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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:10:13 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01273
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGuanosine triphosphate
DescriptionGuanosine triphosphate (GTP) is a guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. GTP functions as a carrier of phosphates and pyrophosphates involved in channeling chemical energy into specific biosynthetic pathways. GTP activates the signal transducing G proteins which are involved in various cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and activation of several intracellular kinase cascades. Proliferation and apoptosis are regulated in part by the hydrolysis of GTP by small GTPases Ras and Rho. Another type of small GTPase, Rab, plays a role in the docking and fusion of vesicles and may also be involved in vesicle formation. In addition to its role in signal transduction, GTP also serves as an energy-rich precursor of mononucleotide units in the enzymatic biosynthesis of DNA and RNA.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 5'-GTP
  2. GTG
  3. GTP
  4. Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate)
  5. Guanosine 5'-triphosphate
  6. Guanosine 5'-triphosphorate
  7. Guanosine 5'-triphosphoric acid
  8. Guanosine mono(tetrahydrogen triphosphate) (ester)
  9. Guanosine Triphosphate
  10. H4gtp
Chemical FormulaC10H16N5O14P3
Average Molecular Weight523.1804
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight522.990659781
IUPAC Name({[({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(2-amino-6-oxo-6,9-dihydro-1H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)phosphonic acid
Traditional Name({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(2-amino-6-oxo-1H-purin-9-yl)-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxyphosphonic acid
CAS Registry Number86-01-1
SMILES
NC1=NC2=C(N=CN2[C@@H]2O[C@H](COP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OP(O)(O)=O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]2O)C(=O)N1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H16N5O14P3/c11-10-13-7-4(8(18)14-10)12-2-15(7)9-6(17)5(16)3(27-9)1-26-31(22,23)29-32(24,25)28-30(19,20)21/h2-3,5-6,9,16-17H,1H2,(H,22,23)(H,24,25)(H2,19,20,21)(H3,11,13,14,18)/t3-,5-,6-,9-/m1/s1
InChI KeyXKMLYUALXHKNFT-UUOKFMHZSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, Nucleotides, and Analogues
ClassPurine Nucleotides
Sub ClassPurine Ribonucleotides
Other Descriptors
  • Aromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
  • Ribonucleotides(KEGG)
  • guanosine 5'-phosphate(ChEBI)
  • purine ribonucleoside 5'-triphosphate(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 1,2 Diol
  • 1 Phosphoribosyl Imidazole
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Glycosyl Compound
  • Hypoxanthine
  • Imidazole
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Monosaccharide Phosphate
  • N Glycosyl Compound
  • Organic Hypophosphite
  • Organic Phosphite
  • Organic Pyrophosphate
  • Oxolane
  • Pentose Monosaccharide
  • Phosphoric Acid Ester
  • Purine
  • Purinone
  • Pyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Saccharide
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct ParentPurine Ribonucleoside Triphosphates
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Folate biosynthesis
  • Component of Pyruvate metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility10.4ALOGPS
logP-0.63ALOGPS
logP-3.6ChemAxon
logS-1.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.8ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)1.57ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count14ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count8ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area294.81 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity97.24 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability39.81 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraMS/MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
Tissue Location
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Citric Acid CycleSMP00057map00020
DNA Replication ForkSMP00477Not Available
GluconeogenesisSMP00128map00010
Pterine BiosynthesisSMP00005map00790
Purine MetabolismSMP00050map00230
Transcription/TranslationSMP00019Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified56.0 +/- 7.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.83 +/- 0.032 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.59 +/- 1.42 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothRachialgia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.80 +/- 1.80 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSubarachnoid hemorrhage details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified2.08 +/- 1.91 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothEpilepsy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.30 +/- 1.23 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Stroke
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.92 +/- 1.53 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNeuroinfection details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Subarachnoid hemorrhage
  1. Czarnecka J, Cieslak M, Michal K: Application of solid phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography to qualitative and quantitative analysis of nucleotides and nucleosides in human cerebrospinal fluid. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005 Aug 5;822(1-2):85-90. Pubmed: 15993662
Epilepsy
  1. Czarnecka J, Cieslak M, Michal K: Application of solid phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography to qualitative and quantitative analysis of nucleotides and nucleosides in human cerebrospinal fluid. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005 Aug 5;822(1-2):85-90. Pubmed: 15993662
Neuroinfection
  1. Czarnecka J, Cieslak M, Michal K: Application of solid phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography to qualitative and quantitative analysis of nucleotides and nucleosides in human cerebrospinal fluid. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005 Aug 5;822(1-2):85-90. Pubmed: 15993662
Rachialgia
  1. Czarnecka J, Cieslak M, Michal K: Application of solid phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography to qualitative and quantitative analysis of nucleotides and nucleosides in human cerebrospinal fluid. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005 Aug 5;822(1-2):85-90. Pubmed: 15993662
Stroke
  1. Czarnecka J, Cieslak M, Michal K: Application of solid phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography to qualitative and quantitative analysis of nucleotides and nucleosides in human cerebrospinal fluid. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005 Aug 5;822(1-2):85-90. Pubmed: 15993662
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022527
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID6569
KEGG Compound IDC00044
BioCyc IDGTP
BiGG ID33641
Wikipedia LinkGuanosine triphosphate
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01273
Metagene LinkHMDB01273
METLIN ID6128
PubChem Compound6830
PDB IDGTP
ChEBI ID15996
References
Synthesis ReferenceStiller, Regine; Thiem, Joachim. Preparative enzymatic conversion of guanosine-5'-monophosphate to guanosine-5'-triphosphate. Synlett (1990), (11), 709-10.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Chantin C, Bonin B, Boulieu R, Bory C: Liquid-chromatographic study of purine metabolism abnormalities in purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency. Clin Chem. 1996 Feb;42(2):326-8. Pubmed: 8595732
  2. Naylor EW, Ennis D, Davidson AG, Wong LT, Applegarth DA, Niederwieser A: Guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase I deficiency: early diagnosis by routine urine pteridine screening. Pediatrics. 1987 Mar;79(3):374-8. Pubmed: 3822637
  3. Iwanaga N, Yamamasu S, Tachibana D, Nishio J, Nakai Y, Shintaku H, Ishiko O: Activity of synthetic enzymes of tetrahydrobiopterin in the human placenta. Int J Mol Med. 2004 Jan;13(1):117-20. Pubmed: 14654981
  4. Lester HA, Steer ML, Levitzki A: Prostaglandin-stimulated GTP hydrolysis associated with activation of adenylate cyclase in human platelet membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1982 Feb;79(3):719-23. Pubmed: 6121325
  5. Reichert LE Jr, Dattatreyamurty B: The follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) receptor in testis: interaction with FSH, mechanism of signal transduction, and properties of the purified receptor. Biol Reprod. 1989 Jan;40(1):13-26. Pubmed: 2493820
  6. Schmidt VA, Scudder L, Devoe CE, Bernards A, Cupit LD, Bahou WF: IQGAP2 functions as a GTP-dependent effector protein in thrombin-induced platelet cytoskeletal reorganization. Blood. 2003 Apr 15;101(8):3021-8. Epub 2002 Dec 19. Pubmed: 12515716
  7. Chen Q, He Y, Yang K: Gene therapy for Parkinson's disease: progress and challenges. Curr Gene Ther. 2005 Feb;5(1):71-80. Pubmed: 15638712

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 569 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Implicated as a critical step in numerous cellular pathways, including signal transduction, membrane trafficking, and the regulation of mitosis. May be involved in the regulation of perinuclear intravesicular membrane traffic (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PLD1
Uniprot ID:
Q13393
Molecular weight:
124183.135
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
In the nervous system, could hydrolyze ATP and other nucleotides to regulate purinergic neurotransmission. Could also be implicated in the prevention of platelet aggregation by hydrolyzing platelet-activating ADP to AMP. Hydrolyzes ATP and ADP equally well.
Gene Name:
ENTPD1
Uniprot ID:
P49961
Molecular weight:
58706.0
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Water → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Calcium-dependent nucleotidase with a preference for UDP. The order of activity with different substrates is UDP > GDP > UTP > GTP. Has very low activity towards ADP and even lower activity towards ATP. Does not hydrolyze AMP and GMP. Involved in proteoglycan synthesis.
Gene Name:
CANT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8WVQ1
Molecular weight:
44839.24
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Has a threefold preference for the hydrolysis of ATP over ADP.
Gene Name:
ENTPD3
Uniprot ID:
O75355
Molecular weight:
59104.76
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Water → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Phosphorylates uridine and cytidine to uridine monophosphate and cytidine monophosphate. Does not phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides or purine ribonucleosides. Can use ATP or GTP as a phosphate donor. Can also phosphorylate cytidine and uridine nucleoside analogs such as 6-azauridine, 5-fluorouridine, 4-thiouridine, 5-bromouridine, N(4)-acetylcytidine, N(4)-benzoylcytidine, 5-fluorocytidine, 2-thiocytidine, 5-methylcytidine, and N(4)-anisoylcytidine.
Gene Name:
UCK1
Uniprot ID:
Q9HA47
Molecular weight:
22760.43
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Cytidine → Guanosine diphosphate + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
Guanosine triphosphate + Uridine → Guanosine diphosphate + Uridine 5'-monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NME4
Uniprot ID:
O00746
Molecular weight:
20658.45
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Guanosine diphosphate → ADP + Guanosine triphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. Possesses nucleoside-diphosphate kinase, serine/threonine-specific protein kinase, geranyl and farnesyl pyrophosphate kinase, histidine protein kinase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities. Involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and development, signal transduction, G protein-coupled receptor endocytosis, and gene expression. Required for neural development including neural patterning and cell fate determination.
Gene Name:
NME1
Uniprot ID:
P15531
Molecular weight:
17148.635
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Guanosine diphosphate → ADP + Guanosine triphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-site intermediate.
Gene Name:
NME7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5B8
Molecular weight:
42491.365
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Guanosine diphosphate → ADP + Guanosine triphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. Negatively regulates Rho activity by interacting with AKAP13/LBC. Acts as a transcriptional activator of the MYC gene; binds DNA non-specifically (PubMed:8392752). Exhibits histidine protein kinase activity.
Gene Name:
NME2
Uniprot ID:
P22392
Molecular weight:
30136.92
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Guanosine diphosphate → ADP + Guanosine triphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-site intermediate. Probably has a role in normal hematopoiesis by inhibition of granulocyte differentiation and induction of apoptosis.
Gene Name:
NME3
Uniprot ID:
Q13232
Molecular weight:
19014.85
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Guanosine diphosphate → ADP + Guanosine triphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-site intermediate. Inhibitor of p53-induced apoptosis.
Gene Name:
NME6
Uniprot ID:
O75414
Molecular weight:
22002.965
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Guanosine diphosphate → ADP + Guanosine triphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Involved primarily in ATP hydrolysis at the plasma membrane. Plays a role in regulating pyrophosphate levels, and functions in bone mineralization and soft tissue calcification. In vitro, has a broad specificity, hydrolyzing other nucleoside 5' triphosphates such as GTP, CTP, TTP and UTP to their corresponding monophosphates with release of pyrophosphate and diadenosine polyphosphates, and also 3',5'-cAMP to AMP. May also be involved in the regulation of the availability of nucleotide sugars in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, and the regulation of purinergic signaling. Appears to modulate insulin sensitivity.
Gene Name:
ENPP1
Uniprot ID:
P22413
Molecular weight:
104923.58
General function:
Involved in fucose-1-phosphate guanylyltransferase acti
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of GDP-L-fucose from GTP and L-fucose-1-phosphate. Functions as a salvage pathway to reutilize L-fucose arising from the turnover of glycoproteins and glycolipids.
Gene Name:
FPGT
Uniprot ID:
O14772
Molecular weight:
37630.405
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Fucose 1-phosphate → Pyrophosphate + GDP-L-fucosedetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes the non-canonical purine nucleotides inosine triphosphate (ITP), deoxyinosine triphosphate (dITP) as well as 2'-deoxy-N-6-hydroxylaminopurine triposphate (dHAPTP) and xanthosine 5'-triphosphate (XTP) to their respective monophosphate derivatives. The enzyme does not distinguish between the deoxy- and ribose forms. Probably excludes non-canonical purines from RNA and DNA precursor pools, thus preventing their incorporation into RNA and DNA and avoiding chromosomal lesions.
Gene Name:
ITPA
Uniprot ID:
Q9BY32
Molecular weight:
16833.23
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Water → Guanosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Involved in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides which are not only essential for DNA and RNA synthesis, but also provide GTP, which is involved in a number of cellular processes important for cell division.
Gene Name:
GMPS
Uniprot ID:
P49915
Molecular weight:
76714.79
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Asymmetrically hydrolyzes Ap4A to yield AMP and ATP. Plays a major role in maintaining homeostasis.
Gene Name:
NUDT2
Uniprot ID:
P50583
Molecular weight:
16829.09
Reactions
P(1),P(4)-bis(5'-guanosyl) tetraphosphate + Water → Guanosine triphosphate + Guanosine monophosphatedetails
Diguanosine tetraphosphate + Water → Guanosine triphosphate + Guanosine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Active on AMP and dAMP with ATP as a donor. When GTP is used as phosphate donor, the enzyme phosphorylates AMP, CMP, and to a small extent dCMP.
Gene Name:
AK5
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y6K8
Molecular weight:
60313.985
General function:
Involved in CTP synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as the source of nitrogen.
Gene Name:
CTPS1
Uniprot ID:
P17812
Molecular weight:
66689.9
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
May be involved in learning and memory reactions by increasing the turnover of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GLUD1
Uniprot ID:
P00367
Molecular weight:
61397.315
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calcium-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADCY7
Uniprot ID:
P51828
Molecular weight:
120307.175
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate → Cyclic GMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calmodulin-insensitive adenylyl cyclase (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADCY4
Uniprot ID:
Q8NFM4
Molecular weight:
119792.94
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate → Cyclic GMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
Membrane-bound, calcium-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADCY6
Uniprot ID:
O43306
Molecular weight:
130614.095
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate → Cyclic GMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calcium-inhibitable adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADCY5
Uniprot ID:
O95622
Molecular weight:
102605.37
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate → Cyclic GMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calcium-stimulable adenylyl cyclase. May be involved in learning, in memory and in drug dependence (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADCY8
Uniprot ID:
P40145
Molecular weight:
140120.79
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate → Cyclic GMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
May play a fundamental role in situations where fine interplay between intracellular calcium and cAMP determines the cellular function. May be a physiologically relevant docking site for calcineurin (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADCY9
Uniprot ID:
O60503
Molecular weight:
150699.36
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate → Cyclic GMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
Mediates odorant detection (possibly) via modulation of intracellular cAMP concentration.
Gene Name:
ADCY3
Uniprot ID:
O60266
Molecular weight:
128958.905
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate → Cyclic GMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a calmodulin-sensitive adenylyl cyclase. May be involved in regulatory processes in the central nervous system. It may play a role in memory acquisition and learning.
Gene Name:
ADCY1
Uniprot ID:
Q08828
Molecular weight:
123438.85
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate → Cyclic GMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Specific peripheric component of RNA polymerase III which synthesizes small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs. Plays a key role in sensing and limiting infection by intracellular bacteria and DNA viruses. Acts as nuclear and cytosolic DNA sensor involved in innate immune response. Can sense non-self dsDNA that serves as template for transcription into dsRNA. The non-self RNA polymerase III transcripts, such as Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs (EBERs) induce type I interferon and NF- Kappa-B through the RIG-I pathway (By similarity).
Gene Name:
POLR3D
Uniprot ID:
P05423
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + RNA → Pyrophosphate + RNAdetails
General function:
Involved in DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity
Specific function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Second largest component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Proposed to contribute to the polymerase catalytic activity and forms the polymerase active center together with the largest subunit. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. RPB2 is part of the core element with the central large cleft, the clamp element that moves to open and close the cleft and the jaws that are thought to grab the incoming DNA template (By similarity).
Gene Name:
POLR2B
Uniprot ID:
P30876
Molecular weight:
133895.435
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + RNA → Pyrophosphate + RNAdetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Largest and catalytic component of RNA polymerase II which synthesizes mRNA precursors and many functional non-coding RNAs. Forms the polymerase active center together with the second largest subunit. Pol II is the central component of the basal RNA polymerase II transcription machinery. It is composed of mobile elements that move relative to each other. RPB1 is part of the core element with the central large cleft, the clamp element that moves to open and close the cleft and the jaws that are thought to grab the incoming DNA template. At the start of transcription, a single stranded DNA template strand of the promoter is positioned within the central active site cleft of Pol II. A bridging helix emanates from RPB1 and crosses the cleft near the catalytic site and is thought to promote translocation of Pol II by acting as a ratchet that moves the RNA-DNA hybrid through the active site by switching from straight to bent conformations at each step of nucleotide addition. During transcription elongation, Pol II moves on the template as the transcript elongates. Elongation is influenced by the phosphorylation status of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of Pol II largest subunit (RPB1), which serves as a platform for assembly of factors that regulate transcription initiation, elongation, termination and mRNA processing. Acts as a RNA-dependent RNA polymerase when associated with small delta antigen of Hepatitis delta virus, acting both as a replicate and transcriptase for the viral RNA circular genome.
Gene Name:
POLR2A
Uniprot ID:
P24928
Molecular weight:
217204.265
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + RNA → Pyrophosphate + RNAdetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of mitochondrial DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates.
Gene Name:
POLRMT
Uniprot ID:
O00411
Molecular weight:
138619.335
General function:
Involved in DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity
Specific function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Second largest core component of RNA polymerase I which synthesizes ribosomal RNA precursors. Proposed to contribute to the polymerase catalytic activity and forms the polymerase active center together with the largest subunit. Pol I is composed of mobile elements and RPA2 is part of the core element with the central large cleft and probably a clamp element that moves to open and close the cleft (By similarity).
Gene Name:
POLR1B
Uniprot ID:
Q9H9Y6
Molecular weight:
121987.24
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + RNA → Pyrophosphate + RNAdetails
General function:
Involved in DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity
Specific function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Specific peripheric component of RNA polymerase III which synthesizes small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs. May direct with other members of the RPC3/POLR3C-RPC6/POLR3F-RPC7/POLR3G subcomplex RNA Pol III binding to the TFIIIB-DNA complex via the interactions between TFIIIB and POLR3F. May be involved either in the recruitment and stabilization of the subcomplex within RNA polymerase III, or in stimulating catalytic functions of other subunits during initiation. Plays a key role in sensing and limiting infection by intracellular bacteria and DNA viruses. Acts as nuclear and cytosolic DNA sensor involved in innate immune response. Can sense non-self dsDNA that serves as template for transcription into dsRNA. The non-self RNA polymerase III transcripts, such as Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs (EBERs) induce type I interferon and NF- Kappa-B through the RIG-I pathway.
Gene Name:
POLR3G
Uniprot ID:
O15318
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + RNA → Pyrophosphate + RNAdetails
General function:
Involved in DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity
Specific function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Second largest core component of RNA polymerase III which synthesizes small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs. Proposed to contribute to the polymerase catalytic activity and forms the polymerase active center together with the largest subunit. Pol III is composed of mobile elements and RPC2 is part of the core element with the central large cleft and probably a clamp element that moves to open and close the cleft (By similarity). Plays a key role in sensing and limiting infection by intracellular bacteria and DNA viruses. Acts as nuclear and cytosolic DNA sensor involved in innate immune response. Can sense non-self dsDNA that serves as template for transcription into dsRNA. The non-self RNA polymerase III transcripts, such as Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs (EBERs) induce type I interferon and NF- Kappa-B through the RIG-I pathway.
Gene Name:
POLR3B
Uniprot ID:
Q9NW08
Molecular weight:
121119.23
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + RNA → Pyrophosphate + RNAdetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Component of RNA polymerase I which synthesizes ribosomal RNA precursors. Appears to be involved in the formation of the initiation complex at the promoter by mediating the interaction between Pol I and UBTF/UBF (By similarity).
Gene Name:
POLR1E
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZS1
Molecular weight:
47259.7
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + RNA → Pyrophosphate + RNAdetails
General function:
Involved in DNA-directed RNA polymerase activity
Specific function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Specific peripheric component of RNA polymerase III which synthesizes small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs. Plays a key role in sensing and limiting infection by intracellular bacteria and DNA viruses. Acts as nuclear and cytosolic DNA sensor involved in innate immune response. Can sense non-self dsDNA that serves as template for transcription into dsRNA. The non-self RNA polymerase III transcripts, such as Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs (EBERs) induce type I interferon and NF- Kappa-B through the RIG-I pathway (By similarity).
Gene Name:
POLR3H
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y535
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + RNA → Pyrophosphate + RNAdetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
DNA-dependent RNA polymerase catalyzes the transcription of DNA into RNA using the four ribonucleoside triphosphates as substrates. Component of RNA polymerase III which synthesizes small RNAs, such as 5S rRNA and tRNAs. Plays a key role in sensing and limiting infection by intracellular bacteria and DNA viruses. Acts as nuclear and cytosolic DNA sensor involved in innate immune response. Can sense non-self dsDNA that serves as template for transcription into dsRNA. The non-self RNA polymerase III transcripts, such as Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs (EBERs) induce type I interferon and NF- Kappa-B through the RIG-I pathway (By similarity).
Gene Name:
POLR3K
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2Y1
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + RNA → Pyrophosphate + RNAdetails
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP, generating ATP. Stimulates POU5F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Plays a general role in caspase independent cell death of tumor cells. The ratio betwween the highly active tetrameric form and nearly inactive dimeric form determines whether glucose carbons are channeled to biosynthetic processes or used for glycolytic ATP production. The transition between the 2 forms contributes to the control of glycolysis and is important for tumor cell proliferation and survival.
Gene Name:
PKM
Uniprot ID:
P14618
Molecular weight:
65930.14
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoenolpyruvic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Plays a key role in glycolysis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PKLR
Uniprot ID:
P30613
Molecular weight:
61829.575
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoenolpyruvic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes preferentially nucleoside 5'-diphosphates, nucleoside 5'-triphosphates are hydrolyzed only to a minor extent. The order of activity with different substrates is UDP >> GDP = CDP = TDP, AMP, ADP, ATP and UMP are not substrates. Preferred substrates for isoform 2 are CTP, UDP, CDP, GTP and GDP, while isoform 1 utilizes UTP and TTP.
Gene Name:
ENTPD4
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y227
Molecular weight:
69419.915
General function:
Involved in adenylosuccinate synthase activity
Specific function:
Plays an important role in the de novo pathway and in the salvage pathway of purine nucleotide biosynthesis. Catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of AMP from IMP.
Gene Name:
ADSS
Uniprot ID:
P30520
Molecular weight:
50097.075
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + Adenylsuccinic aciddetails
Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + N(6)-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)AMPdetails
General function:
Involved in adenylosuccinate synthase activity
Specific function:
Component of the purine nucleotide cycle (PNC), which interconverts IMP and AMP to regulate the nucleotide levels in various tissues, and which contributes to glycolysis and ammoniagenesis. Catalyzes the first committed step in the biosynthesis of AMP from IMP (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ADSSL1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N142
Molecular weight:
50208.16
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + Adenylsuccinic aciddetails
Guanosine triphosphate + Inosinic acid + L-Aspartic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + N(6)-(1,2-dicarboxyethyl)AMPdetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP- or GTP-dependent ligation of succinate and CoA to form succinyl-CoA. The nature of the beta subunit determines the nucleotide specificity (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SUCLG1
Uniprot ID:
P53597
Molecular weight:
36249.505
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Succinic acid + Coenzyme A → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + Succinyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the rate-limiting step in the metabolic pathway that produces glucose from lactate and other precursors derived from the citric acid cycle (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PCK2
Uniprot ID:
Q16822
Molecular weight:
47563.34
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Oxalacetic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid + CO(2)details
Guanosine triphosphate + Oxalacetic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the GTP-dependent ligation of succinate and CoA to form succinyl-CoA (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SUCLG2
Uniprot ID:
Q96I99
Molecular weight:
47731.605
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Succinic acid + Coenzyme A → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + Succinyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of oxaloacetate (OAA) to phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), the rate-limiting step in the metabolic pathway that produces glucose from lactate and other precursors derived from the citric acid cycle.
Gene Name:
PCK1
Uniprot ID:
P35558
Molecular weight:
69193.975
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Oxalacetic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid + CO(2)details
Guanosine triphosphate + Oxalacetic acid → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoenolpyruvic acid + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
This is a membrane-bound, calmodulin-insensitive adenylyl cyclase.
Gene Name:
ADCY2
Uniprot ID:
Q08462
Molecular weight:
123602.25
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate → Cyclic GMP + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in GTP cyclohydrolase I activity
Specific function:
Positively regulates nitric oxide synthesis in umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). May be involved in dopamine synthesis. May modify pain sensitivity and persistence. Isoform GCH-1 is the functional enzyme, the potential function of the enzymatically inactive isoforms remains unknown.
Gene Name:
GCH1
Uniprot ID:
P30793
Molecular weight:
27902.855
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Water → Formic acid + 2-amino-4-hydroxy-6-(erythro-1,2,3-trihydroxypropyl)-dihydropteridine triphosphatedetails
Guanosine triphosphate + Water → Formamidopyrimidine nucleoside triphosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent ligation of succinate and CoA to form succinyl-CoA (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SUCLA2
Uniprot ID:
Q9P2R7
Molecular weight:
50316.88
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate + Succinic acid + Coenzyme A → Guanosine diphosphate + Phosphoric acid + Succinyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
Receptor for the C-type natriuretic peptide NPPC/CNP hormone. Has guanylate cyclase activity upon binding of its ligand. May play a role in the regulation of skeletal growth.
Gene Name:
NPR2
Uniprot ID:
P20594
Molecular weight:
117020.97
Reactions
Guanosine triphosphate → Cyclic GMP + Pyrophosphatedetails

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 569 proteins in total.