Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-08-16 13:00:23 UTC
Update Date2013-05-15 21:39:04 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01303
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameZinc (II) ion
DescriptionZinc is an essential element, necessary for sustaining all life.Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. It is estimated that 3000 of the hundreds of thousands of proteins in the human body contain zinc prosthetic groups. In addition, there are over a dozen types of cells in the human body that secrete zinc ions, and the roles of these secreted zinc signals in medicine and health are now being actively studied. Intriguingly, brain cells in the mammalian forebrain are one type of cell that secretes zinc, along with its other neuronal messenger substances. Cells in the salivary gland, prostate, immune system and intestine are other types that secrete zinc. Obtaining a sufficient zinc intake during pregnancy and in young children is a problem, especially among those who cannot afford a good and varied diet. Brain development is stunted by zinc deficiency in utero and in youth. Zinc is an activator of certain enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase. Carbonic anhydrase is important in the transport of carbon dioxide in vertebrate blood. Even though zinc is an essential requirement for a healthy body, too much zinc can be harmful. Excessive absorption of zinc can also suppress copper and iron absorption. The free zinc ion in solution is highly toxic to plants, invertebrates, and even vertebrate fish. The Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM) is well-established in the literature, and shows that just micromolar amounts of the free ion kills some organisms.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Zinc
  2. Zinc ion
Chemical FormulaZn
Average Molecular Weight65.409
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight63.929146578
IUPAC Namezinc(2+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Namezinc, ion (zn2+)
CAS Registry Number7440-66-6
SMILES
[Zn++]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/Zn/q+2
InChI KeyPTFCDOFLOPIGGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Metal Compounds
ClassHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • a cation(Cyc)
  • divalent metal cation(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic dication(ChEBI)
  • zinc cation(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentHomogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Anti-oxidant
  • Essential minerals
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point419.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.16ChemAxon
physiological charge2ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count0ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area0ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity0ChemAxon
polarizability1.78ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Erythrocyte
  • Liver
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified12.7 +/- 2.1 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified0.08838(0.08087-0.09589) uMNot AvailableBothNormal
  • Report on Hu...
BloodDetected and Quantified0.10340(0.09964-0.10731) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Report on Hu...
BloodDetected and Quantified13.5 +/- 2.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified16.8 +/- 6.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified13.6 +/- 2.0 uMChildren (1-13 year old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified14.2 (11.1 - 17.6) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified13.0 (10.0 - 17.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified14.0 +/- 2.20 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
BloodDetected and Quantified16.7 +/- 3.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified3.1 +/- 3.1 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.538 +/- 0.847 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.49 (0.37-0.60) uMChildren (1-13 year old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.80291(0.67027-0.94439) umol/mmol creatinineNot AvailableBothNormal
  • Report on Hu...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.66850(0.48281-0.88426) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Report on Hu...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.460 (0.058-0.948) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified0.52 +/- 0.25 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.35 +/- 0.20 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified10.7 +/- 1.8 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease
BloodDetected and Quantified12.0 +/- 1.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothChronic renal failure
BloodDetected and Quantified12.4 +/- 2.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothContinuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
BloodDetected and Quantified11.0 +/- 2.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHemodialysis
BloodDetected and Quantified11.22 +/- 1.96 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParkinson's disease
BloodDetected and Quantified93.8 +/- 23.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMultiple sclerosis
BloodDetected and Quantified8.0 +/- 0.2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothCommentKidney disease
BloodDetected and Quantified14.9 +/- 5.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHypertension
BloodDetected and Quantified138.5 (77.00-200.00) uMChildren (1-13 year old)BothHyperzincaemia and Hypercalprotectinaemia
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.6 +/- 1.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.83 +/- 1.38 uMElderly (>65 years old)Not SpecifiedAlzheimer's disease
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  • Molina JA, Jimenez-Jimenez FJ, Aguilar MV, Meseguer I, Mateos-Vega CJ, Gonzalez-Munoz MJ, de Bustos F, Porta J, Orti-Pareja M, Zurdo M, Barrios E, Martinez-Para MC: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of transition metals in patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Neural Transm. 1998;105(4-5):479-88. Pubmed: 9720975
  • Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. Pubmed: 16244393
Chronic renal failure
  • McGregor DO, Dellow WJ, Lever M, George PM, Robson RA, Chambers ST: Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. Kidney Int. 2001 Jun;59(6):2267-72. Pubmed: 11380830
Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
  • McGregor DO, Dellow WJ, Lever M, George PM, Robson RA, Chambers ST: Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. Kidney Int. 2001 Jun;59(6):2267-72. Pubmed: 11380830
Hemodialysis
  • McGregor DO, Dellow WJ, Lever M, George PM, Robson RA, Chambers ST: Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. Kidney Int. 2001 Jun;59(6):2267-72. Pubmed: 11380830
Hypertension
  • Wang S, Ma A, Song S, Quan Q, Zhao X, Zheng X: Fasting serum free fatty acid composition, waist/hip ratio and insulin activity in essential hypertensive patients. Hypertens Res. 2008 Apr;31(4):623-32. Pubmed: 18633173
Kidney disease
  • Paniagua R, Claure R, Amato D, Flores E, Perez A, Exaire E: Effects of oral administration of zinc and diiodohydroxyquinolein on plasma zinc levels of uremic patients. Nephron. 1995;69(2):147-50. Pubmed: 7723896
Multiple sclerosis
  • Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. Pubmed: 16244395
Parkinson's disease
  • Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. Pubmed: 16244392
Hyperzincaemia and hypercalprotectinaemia
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB01593
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003729
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID29723
KEGG Compound IDC00038
BioCyc IDZN%2b2
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkZinc
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01303
Metagene LinkHMDB01303
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound32051
PDB IDZN
ChEBI ID29105
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Rakicioglu N, Samur G, Topcu A, Topcu AA: The effect of Ramadan on maternal nutrition and composition of breast milk. Pediatr Int. 2006 Jun;48(3):278-83. Pubmed: 16732795
  2. Cominetti C, Garrido AB Jr, Cozzolino SM: Zinc nutritional status of morbidly obese patients before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a preliminary report. Obes Surg. 2006 Apr;16(4):448-53. Pubmed: 16608609
  3. Religa D, Strozyk D, Cherny RA, Volitakis I, Haroutunian V, Winblad B, Naslund J, Bush AI: Elevated cortical zinc in Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2006 Jul 11;67(1):69-75. Pubmed: 16832080
  4. Batista MN, Cuppari L, de Fatima Campos Pedrosa L, Almeida MG, de Almeida JB, de Medeiros AC, Canziani ME: Effect of end-stage renal disease and diabetes on zinc and copper status. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006 Jul;112(1):1-12. Pubmed: 16943612
  5. Scheplyagina LA: Impact of the mother's zinc deficiency on the woman's and newborn's health status. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2005;19(1):29-35. Pubmed: 16240669
  6. Mocchegiani E, Costarelli L, Giacconi R, Cipriano C, Muti E, Rink L, Malavolta M: Zinc homeostasis in aging: two elusive faces of the same "metal". Rejuvenation Res. 2006 Summer;9(2):351-4. Pubmed: 16706668
  7. de Sena KC, Arrais RF, das Gracas Almeida M, de Araujo DM, dos Santos MM, de Lima VT, de Fatima Campos Pedrosa L: Effects of zinc supplementation in patients with type 1 diabetes. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005 Summer;105(1-3):1-9. Pubmed: 16034148
  8. Tsuruoka S, Wakaumi M, Ioka T, Yamamoto H, Ando H, Sugimoto K, Fujimura A: Angiotensin II receptor blocker-induces blunted taste sensitivity: comparison of candesartan and valsartan. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Aug;60(2):204-7. Pubmed: 16042674
  9. Arnold LE, DiSilvestro RA: Zinc in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005 Aug;15(4):619-27. Pubmed: 16190793
  10. An WL, Pei JJ, Nishimura T, Winblad B, Cowburn RF: Zinc-induced anti-apoptotic effects in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005 Apr 27;135(1-2):40-7. Epub 2005 Jan 8. Pubmed: 15857667
  11. Shea-Budgell M, Dojka M, Nimmo M, Lee D, Xu Z: Marginal zinc deficiency increased the susceptibility to acute lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006 May;231(5):553-8. Pubmed: 16636303
  12. Cutinha D, Vaja S, Treacher D, Swaminathan R: Erythrocyte zinc content in critically ill patients. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(9):930-3. Pubmed: 16176172
  13. Santarelli L, Di Lorenzo L, Valentino M, Bracci M, Rapisarda V, Cassano F, Elia G, Martino MG, Neri G, Apostoli P, Soleo L: [Reduced thymulin production during occupational exposure to lead] G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2005 Jan-Mar;27 Suppl 1:68-72. Pubmed: 15915658
  14. Kaczmarek A, Robak-Cholubek D, Sowa I, Jakiel G: Comparison of the levels of copper, zinc and iron in cervical mucus and in blood serum of women of childbearing age. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska [Med]. 2004;59(1):72-5. Pubmed: 16145958
  15. Kouremenou-Dona E, Dona A, Papoutsis J, Spiliopoulou C: Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults. Sci Total Environ. 2006 Apr 15;359(1-3):76-81. Epub 2005 Jun 13. Pubmed: 15955548
  16. Mankad M, Sathawara NG, Doshi H, Saiyed HN, Kumar S: Seminal plasma zinc concentration and alpha-glucosidase activity with respect to semen quality. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006 May;110(2):97-106. Pubmed: 16757839
  17. Ishikawa Y, Kudo H, Kagawa Y, Sakamoto S: Increased plasma levels of zinc in obese adult females on a weight-loss program based on a hypocaloric balanced diet. In Vivo. 2005 Nov-Dec;19(6):1035-7. Pubmed: 16277018
  18. Skarupskiene I, Kuzminskis V, Abdrachmanovas O, Ryselis S, Smalinskiene A: [Zinc and aluminum concentrations in blood of hemodialysis patients and its impact on the frequency of infections] Medicina (Kaunas). 2005;41 Suppl 1:65-8. Pubmed: 15901979
  19. Lukaski HC: Low dietary zinc decreases erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase activities and impairs cardiorespiratory function in men during exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 May;81(5):1045-51. Pubmed: 15883427
  20. Gupta SK, Singh SP, Shukla VK: Copper, zinc, and Cu/Zn ratio in carcinoma of the gallbladder. J Surg Oncol. 2005 Sep 1;91(3):204-8. Pubmed: 16118778

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 83 proteins in total.

Enzymes

Gene Name:
PLD2
Uniprot ID:
O14939
Gene Name:
MTR
Uniprot ID:
Q99707
Gene Name:
ANPEP
Uniprot ID:
P15144
Gene Name:
AKR1A1
Uniprot ID:
P14550
Gene Name:
ADH5
Uniprot ID:
P11766
Gene Name:
ADH1B
Uniprot ID:
P00325
Gene Name:
ADH1A
Uniprot ID:
P07327
Gene Name:
ADH6
Uniprot ID:
P28332
Gene Name:
ADH1C
Uniprot ID:
P00326
Gene Name:
MPI
Uniprot ID:
P34949
Gene Name:
LAP3
Uniprot ID:
P28838
Gene Name:
ALDOA
Uniprot ID:
P04075
Gene Name:
ALDOC
Uniprot ID:
P09972
Gene Name:
ALDOB
Uniprot ID:
P05062
Gene Name:
ADRBK1
Uniprot ID:
P25098
Gene Name:
ADRBK2
Uniprot ID:
P35626
Gene Name:
GRK1
Uniprot ID:
Q15835
Gene Name:
ACE
Uniprot ID:
P12821
Gene Name:
PRDM2
Uniprot ID:
Q13029
Gene Name:
ZNF24
Uniprot ID:
P17028
Gene Name:
SOD1
Uniprot ID:
P00441
Gene Name:
CA1
Uniprot ID:
P00915
Gene Name:
CA2
Uniprot ID:
P00918
Gene Name:
MMP9
Uniprot ID:
P14780
Gene Name:
CA5A
Uniprot ID:
P35218
Gene Name:
MMP1
Uniprot ID:
P03956
Gene Name:
LNPEP
Uniprot ID:
Q9UIQ6
Gene Name:
MME
Uniprot ID:
P08473
Gene Name:
CA3
Uniprot ID:
P07451
Gene Name:
GLI3
Uniprot ID:
P10071
Gene Name:
DPEP1
Uniprot ID:
P16444
Gene Name:
ZNF148
Uniprot ID:
Q9UQR1
Gene Name:
CA5B
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2D0
Gene Name:
CA12
Uniprot ID:
O43570
Gene Name:
CA4
Uniprot ID:
P22748
Gene Name:
CA9
Uniprot ID:
Q16790
Gene Name:
CA13
Uniprot ID:
Q8N1Q1
Gene Name:
CA7
Uniprot ID:
P43166
Gene Name:
NLN
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYT8
Gene Name:
Not Available
Uniprot ID:
Q59EA4
Gene Name:
ENPEP
Uniprot ID:
Q07075
Gene Name:
BMP1
Uniprot ID:
P13497
Gene Name:
GRK7
Uniprot ID:
Q8WTQ7
Gene Name:
RNPEP
Uniprot ID:
Q9H4A4
Gene Name:
CPA3
Uniprot ID:
P15088

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 83 proteins in total.