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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-16 13:00:23 UTC
Update Date2014-11-03 20:09:40 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01303
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameZinc (II) ion
DescriptionZinc is an essential element, necessary for sustaining all life.Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. It is estimated that 3000 of the hundreds of thousands of proteins in the human body contain zinc prosthetic groups. In addition, there are over a dozen types of cells in the human body that secrete zinc ions, and the roles of these secreted zinc signals in medicine and health are now being actively studied. Intriguingly, brain cells in the mammalian forebrain are one type of cell that secretes zinc, along with its other neuronal messenger substances. Cells in the salivary gland, prostate, immune system and intestine are other types that secrete zinc. Obtaining a sufficient zinc intake during pregnancy and in young children is a problem, especially among those who cannot afford a good and varied diet. Brain development is stunted by zinc deficiency in utero and in youth. Zinc is an activator of certain enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase. Carbonic anhydrase is important in the transport of carbon dioxide in vertebrate blood. Even though zinc is an essential requirement for a healthy body, too much zinc can be harmful. Excessive absorption of zinc can also suppress copper and iron absorption. The free zinc ion in solution is highly toxic to plants, invertebrates, and even vertebrate fish. The Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM) is well-established in the literature, and shows that just micromolar amounts of the free ion kills some organisms.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Zinc
  2. Zinc ion
Chemical FormulaZn
Average Molecular Weight65.409
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight63.929146578
IUPAC Namezinc(2+) ion
Traditional Namezinc, ion (zn2+)
CAS Registry Number7440-66-6
SMILES
[Zn++]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/Zn/q+2
InChI KeyPTFCDOFLOPIGGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Metal Compounds
ClassHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • a cation(Cyc)
  • divalent metal cation(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic dication(ChEBI)
  • zinc cation(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Anti-oxidant
  • Essential minerals
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point419.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.16ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Erythrocyte
  • Liver
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified12.7 +/- 2.1 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.08838(0.08087-0.09589) uMNot AvailableBothNormal
    • Report on Human B...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.10340(0.09964-0.10731) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Report on Human B...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified13.5 +/- 2.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified16.8 +/- 6.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified13.6 +/- 2.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified14.2 (11.1 - 17.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified13.0 (10.0 - 17.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified14.0 +/- 2.20 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified16.7 +/- 3.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified3.1 +/- 3.1 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.538 +/- 0.847 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.49 (0.37-0.60) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.742 +/- 0.58 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Dame, ZT. et al. ...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.206 +/- 0.187 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.162 +/- 0.225 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.176 +/- 0.0703 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.232 +/- 0.252 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.80291(0.67027-0.94439) umol/mmol creatinineNot AvailableBothNormal
    • Report on Human B...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.66850(0.48281-0.88426) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Report on Human B...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.460 (0.058-0.948) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.52 +/- 0.25 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.35 +/- 0.20 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified10.7 +/- 1.8 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified12.0 +/- 1.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothChronic renal failure details
BloodDetected and Quantified12.4 +/- 2.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothContinuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) details
BloodDetected and Quantified11.0 +/- 2.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHemodialysis details
BloodDetected and Quantified11.22 +/- 1.96 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParkinson's disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified93.8 +/- 23.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMultiple sclerosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified8.0 +/- 0.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Kidney disease
details
BloodDetected and Quantified14.9 +/- 5.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHypertension details
BloodDetected and Quantified138.5 (77.00-200.00) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothHyperzincaemia and Hypercalprotectinaemia details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.6 +/- 1.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.83 +/- 1.38 uMElderly (>65 years old)Not SpecifiedAlzheimer's disease details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Molina JA, Jimenez-Jimenez FJ, Aguilar MV, Meseguer I, Mateos-Vega CJ, Gonzalez-Munoz MJ, de Bustos F, Porta J, Orti-Pareja M, Zurdo M, Barrios E, Martinez-Para MC: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of transition metals in patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Neural Transm. 1998;105(4-5):479-88. Pubmed: 9720975
  2. Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. Pubmed: 16244393
Chronic renal failure
  1. McGregor DO, Dellow WJ, Lever M, George PM, Robson RA, Chambers ST: Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. Kidney Int. 2001 Jun;59(6):2267-72. Pubmed: 11380830
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
  1. McGregor DO, Dellow WJ, Lever M, George PM, Robson RA, Chambers ST: Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. Kidney Int. 2001 Jun;59(6):2267-72. Pubmed: 11380830
Hemodialysis
  1. McGregor DO, Dellow WJ, Lever M, George PM, Robson RA, Chambers ST: Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. Kidney Int. 2001 Jun;59(6):2267-72. Pubmed: 11380830
Hypertension
  1. Wang S, Ma A, Song S, Quan Q, Zhao X, Zheng X: Fasting serum free fatty acid composition, waist/hip ratio and insulin activity in essential hypertensive patients. Hypertens Res. 2008 Apr;31(4):623-32. Pubmed: 18633173
Kidney disease
  1. Paniagua R, Claure R, Amato D, Flores E, Perez A, Exaire E: Effects of oral administration of zinc and diiodohydroxyquinolein on plasma zinc levels of uremic patients. Nephron. 1995;69(2):147-50. Pubmed: 7723896
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. Pubmed: 16244395
Parkinson's disease
  1. Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. Pubmed: 16244392
Hyperzincaemia and hypercalprotectinaemia
  1. MetaGene
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB01593
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003729
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID29723
KEGG Compound IDC00038
BioCyc IDZN%2b2
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkZinc
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01303
Metagene LinkHMDB01303
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound32051
PDB IDZN
ChEBI ID29105
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Rakicioglu N, Samur G, Topcu A, Topcu AA: The effect of Ramadan on maternal nutrition and composition of breast milk. Pediatr Int. 2006 Jun;48(3):278-83. Pubmed: 16732795
  2. Cominetti C, Garrido AB Jr, Cozzolino SM: Zinc nutritional status of morbidly obese patients before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a preliminary report. Obes Surg. 2006 Apr;16(4):448-53. Pubmed: 16608609
  3. Religa D, Strozyk D, Cherny RA, Volitakis I, Haroutunian V, Winblad B, Naslund J, Bush AI: Elevated cortical zinc in Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2006 Jul 11;67(1):69-75. Pubmed: 16832080
  4. Batista MN, Cuppari L, de Fatima Campos Pedrosa L, Almeida MG, de Almeida JB, de Medeiros AC, Canziani ME: Effect of end-stage renal disease and diabetes on zinc and copper status. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006 Jul;112(1):1-12. Pubmed: 16943612
  5. Scheplyagina LA: Impact of the mother's zinc deficiency on the woman's and newborn's health status. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2005;19(1):29-35. Pubmed: 16240669
  6. Mocchegiani E, Costarelli L, Giacconi R, Cipriano C, Muti E, Rink L, Malavolta M: Zinc homeostasis in aging: two elusive faces of the same "metal". Rejuvenation Res. 2006 Summer;9(2):351-4. Pubmed: 16706668
  7. de Sena KC, Arrais RF, das Gracas Almeida M, de Araujo DM, dos Santos MM, de Lima VT, de Fatima Campos Pedrosa L: Effects of zinc supplementation in patients with type 1 diabetes. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005 Summer;105(1-3):1-9. Pubmed: 16034148
  8. Tsuruoka S, Wakaumi M, Ioka T, Yamamoto H, Ando H, Sugimoto K, Fujimura A: Angiotensin II receptor blocker-induces blunted taste sensitivity: comparison of candesartan and valsartan. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Aug;60(2):204-7. Pubmed: 16042674
  9. Arnold LE, DiSilvestro RA: Zinc in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005 Aug;15(4):619-27. Pubmed: 16190793
  10. An WL, Pei JJ, Nishimura T, Winblad B, Cowburn RF: Zinc-induced anti-apoptotic effects in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005 Apr 27;135(1-2):40-7. Epub 2005 Jan 8. Pubmed: 15857667
  11. Shea-Budgell M, Dojka M, Nimmo M, Lee D, Xu Z: Marginal zinc deficiency increased the susceptibility to acute lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006 May;231(5):553-8. Pubmed: 16636303
  12. Cutinha D, Vaja S, Treacher D, Swaminathan R: Erythrocyte zinc content in critically ill patients. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(9):930-3. Pubmed: 16176172
  13. Santarelli L, Di Lorenzo L, Valentino M, Bracci M, Rapisarda V, Cassano F, Elia G, Martino MG, Neri G, Apostoli P, Soleo L: [Reduced thymulin production during occupational exposure to lead] G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2005 Jan-Mar;27 Suppl 1:68-72. Pubmed: 15915658
  14. Kaczmarek A, Robak-Cholubek D, Sowa I, Jakiel G: Comparison of the levels of copper, zinc and iron in cervical mucus and in blood serum of women of childbearing age. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska [Med]. 2004;59(1):72-5. Pubmed: 16145958
  15. Kouremenou-Dona E, Dona A, Papoutsis J, Spiliopoulou C: Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults. Sci Total Environ. 2006 Apr 15;359(1-3):76-81. Epub 2005 Jun 13. Pubmed: 15955548
  16. Mankad M, Sathawara NG, Doshi H, Saiyed HN, Kumar S: Seminal plasma zinc concentration and alpha-glucosidase activity with respect to semen quality. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006 May;110(2):97-106. Pubmed: 16757839
  17. Ishikawa Y, Kudo H, Kagawa Y, Sakamoto S: Increased plasma levels of zinc in obese adult females on a weight-loss program based on a hypocaloric balanced diet. In Vivo. 2005 Nov-Dec;19(6):1035-7. Pubmed: 16277018
  18. Skarupskiene I, Kuzminskis V, Abdrachmanovas O, Ryselis S, Smalinskiene A: [Zinc and aluminum concentrations in blood of hemodialysis patients and its impact on the frequency of infections] Medicina (Kaunas). 2005;41 Suppl 1:65-8. Pubmed: 15901979
  19. Lukaski HC: Low dietary zinc decreases erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase activities and impairs cardiorespiratory function in men during exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 May;81(5):1045-51. Pubmed: 15883427
  20. Gupta SK, Singh SP, Shukla VK: Copper, zinc, and Cu/Zn ratio in carcinoma of the gallbladder. J Surg Oncol. 2005 Sep 1;91(3):204-8. Pubmed: 16118778

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 83 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes a 2-step reaction, involving the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the covalently attached biotin in the first step and the transfer of the carboxyl group to pyruvate in the second. Catalyzes in a tissue specific manner, the initial reactions of glucose (liver, kidney) and lipid (adipose tissue, liver, brain) synthesis from pyruvate.
Gene Name:
PC
Uniprot ID:
P11498
Molecular weight:
129632.565
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
May have a role in signal-induced cytoskeletal regulation and/or endocytosis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PLD2
Uniprot ID:
O14939
Molecular weight:
104656.485
General function:
Involved in cobalamin binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyl-cobalamin to homocysteine, yielding enzyme-bound cob(I)alamin and methionine. Subsequently, remethylates the cofactor using methyltetrahydrofolate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
MTR
Uniprot ID:
Q99707
Molecular weight:
140525.91
General function:
Involved in proteolysis
Specific function:
Broad specificity aminopeptidase. Plays a role in the final digestion of peptides generated from hydrolysis of proteins by gastric and pancreatic proteases. May play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cholesterol gallstone disease. May be involved in the metabolism of regulatory peptides of diverse cell types, responsible for the processing of peptide hormones, such as angiotensin III and IV, neuropeptides, and chemokines. Found to cleave antigen peptides bound to major histocompatibility complex class II molecules of presenting cells and to degrade neurotransmitters at synaptic junctions. Is also implicated as a regulator of IL-8 bioavailability in the endometrium, and therefore may contribute to the regulation of angiogenesis. Is used as a marker for acute myeloid leukemia and plays a role in tumor invasion. In case of human coronavirus 229E (HCoV-229E) infection, serves as receptor for HCoV-229E spike glycoprotein. Mediates as well human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection.
Gene Name:
ANPEP
Uniprot ID:
P15144
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes to their corresponding alcohols. Catalyzes the reduction of mevaldate to mevalonic acid and of glyceraldehyde to glycerol. Has broad substrate specificity. In vitro substrates include succinic semialdehyde, 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, 1,2-naphthoquinone, methylglyoxal, and D-glucuronic acid. Plays a role in the activation of procarcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon trans-dihydrodiols, and in the metabolism of various xenobiotics and drugs, including the anthracyclines doxorubicin (DOX) and daunorubicin (DAUN).
Gene Name:
AKR1A1
Uniprot ID:
P14550
Molecular weight:
36572.71
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name:
ADH5
Uniprot ID:
P11766
Molecular weight:
39723.945
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1B
Uniprot ID:
P00325
Molecular weight:
39835.17
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Could function in retinol oxidation for the synthesis of retinoic acid, a hormone important for cellular differentiation. Medium-chain (octanol) and aromatic (m-nitrobenzaldehyde) compounds are the best substrates. Ethanol is not a good substrate but at the high ethanol concentrations reached in the digestive tract, it plays a role in the ethanol oxidation and contributes to the first pass ethanol metabolism.
Gene Name:
ADH7
Uniprot ID:
P40394
Molecular weight:
41480.985
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1A
Uniprot ID:
P07327
Molecular weight:
39858.37
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH6
Uniprot ID:
P28332
Molecular weight:
39072.275
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1C
Uniprot ID:
P00326
Molecular weight:
39867.27
General function:
Involved in mannose-6-phosphate isomerase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the synthesis of the GDP-mannose and dolichol-phosphate-mannose required for a number of critical mannosyl transfer reactions.
Gene Name:
MPI
Uniprot ID:
P34949
Molecular weight:
46655.44
General function:
Involved in aminopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Presumably involved in the processing and regular turnover of intracellular proteins. Catalyzes the removal of unsubstituted N-terminal amino acids from various peptides.
Gene Name:
LAP3
Uniprot ID:
P28838
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in fructose-bisphosphate aldolase activity
Specific function:
Plays a key role in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. In addition, may also function as scaffolding protein (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDOA
Uniprot ID:
P04075
Molecular weight:
39419.675
General function:
Involved in fructose-bisphosphate aldolase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDOC
Uniprot ID:
P09972
Molecular weight:
39455.505
General function:
Involved in fructose-bisphosphate aldolase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDOB
Uniprot ID:
P05062
Molecular weight:
39472.715
General function:
Involved in protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
Specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and closely related receptors, probably inducing a desensitization of them. Key regulator of LPAR1 signaling. Competes with RALA for binding to LPAR1 thus affecting the signaling properties of the receptor. Desensitizes LPAR1 and LPAR2 in a phosphorylation-independent manner
Gene Name:
ADRBK1
Uniprot ID:
P25098
Molecular weight:
79573.0
General function:
Involved in protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
Specifically phosphorylates the agonist-occupied form of the beta-adrenergic and closely related receptors
Gene Name:
ADRBK2
Uniprot ID:
P35626
Molecular weight:
79709.1
General function:
Involved in protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
Phosphorylates rhodopsin thereby initiating its deactivation
Gene Name:
GRK1
Uniprot ID:
Q15835
Molecular weight:
63525.3
General function:
Involved in metallopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II by release of the terminal His-Leu, this results in an increase of the vasoconstrictor activity of angiotensin. Also able to inactivate bradykinin, a potent vasodilator. Has also a glycosidase activity which releases GPI-anchored proteins from the membrane by cleaving the mannose linkage in the GPI moiety
Gene Name:
ACE
Uniprot ID:
P12821
Molecular weight:
149713.7
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent histone methyltransferase that specifically methylates 'Lys-9' of histone H3. May function as a DNA-binding transcription factor. Binds to the macrophage-specific TPA-responsive element (MTE) of the HMOX1 (heme oxygenase 1) gene and may act as a transcriptional activator of this gene.
Gene Name:
PRDM2
Uniprot ID:
Q13029
Molecular weight:
162105.34
General function:
Involved in viral reproduction
Specific function:
Transcription factor required for myelination of differentiated oligodendrocytes. Required for the conversion of oligodendrocytes from the premyelinating to the myelinating state. In the developing central nervous system (CNS), involved in the maintenance in the progenitor stage by promoting the cell cycle. Specifically bind to the 5'-TCAT-3' DNA sequence. Has transcription repressor activity in vitro
Gene Name:
ZNF24
Uniprot ID:
P17028
Molecular weight:
42155.1
General function:
Involved in superoxide dismutase activity
Specific function:
Destroys superoxide anion radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name:
SOD2
Uniprot ID:
P04179
Molecular weight:
24750.015
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name:
SOD1
Uniprot ID:
P00441
Molecular weight:
15935.685
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name:
CA1
Uniprot ID:
P00915
Molecular weight:
28870.0
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
Gene Name:
CA2
Uniprot ID:
P00918
Molecular weight:
29245.895
General function:
Involved in metalloendopeptidase activity
Specific function:
May play an essential role in local proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and in leukocyte migration. Could play a role in bone osteoclastic resorption. Cleaves KiSS1 at a Gly-|-Leu bond. Cleaves type IV and type V collagen into large C-terminal three quarter fragments and shorter N-terminal one quarter fragments. Degrades fibronectin but not laminin or Pz-peptide
Gene Name:
MMP9
Uniprot ID:
P14780
Molecular weight:
78457.5
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Cleaves presequences (transit peptides) from mitochondrial protein precursors
Gene Name:
PMPCA
Uniprot ID:
Q10713
Molecular weight:
58252.4
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Low activity.
Gene Name:
CA5A
Uniprot ID:
P35218
Molecular weight:
34750.21
General function:
Involved in metalloendopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Cleaves collagens of types I, II, and III at one site in the helical domain. Also cleaves collagens of types VII and X. In case of HIV infection, interacts and cleaves the secreted viral Tat protein, leading to a decrease in neuronal Tat's mediated neurotoxicity
Gene Name:
MMP1
Uniprot ID:
P03956
Molecular weight:
54006.6
General function:
Involved in proteolysis
Specific function:
Release of an N-terminal amino acid, cleaves before cysteine, leucine as well as other amino acids. Degrades peptide hormones such as oxytocin, vasopressin and angiotensin III, and plays a role in maintaining homeostasis during pregnancy. May be involved in the inactivation of neuronal peptides in the brain. Cleaves Met-enkephalin and dynorphin. Binds angiotensin IV and may be the angiotensin IV receptor in the brain
Gene Name:
LNPEP
Uniprot ID:
Q9UIQ6
Molecular weight:
117348.1
General function:
Involved in metalloendopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Thermolysin-like specificity, but is almost confined on acting on polypeptides of up to 30 amino acids. Biologically important in the destruction of opioid peptides such as Met- and Leu-enkephalins by cleavage of a Gly-Phe bond. Able to cleave angiotensin-1, angiotensin-2 and angiotensin 1-9. Involved in the degradation of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)
Gene Name:
MME
Uniprot ID:
P08473
Molecular weight:
85513.2
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA3
Uniprot ID:
P07451
Molecular weight:
29557.215
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Plays a role in limb and brain development. Implicated in the transduction of SHH signal
Gene Name:
GLI3
Uniprot ID:
P10071
Molecular weight:
169861.6
General function:
Involved in metalloexopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes a wide range of dipeptides. Implicated in the renal metabolism of glutathione and its conjugates. Converts leukotriene D4 to leukotriene E4; it may play an important role in the regulation of leukotriene activity
Gene Name:
DPEP1
Uniprot ID:
P16444
Molecular weight:
45673.5
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Involved in transcriptional regulation. Represses the transcription of a number of genes including gastrin, stromelysin and enolase. Binds to the G-rich box in the enhancer region of these genes
Gene Name:
ZNF148
Uniprot ID:
Q9UQR1
Molecular weight:
88975.6
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA5B
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2D0
Molecular weight:
36433.43
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA12
Uniprot ID:
O43570
Molecular weight:
39450.615
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina and retina epithelium, and acid release in the choriocapillaris in the choroid.
Gene Name:
CA4
Uniprot ID:
P22748
Molecular weight:
35032.075
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Protect the extracellular space from toxic effect of reactive oxygen intermediates by converting superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen.
Gene Name:
SOD3
Uniprot ID:
P08294
Molecular weight:
25850.675
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Participates in pH regulation. May be involved in the control of cell proliferation and transformation. Appears to be a novel specific biomarker for a cervical neoplasia.
Gene Name:
CA9
Uniprot ID:
Q16790
Molecular weight:
49697.36
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA13
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1Q1
Molecular weight:
29442.895
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide.
Gene Name:
CA7
Uniprot ID:
P43166
Molecular weight:
23451.435
General function:
Involved in metalloendopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes oligopeptides such as neurotensin, bradykinin and dynorphin A
Gene Name:
NLN
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYT8
Molecular weight:
80651.1
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q59EA4
Molecular weight:
122007.8
General function:
Involved in proteolysis
Specific function:
Appears to have a role in the catabolic pathway of the renin-angiotensin system. Probably plays a role in regulating growth and differentiation of early B-lineage cells
Gene Name:
ENPEP
Uniprot ID:
Q07075
Molecular weight:
109243.6
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Cleaves the C-terminal propeptides of procollagen I, II and III. Induces cartilage and bone formation. May participate in dorsoventral patterning during early development by cleaving chordin (CHRD)
Gene Name:
BMP1
Uniprot ID:
P13497
Molecular weight:
111247.8
General function:
Involved in protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
Phosphorylates cone opsins thereby initiating their deactivation
Gene Name:
GRK7
Uniprot ID:
Q8WTQ7
Molecular weight:
62211.0
General function:
Involved in binding
Specific function:
Exopeptidase which selectively removes arginine and/or lysine residues from the N-terminus of several peptide substrates including Arg(0)-Leu-enkephalin, Arg(0)-Met-enkephalin and Arg(- 1)-Lys(0)-somatostatin-14. Can hydrolyze leukotriene A4 (LTA-4) into leukotriene B4 (LTB-4)
Gene Name:
RNPEP
Uniprot ID:
Q9H4A4
Molecular weight:
72595.1
General function:
Involved in metallocarboxypeptidase activity
Specific function:
Release of a C-terminal amino acid, but little or no action with -Asp, -Glu, -Arg, -Lys or -Pro
Gene Name:
CPA3
Uniprot ID:
P15088
Molecular weight:
48699.5

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 83 proteins in total.