Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Zinc (II) ion (HMDB01303)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2006-08-16 07:00:23 -0600
Update Date 2013-05-15 15:39:04 -0600
HMDB ID HMDB01303
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Zinc (II) ion
Description Zinc is an essential element, necessary for sustaining all life.Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. It is estimated that 3000 of the hundreds of thousands of proteins in the human body contain zinc prosthetic groups. In addition, there are over a dozen types of cells in the human body that secrete zinc ions, and the roles of these secreted zinc signals in medicine and health are now being actively studied. Intriguingly, brain cells in the mammalian forebrain are one type of cell that secretes zinc, along with its other neuronal messenger substances. Cells in the salivary gland, prostate, immune system and intestine are other types that secrete zinc. Obtaining a sufficient zinc intake during pregnancy and in young children is a problem, especially among those who cannot afford a good and varied diet. Brain development is stunted by zinc deficiency in utero and in youth. Zinc is an activator of certain enzymes, such as carbonic anhydrase. Carbonic anhydrase is important in the transport of carbon dioxide in vertebrate blood. Even though zinc is an essential requirement for a healthy body, too much zinc can be harmful. Excessive absorption of zinc can also suppress copper and iron absorption. The free zinc ion in solution is highly toxic to plants, invertebrates, and even vertebrate fish. The Free Ion Activity Model (FIAM) is well-established in the literature, and shows that just micromolar amounts of the free ion kills some organisms.
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. Zinc
  2. Zinc ion
Chemical Formula Zn
Average Molecular Weight 65.409
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 63.929146578
IUPAC Name zinc(2+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Name zinc, ion (zn2+)
CAS Registry Number 7440-66-6
SMILES [Zn++]
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/Zn/q+2
InChI Key PTFCDOFLOPIGGS-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Inorganic Compounds
Super Class Homogeneous Metal Compounds
Class Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Sub Class N/A
Other Descriptors
  • a cation(Cyc)
  • divalent metal cation(ChEBI)
  • monoatomic dication(ChEBI)
  • zinc cation(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct Parent Homogeneous Transition Metal Compounds
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Anti-oxidant
  • Essential minerals
Application Not Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
State Solid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 419.5 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility Not Available Not Available
LogP Not Available Not Available
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
LogP 0.16 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 0 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 0 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 0 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 0 ChemAxon
Refractivity 0 ChemAxon
Polarizability 1.78 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 2 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge 2 ChemAxon
Spectra
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Erythrocyte
  • Liver
  • Brain
Pathways Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
12.7 +/- 2.1 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.08838(0.08087-0.09589) uM Not Available Both Normal
  • Report on Hu...
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.10340(0.09964-0.10731) uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Report on Hu...
Blood Detected and Quantified
13.5 +/- 2.2 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
16.8 +/- 6.3 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
13.6 +/- 2.0 uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
14.2 (11.1 - 17.6) uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
13.0 (10.0 - 17.0) uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
14.0 +/- 2.20 uM Newborn (0-30 days old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
16.7 +/- 3.1 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
3.1 +/- 3.1 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.538 +/- 0.847 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified
0.49 (0.37-0.60) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.80291(0.67027-0.94439) umol/mmol creatinine Not Available Both Normal
  • Report on Hu...
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.66850(0.48281-0.88426) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Report on Hu...
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.460 (0.058-0.948) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.52 +/- 0.25 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.35 +/- 0.20 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 10.7 +/- 1.8 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Alzheimer's disease
Blood Detected and Quantified 12.0 +/- 1.5 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Chronic renal failure
Blood Detected and Quantified 12.4 +/- 2.7 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
Blood Detected and Quantified 11.0 +/- 2.3 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Hemodialysis
Blood Detected and Quantified 11.22 +/- 1.96 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Parkinson's disease
Blood Detected and Quantified 93.8 +/- 23.3 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Multiple sclerosis
Blood Detected and Quantified 8.0 +/- 0.2 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Comment Kidney disease
Blood Detected and Quantified 14.9 +/- 5.0 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Hypertension
Blood Detected and Quantified 138.5 (77.00-200.00) uM Children (1-13 year old) Both Hyperzincaemia and Hypercalprotectinaemia
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 1.6 +/- 1.6 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Alzheimer's disease
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Detected and Quantified 1.83 +/- 1.38 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Not Specified Alzheimer's disease
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  • Molina JA, Jimenez-Jimenez FJ, Aguilar MV, Meseguer I, Mateos-Vega CJ, Gonzalez-Munoz MJ, de Bustos F, Porta J, Orti-Pareja M, Zurdo M, Barrios E, Martinez-Para MC: Cerebrospinal fluid levels of transition metals in patients with Alzheimer's disease. J Neural Transm. 1998;105(4-5):479-88. Pubmed: 9720975 Link_out
  • Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. Pubmed: 16244393 Link_out
      Kidney disease
      • Paniagua R, Claure R, Amato D, Flores E, Perez A, Exaire E: Effects of oral administration of zinc and diiodohydroxyquinolein on plasma zinc levels of uremic patients. Nephron. 1995;69(2):147-50. Pubmed: 7723896 Link_out
          Multiple sclerosis
          • Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. Pubmed: 16244395 Link_out
              Parkinson's disease
              • Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. Pubmed: 16244392 Link_out
                  Chronic renal failure
                  • McGregor DO, Dellow WJ, Lever M, George PM, Robson RA, Chambers ST: Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. Kidney Int. 2001 Jun;59(6):2267-72. Pubmed: 11380830 Link_out
                      Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis
                      • McGregor DO, Dellow WJ, Lever M, George PM, Robson RA, Chambers ST: Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. Kidney Int. 2001 Jun;59(6):2267-72. Pubmed: 11380830 Link_out
                          Hemodialysis
                          • McGregor DO, Dellow WJ, Lever M, George PM, Robson RA, Chambers ST: Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations. Kidney Int. 2001 Jun;59(6):2267-72. Pubmed: 11380830 Link_out
                              Hypertension
                              • Wang S, Ma A, Song S, Quan Q, Zhao X, Zheng X: Fasting serum free fatty acid composition, waist/hip ratio and insulin activity in essential hypertensive patients. Hypertens Res. 2008 Apr;31(4):623-32. Pubmed: 18633173 Link_out
                                  Hyperzincaemia and hypercalprotectinaemia
                                      Associated OMIM IDs
                                      DrugBank ID DB01593 Link_out
                                      DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
                                      Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
                                      Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
                                      FoodDB ID FDB003729
                                      KNApSAcK ID Not Available
                                      Chemspider ID 29723 Link_out
                                      KEGG Compound ID C00038 Link_out
                                      BioCyc ID ZN%2b2 Link_out
                                      BiGG ID Not Available
                                      Wikipedia Link Zinc Link_out
                                      NuGOwiki Link HMDB01303 Link_out
                                      Metagene Link HMDB01303 Link_out
                                      METLIN ID Not Available
                                      PubChem Compound 32051 Link_out
                                      PDB ID ZN Link_out
                                      ChEBI ID 29105 Link_out
                                      References
                                      Synthesis Reference Not Available
                                      Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
                                      General References
                                      1. Rakicioglu N, Samur G, Topcu A, Topcu AA: The effect of Ramadan on maternal nutrition and composition of breast milk. Pediatr Int. 2006 Jun;48(3):278-83. Pubmed: 16732795 Link_out
                                      2. Cominetti C, Garrido AB Jr, Cozzolino SM: Zinc nutritional status of morbidly obese patients before and after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a preliminary report. Obes Surg. 2006 Apr;16(4):448-53. Pubmed: 16608609 Link_out
                                      3. Religa D, Strozyk D, Cherny RA, Volitakis I, Haroutunian V, Winblad B, Naslund J, Bush AI: Elevated cortical zinc in Alzheimer disease. Neurology. 2006 Jul 11;67(1):69-75. Pubmed: 16832080 Link_out
                                      4. Batista MN, Cuppari L, de Fatima Campos Pedrosa L, Almeida MG, de Almeida JB, de Medeiros AC, Canziani ME: Effect of end-stage renal disease and diabetes on zinc and copper status. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006 Jul;112(1):1-12. Pubmed: 16943612 Link_out
                                      5. Scheplyagina LA: Impact of the mother's zinc deficiency on the woman's and newborn's health status. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2005;19(1):29-35. Pubmed: 16240669 Link_out
                                      6. Mocchegiani E, Costarelli L, Giacconi R, Cipriano C, Muti E, Rink L, Malavolta M: Zinc homeostasis in aging: two elusive faces of the same "metal". Rejuvenation Res. 2006 Summer;9(2):351-4. Pubmed: 16706668 Link_out
                                      7. de Sena KC, Arrais RF, das Gracas Almeida M, de Araujo DM, dos Santos MM, de Lima VT, de Fatima Campos Pedrosa L: Effects of zinc supplementation in patients with type 1 diabetes. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005 Summer;105(1-3):1-9. Pubmed: 16034148 Link_out
                                      8. Tsuruoka S, Wakaumi M, Ioka T, Yamamoto H, Ando H, Sugimoto K, Fujimura A: Angiotensin II receptor blocker-induces blunted taste sensitivity: comparison of candesartan and valsartan. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2005 Aug;60(2):204-7. Pubmed: 16042674 Link_out
                                      9. Arnold LE, DiSilvestro RA: Zinc in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005 Aug;15(4):619-27. Pubmed: 16190793 Link_out
                                      10. An WL, Pei JJ, Nishimura T, Winblad B, Cowburn RF: Zinc-induced anti-apoptotic effects in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005 Apr 27;135(1-2):40-7. Epub 2005 Jan 8. Pubmed: 15857667 Link_out
                                      11. Shea-Budgell M, Dojka M, Nimmo M, Lee D, Xu Z: Marginal zinc deficiency increased the susceptibility to acute lipopolysaccharide-induced liver injury in rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2006 May;231(5):553-8. Pubmed: 16636303 Link_out
                                      12. Cutinha D, Vaja S, Treacher D, Swaminathan R: Erythrocyte zinc content in critically ill patients. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(9):930-3. Pubmed: 16176172 Link_out
                                      13. Santarelli L, Di Lorenzo L, Valentino M, Bracci M, Rapisarda V, Cassano F, Elia G, Martino MG, Neri G, Apostoli P, Soleo L: [Reduced thymulin production during occupational exposure to lead] G Ital Med Lav Ergon. 2005 Jan-Mar;27 Suppl 1:68-72. Pubmed: 15915658 Link_out
                                      14. Kaczmarek A, Robak-Cholubek D, Sowa I, Jakiel G: Comparison of the levels of copper, zinc and iron in cervical mucus and in blood serum of women of childbearing age. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska [Med]. 2004;59(1):72-5. Pubmed: 16145958 Link_out
                                      15. Kouremenou-Dona E, Dona A, Papoutsis J, Spiliopoulou C: Copper and zinc concentrations in serum of healthy Greek adults. Sci Total Environ. 2006 Apr 15;359(1-3):76-81. Epub 2005 Jun 13. Pubmed: 15955548 Link_out
                                      16. Mankad M, Sathawara NG, Doshi H, Saiyed HN, Kumar S: Seminal plasma zinc concentration and alpha-glucosidase activity with respect to semen quality. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2006 May;110(2):97-106. Pubmed: 16757839 Link_out
                                      17. Ishikawa Y, Kudo H, Kagawa Y, Sakamoto S: Increased plasma levels of zinc in obese adult females on a weight-loss program based on a hypocaloric balanced diet. In Vivo. 2005 Nov-Dec;19(6):1035-7. Pubmed: 16277018 Link_out
                                      18. Skarupskiene I, Kuzminskis V, Abdrachmanovas O, Ryselis S, Smalinskiene A: [Zinc and aluminum concentrations in blood of hemodialysis patients and its impact on the frequency of infections] Medicina (Kaunas). 2005;41 Suppl 1:65-8. Pubmed: 15901979 Link_out
                                      19. Lukaski HC: Low dietary zinc decreases erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase activities and impairs cardiorespiratory function in men during exercise. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 May;81(5):1045-51. Pubmed: 15883427 Link_out
                                      20. Gupta SK, Singh SP, Shukla VK: Copper, zinc, and Cu/Zn ratio in carcinoma of the gallbladder. J Surg Oncol. 2005 Sep 1;91(3):204-8. Pubmed: 16118778 Link_out

                                      Enzymes

                                      Show all enzymes and transporters Important Only showing the first 50 enzymes. There are 83 enzymes in total.

                                      Name: Pyruvate carboxylase, mitochondrial
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: PC
                                      Uniprot ID: P11498 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Phospholipase D2
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: PLD2
                                      Uniprot ID: O14939 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Methionine synthase
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: MTR
                                      Uniprot ID: Q99707 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Aminopeptidase N
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: ANPEP
                                      Uniprot ID: P15144 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Alcohol dehydrogenase [NADP(+)]
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: AKR1A1
                                      Uniprot ID: P14550 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Alcohol dehydrogenase class-3
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: ADH5
                                      Uniprot ID: P11766 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Alcohol dehydrogenase 1B
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: ADH1B
                                      Uniprot ID: P00325 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Alcohol dehydrogenase class 4 mu/sigma chain
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: ADH7
                                      Uniprot ID: P40394 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Alcohol dehydrogenase 1A
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: ADH1A
                                      Uniprot ID: P07327 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Alcohol dehydrogenase 6
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: ADH6
                                      Uniprot ID: P28332 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: ADH1C
                                      Uniprot ID: P00326 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Mannose-6-phosphate isomerase
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: MPI
                                      Uniprot ID: P34949 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Cytosol aminopeptidase
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: LAP3
                                      Uniprot ID: P28838 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase A
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: ALDOA
                                      Uniprot ID: P04075 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase C
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: ALDOC
                                      Uniprot ID: P09972 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Fructose-bisphosphate aldolase B
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: ALDOB
                                      Uniprot ID: P05062 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 1
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: ADRBK1
                                      Uniprot ID: P25098 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Beta-adrenergic receptor kinase 2
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: ADRBK2
                                      Uniprot ID: P35626 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Rhodopsin kinase
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: GRK1
                                      Uniprot ID: Q15835 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Angiotensin-converting enzyme
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: ACE
                                      Uniprot ID: P12821 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: PR domain zinc finger protein 2
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: PRDM2
                                      Uniprot ID: Q13029 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Zinc finger protein 24
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: ZNF24
                                      Uniprot ID: P17028 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Superoxide dismutase [Mn], mitochondrial
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: SOD2
                                      Uniprot ID: P04179 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: SOD1
                                      Uniprot ID: P00441 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Carbonic anhydrase 1
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: CA1
                                      Uniprot ID: P00915 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Carbonic anhydrase 2
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: CA2
                                      Uniprot ID: P00918 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Matrix metalloproteinase-9
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: MMP9
                                      Uniprot ID: P14780 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Mitochondrial-processing peptidase subunit alpha
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: PMPCA
                                      Uniprot ID: Q10713 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Carbonic anhydrase 5A, mitochondrial
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: CA5A
                                      Uniprot ID: P35218 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Interstitial collagenase
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: MMP1
                                      Uniprot ID: P03956 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Leucyl-cystinyl aminopeptidase
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: LNPEP
                                      Uniprot ID: Q9UIQ6 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Neprilysin
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: MME
                                      Uniprot ID: P08473 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Carbonic anhydrase 3
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: CA3
                                      Uniprot ID: P07451 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Zinc finger protein GLI3
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: GLI3
                                      Uniprot ID: P10071 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Dipeptidase 1
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: DPEP1
                                      Uniprot ID: P16444 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Zinc finger protein 148
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: ZNF148
                                      Uniprot ID: Q9UQR1 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Carbonic anhydrase 5B, mitochondrial
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: CA5B
                                      Uniprot ID: Q9Y2D0 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Carbonic anhydrase 12
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: CA12
                                      Uniprot ID: O43570 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Carbonic anhydrase 4
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: CA4
                                      Uniprot ID: P22748 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Extracellular superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: SOD3
                                      Uniprot ID: P08294 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Carbonic anhydrase 9
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: CA9
                                      Uniprot ID: Q16790 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Carbonic anhydrase 13
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: CA13
                                      Uniprot ID: Q8N1Q1 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Carbonic anhydrase 7
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: CA7
                                      Uniprot ID: P43166 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Neurolysin, mitochondrial
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: NLN
                                      Uniprot ID: Q9BYT8 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Phospholipase D1 variant
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: Not Available
                                      Uniprot ID: Q59EA4 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Glutamyl aminopeptidase
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: ENPEP
                                      Uniprot ID: Q07075 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Bone morphogenetic protein 1
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: BMP1
                                      Uniprot ID: P13497 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: G protein-coupled receptor kinase 7
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: GRK7
                                      Uniprot ID: Q8WTQ7 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Aminopeptidase B
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: RNPEP
                                      Uniprot ID: Q9H4A4 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA
                                      Name: Mast cell carboxypeptidase A
                                      Reactions: Not Available
                                      Gene Name: CPA3
                                      Uniprot ID: P15088 Link_out
                                      Protein Sequence: FASTA
                                      Gene Sequence: FASTA