You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2017-03-02 21:26:28 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDehydroascorbic acid
DescriptionDehydroascorbic acid is the oxidized form of vitamin C. Reduced Vitamin C concentrations in the brain exceed those in blood by 10 fold. Dehydroascorbic acid readily enters the brain and is retained in the brain tissue in the form of ascorbic acid (ascorbic acid is not able to cross the blood-brain barrier). Therefore, transport of dehydroascorbic acid by the Glucose Transporter 1 (GLUT1, Glucose transporters are integral membrane glycoproteins involved in transporting glucose into most cells. GLUT1 is a major glucose transporter in the mammalian blood-brain barrier. It is present at high levels in primate erythrocytes and brain endothelial cells.) is a mechanism by which the brain acquires vitamin C. (OMIM 138140 ).
1-Dehydroascorbic acidHMDB
dehydro-L-Ascorbic acidHMDB
L-Dehydroascorbic acidHMDB
L-threo-2,3-Hexodiulosonic acid gamma-lactoneHMDB
Oxidized ascorbateHMDB
Oxidized ascorbic acidHMDB
Oxidized vitamin CHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H6O6
Average Molecular Weight174.1082
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight174.016437924
IUPAC Name(5R)-5-[(1R)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]oxolane-2,3,4-trione
Traditional Name(5R)-5-[(1R)-1,2-dihydroxyethyl]oxolane-2,3,4-trione
CAS Registry Number490-83-5
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as gamma butyrolactones. These are compounds containing a gamma butyrolactone moiety, which consists of an aliphatic five-member ring with four carbon atoms, one oxygen atom, and bears a ketone group on the carbon adjacent to the oxygen atom.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
Sub ClassLactones
Direct ParentGamma butyrolactones
Alternative Parents
  • 3-furanone
  • Gamma butyrolactone
  • Oxolane
  • 1,2-diol
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Ketone
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Oxacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
StatusDetected and Quantified
  • Endogenous
  • Component of Tyrosine metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility190.0 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.56ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area100.9 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity33.55 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability14.02 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-4900000000-25a652482451303b3ca4View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Blood
  • Brain
  • Erythrocyte
  • Intestine
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
AlkaptonuriaSMP00169Not Available
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencySMP00170Not Available
Catecholamine BiosynthesisSMP00012map00350
Disulfiram PathwaySMP00429Not Available
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencySMP00498Not Available
HawkinsinuriaSMP00190Not Available
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)SMP00533Not Available
Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiencySMP00497Not Available
Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00006map00350
Tyrosinemia Type ISMP00218Not Available
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornSMP00494Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified2.32 +/- 0.78 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.36 +/- 0.11 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.72-7.47 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
UrineDetected and Quantified9.1 (5.8-7.1) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB021459
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID182283
KEGG Compound IDC00425
BiGG ID34945
Wikipedia LinkDehydroascorbic acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01264
Metagene LinkHMDB01264
PubChem Compound210328
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17242
Synthesis ReferenceUtsumi, Isamu; Harada, Kiyoshi; Miura, Hiroshi. Dehydroascorbic acid. Jpn. Tokkyo Koho (1972), 2 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Raghavan SA, Sharma P, Dikshit M: Role of ascorbic acid in the modulation of inhibition of platelet aggregation by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Thromb Res. 2003 May 1;110(2-3):117-26. [12893026 ]
  2. Kuo SM, Tan D, Boyer JC: Cellular vitamin C accumulation in the presence of copper. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2004 Aug;100(2):125-36. [15326362 ]
  3. Bakaev VV, Duntau AP: Ascorbic acid in blood serum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and pneumonia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2004 Feb;8(2):263-6. [15139458 ]
  4. Toivola DM, Isomaa B: Effects of dehydroabietic acid on the erythrocyte membrane. Chem Biol Interact. 1991;79(1):65-78. [2060038 ]
  5. Dhariwal KR, Hartzell WO, Levine M: Ascorbic acid and dehydroascorbic acid measurements in human plasma and serum. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Oct;54(4):712-6. [1897478 ]
  6. Trepanier LA, Yoder AR, Bajad S, Beckwith MD, Bellehumeur JL, Graziano FM: Plasma ascorbate deficiency is associated with impaired reduction of sulfamethoxazole-nitroso in HIV infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 Aug 15;36(5):1041-50. [15247557 ]
  7. Mendiratta S, Qu ZC, May JM: Erythrocyte ascorbate recycling: antioxidant effects in blood. Free Radic Biol Med. 1998 Mar 15;24(5):789-97. [9586809 ]
  8. Padilla CA, Spyrou G, Holmgren A: High-level expression of fully active human glutaredoxin (thioltransferase) in E. coli and characterization of Cys7 to Ser mutant protein. FEBS Lett. 1996 Jan 2;378(1):69-73. [8549805 ]
  9. Shugalei IuS, Degtiar VV, Butvin IN, Grivenko GP: [Effect of alcohol intoxication on ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid levels in rat tissue. and human blood] Ukr Biokhim Zh. 1986 May-Jun;58(3):81-3. [3727042 ]
  10. Bakaev VV, Efremov AV, Tityaev II: Low levels of dehydroascorbic acid in uraemic serum and the partial correction of dehydroascorbic acid deficiency by haemodialysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1999 Jun;14(6):1472-4. [10383010 ]
  11. Margolis SA, Ziegler RG, Helzlsouer KJ: Ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid measurement in human serum and plasma. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Dec;54(6 Suppl):1315S-1318S. [1962589 ]
  12. Davis JL Jr, Mendiratta S, May JM: Similarities in the metabolism of alloxan and dehydroascorbate in human erythrocytes. Biochem Pharmacol. 1998 Apr 15;55(8):1301-7. [9719486 ]
  13. Wells WW, Xu DP, Yang YF, Rocque PA: Mammalian thioltransferase (glutaredoxin) and protein disulfide isomerase have dehydroascorbate reductase activity. J Biol Chem. 1990 Sep 15;265(26):15361-4. [2394726 ]
  14. Dubey SS, Palodhi GR, Jain AK: Ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid and glutathione in liver disease. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1987 Oct-Dec;31(4):279-83. [3450633 ]
  15. May JM, Qu ZC, Whitesell RR, Cobb CE: Ascorbate recycling in human erythrocytes: role of GSH in reducing dehydroascorbate. Free Radic Biol Med. 1996;20(4):543-51. [8904295 ]


General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes 2 sequential steps in C-terminal alpha-amidation of peptides. The monooxygenase part produces an unstable peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) intermediate that is dismutated to glyoxylate and the corresponding desglycine peptide amide by the lyase part. C-terminal amidation of peptides such as neuropeptides is essential for full biological activity.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Peptidylglycine + Ascorbic acid + Oxygen → peptidyl(2-hydroxyglycine) + Dehydroascorbic acid + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Conversion of dopamine to noradrenaline.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Dopamine + Ascorbic acid + Oxygen → xi-Norepinephrine + Dehydroascorbic acid + Waterdetails
Dopamine + Ascorbic acid + Oxygen → Norepinephrine + Dehydroascorbic acid + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits glutathione-dependent thiol transferase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities. Has S-(phenacyl)glutathione reductase activity. Has also glutathione S-transferase activity. Participates in the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic and reduces monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsonic acid.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Glutathione + Dehydroascorbic acid → Oxidized glutathione + Ascorbic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits glutathione-dependent thiol transferase activity. Has high dehydroascorbate reductase activity and may contribute to the recycling of ascorbic acid. Participates in the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic and reduces monomethylarsonic acid (MMA).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Glutathione + Dehydroascorbic acid → Oxidized glutathione + Ascorbic aciddetails