine > N(1),N(12)-diacylspermine >> spermine. Does not oxidize spermidine. Plays an important role in the regulation of polyamine intracellular concentration and has the potential to act as a determinant of cellular sensitivity to the antitumor polyamine analogs.
Gene Name:
PAOX
Uniprot ID:
Q6QHF9
Molecular weight:
55512.64
Reactions
N1-Acetylspermine + Oxygen + Water → Spermidine + Acetamidopropanal + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Isoform 1 may possess glutaredoxin activity as well as thioredoxin reductase activity and induces actin and tubulin polymerization, leading to formation of cell membrane protrusions. Isoform 4 enhances the transcriptional activity of estrogen receptors alpha and beta while isoform 5 enhances the transcriptional activity of the beta receptor only. Isoform 5 also mediates cell death induced by a combination of interferon-beta and retinoic acid.
Gene Name:
TXNRD1
Uniprot ID:
Q16881
Molecular weight:
70905.58
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Berman HM, Westbrook J, Feng Z, Gilliland G, Bhat TN, Weissig H, Shindyalov IN, Bourne PE: The Protein Data Bank. Nucleic Acids Res. 2000 Jan 1;28(1):235-42. [10592235 ]
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on CH-OH group of donors
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CHDH
Uniprot ID:
Q8NE62
Molecular weight:
65358.005
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
DMGDH
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI17
Molecular weight:
96810.135
General function:
Involved in spermine synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the production of spermine from spermidine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM).
Gene Name:
SMS
Uniprot ID:
P52788
Molecular weight:
35278.2
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethioninamine + Spermidine → 5'-Methylthioadenosine + Sperminedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the production of spermidine from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dcSAM). Has a strong preference for putrescine as substrate, and has very low activity towards 1,3-diaminopropane. Has extremely low activity towards spermidine.
Gene Name:
SRM
Uniprot ID:
P19623
Molecular weight:
33824.455
Reactions
S-Adenosylmethioninamine + Putrescine → 5'-Methylthioadenosine + Spermidinedetails
S-Adenosylmethioninamine + Spermidine → 5'-Methylthioadenosine + Sperminedetails
General function:
Involved in peptidyl-lysine modification to hypusine
Specific function:
Catalyzes the NAD-dependent oxidative cleavage of spermidine and the subsequent transfer of the butylamine moiety of spermidine to the epsilon-amino group of a specific lysine residue of the eIF-5A precursor protein to form the intermediate deoxyhypusine residue.
Gene Name:
DHPS
Uniprot ID:
P49366
Molecular weight:
40970.28
Reactions
[eIF5A-precursor]-lysine + Spermidine → [eIF5A-precursor]-deoxyhypusine + 1,3-Diaminopropanedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PCCA
Uniprot ID:
P05165
Molecular weight:
80058.295
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Converts gamma-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde into gamma-butyrobetaine. Catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of a broad range of aldehydes to the corresponding acids in an NAD-dependent reaction.
Gene Name:
ALDH9A1
Uniprot ID:
P49189
Molecular weight:
56291.485
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of L-carnitine from gamma-butyrobetaine.
Gene Name:
BBOX1
Uniprot ID:
O75936
Molecular weight:
44714.6
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring pentosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine (MTA) to adenine and 5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate. Involved in the breakdown of MTA, a major by-product of polyamine biosynthesis. Responsible for the first step in the methionine salvage pathway after MTA has been generated from S-adenosylmethionine. Has broad substrate specificity with 6-aminopurine nucleosides as preferred substrates.
Gene Name:
MTAP
Uniprot ID:
Q13126
Molecular weight:
31235.76
General function:
Involved in adenosylmethionine decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AMD1
Uniprot ID:
P17707
Molecular weight:
21301.015
General function:
Amino acid transport and metabolism
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of guanidinoacetate, the immediate precursor of creatine. Creatine plays a vital role in energy metabolism in muscle tissues. May play a role in embryonic and central nervous system development. May be involved in the response to heart failure by elevating local creatine synthesis.
Gene Name:
GATM
Uniprot ID:
P50440
Molecular weight:
48455.01
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Involved in the regulation of homocysteine metabolism. Converts betaine and homocysteine to dimethylglycine and methionine, respectively. This reaction is also required for the irreversible oxidation of choline.
Gene Name:
BHMT
Uniprot ID:
Q93088
Molecular weight:
44998.205
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SARDH
Uniprot ID:
Q9UL12
Molecular weight:
101035.985
General function:
Involved in carboxy-lyase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the biosynthesis of histamine from histidine.
Gene Name:
HDC
Uniprot ID:
P19113
Molecular weight:
74139.825
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ODC1
Uniprot ID:
P11926
Molecular weight:
51147.73
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Flavoenzyme which catalyzes the oxidation of spermine to spermidine. Can also use N(1)-acetylspermine and spermidine as substrates, with different affinity depending on the isoform (isozyme) and on the experimental conditions. Plays an important role in the regulation of polyamine intracellular concentration and has the potential to act as a determinant of cellular sensitivity to the antitumor polyamine analogs. May contribute to beta-alanine production via aldehyde dehydrogenase conversion of 3-amino-propanal.
Gene Name:
SMOX
Uniprot ID:
Q9NWM0
Molecular weight:
65006.29
Reactions
Spermine + Oxygen + Water → Spermidine + 3-Aminopropionaldehyde + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in agmatinase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AGMAT
Uniprot ID:
Q9BSE5
Molecular weight:
37660.065
General function:
Involved in oxidation reduction
Specific function:
Converts trimethyllysine (TML) into hydroxytrimethyllysine (HTML).
Gene Name:
TMLHE
Uniprot ID:
Q9NVH6
Molecular weight:
44048.895
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Involved in the regulation of homocysteine metabolism. Converts homocysteine to methionine using S-methylmethionine (SMM) as a methyl donor.
Gene Name:
BHMT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9H2M3
Molecular weight:
33166.69
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Decreases the sensitivity of PDP1 to magnesium ions, and this inhibition is reversed by the polyamine spermine
Gene Name:
PDPR
Uniprot ID:
Q8NCN5
Molecular weight:
99363.7
General function:
Involved in enzyme inhibitor activity
Specific function:
Binds to, and destabilizes, ornithine decarboxylase which is then degraded. Also inhibits cellular uptake of polyamines by inactivating the polyamine uptake transporter. SMAD1/OAZ1/PSMB4 complex mediates the degradation of the CREBBP/EP300 repressor SNIP1
Gene Name:
OAZ1
Uniprot ID:
P54368
Molecular weight:
25405.3
General function:
Involved in N-acetyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AILE3
Uniprot ID:
A2VED4
Molecular weight:
11464.0
General function:
Involved in leucine zipper domain binding
Specific function:
Part of the MIS12 complex which is required for normal chromosome alignment and segregation and kinetochore formation during mitosis. May act as a cotranscription partner of NFE2L2 involved in regulation of polyamine-induced transcription of SSAT
Gene Name:
PMF1
Uniprot ID:
Q6P1K2
Molecular weight:
23339.2

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET)
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular weight:
62154.5
References
  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. [10215651 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)- N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine, and metformin. The transport of organic cations is inhibited by a broad array of compounds like tetramethylammonium (TMA), cocaine, lidocaine, NMDA receptor antagonists, atropine, prazosin, cimetidine, TEA and NMN, guanidine, cimetidine, choline, procainamide, quinine, tetrabutylammonium, and tetrapentylammonium. Translocates organic cations in an electrogenic and pH-independent manner. Translocates organic cations across the plasma membrane in both directions. Transports the polyamines spermine and spermidine. Transports pramipexole across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. The choline transport is activated by MMTS. Regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways including inhibition by protein kinase A activation, and endogenously activation by the calmodulin complex, the calmodulin- dependent kinase II and LCK tyrosine kinase
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular weight:
61187.4
References
  1. Busch AE, Quester S, Ulzheimer JC, Waldegger S, Gorboulev V, Arndt P, Lang F, Koepsell H: Electrogenic properties and substrate specificity of the polyspecific rat cation transporter rOCT1. J Biol Chem. 1996 Dec 20;271(51):32599-604. [8955087 ]