You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:04:23 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01348
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB12099
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSM(d18:1/18:0)
DescriptionSphingomyelin (d18:1/18:0) or SM(d18:1/18:0) is a type of sphingolipid found in animal cell membranes, especially in the membranous myelin sheath which surrounds some nerve cell axons. It usually consists of phosphorylcholine and ceramide. SM(18:1/18:0) consists of oleic acid attached to the C1 position and stearic acid attached to the C2 position. In humans, sphingomyelin is the only membrane phospholipid not derived from glycerol. Like all sphingolipids, SPH has a ceramide core (sphingosine bonded to a fatty acid via an amide linkage). In addition it contains one polar head group, which is either phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine. The plasma membrane of cells is highly enriched in sphingomyelin and is considered largely to be found in the exoplasmic leaflet of the cell membrane. However, there is some evidence that there may also be a sphingomyelin pool in the inner leaflet of the membrane. Moreover, neutral sphingomyelinase-2 - an enzyme that breaks down sphingomyelin into ceramide has been found to localise exclusively to the inner leaflet further suggesting that there may be sphingomyelin present there. Sphingomyelin can accumulate in a rare hereditary disease called Niemann-Pick Disease, types A and B. Niemann-Pick disease is a genetically-inherited disease caused by a deficiency in the enzyme Sphingomyelinase, which causes the accumulation of Sphingomyelin in spleen, liver, lungs, bone marrow, and the brain, causing irreversible neurological damage. SMs play a role in signal transduction. Sphingomyelins are synthesized by the transfer of phosphorylcholine from phosphatidylcholine to a ceramide in a reaction catalyzed by sphingomyelin synthase.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
N-(Octadecanoyl)-sphing-4-enine-1-phosphocholineHMDB
N-Acyl-4-sphingenyl-1-O-phosphorylcholineHMDB
N-Acyl-D-sphingosine-1-phosphocholineHMDB
SphingomyelinHMDB
Sphingomyelin (D18:1/18:0)HMDB
Chemical FormulaC41H84N2O6P
Average Molecular Weight732.0892
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight731.606699942
IUPAC Name{[(2S,3R,4E)-3-hydroxy-2-octadecanamidooctadec-4-en-1-yl]oxy}[2-(trimethylazaniumyl)ethoxy]phosphinic acid
Traditional Name[(2S,3R,4E)-3-hydroxy-2-octadecanamidooctadec-4-en-1-yl]oxy(2-(trimethylammonio)ethoxy)phosphinic acid
CAS Registry Number85187-10-6
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)N[C@@]([H])(COP(O)(=O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C)[C@]([H])(O)\C=C\CCCCCCCCCCCCC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C41H83N2O6P/c1-6-8-10-12-14-16-18-20-21-23-25-27-29-31-33-35-41(45)42-39(38-49-50(46,47)48-37-36-43(3,4)5)40(44)34-32-30-28-26-24-22-19-17-15-13-11-9-7-2/h32,34,39-40,44H,6-31,33,35-38H2,1-5H3,(H-,42,45,46,47)/p+1/b34-32+/t39-,40+/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=LKQLRGMMMAHREN-YJFXYUILSA-O
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sphingomyelins. These are sphingolipids containing a backbone formed of an alcohol - sphingosine, a phosphate group, a choline and fatty acid chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSphingolipids
Sub ClassPhosphosphingolipids
Direct ParentSphingomyelins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Ceramide phosphocholine
  • Phosphocholine
  • Phosphoethanolamine
  • Dialkyl phosphate
  • Choline
  • Fatty acyl
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Organic phosphate
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Fatty amide
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxamide group
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Organic cation
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Component of Glycosphingolipid metabolism
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
  • Second messenger
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.34e-05 mg/mLALOGPS
logP5.35ALOGPS
logP8.95ChemAxon
logS-7.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.87ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)0.012ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area105.09 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count38ChemAxon
Refractivity224.27 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability93.09 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-0200000900-e97fc8b60f9884266fe8View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-0900000000-6e6f0a8e64b4641256a7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-0900000000-57c2d6df417e54414b35View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Erythrocyte
  • Liver
  • Nervous Tissues
  • Spleen
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Fabry diseaseSMP00525Not Available
Gaucher DiseaseSMP00349Not Available
Globoid Cell LeukodystrophySMP00348Not Available
Krabbe diseaseSMP00526Not Available
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD)SMP00347Not Available
Sphingolipid MetabolismSMP00034map00500
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified1364 +/- 106 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified298.0 +/- 24.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified16.2 +/- 0.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified1145 +/- 67 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified124 +/- 9 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.340 +/- 0.154 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.121 +/- 0.035 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0024 (0.0011-0.007) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.006 +/- 0.0144 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0028 +/- 0.0047 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0037 +/- 0.0062 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022570
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4446701
KEGG Compound IDC00550
BioCyc IDSPHINGO-MYELIN
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkSphingomyelin
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01348
Metagene LinkHMDB01348
METLIN ID176
PubChem Compound5283588
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17636
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Haughey NJ, Cutler RG, Tamara A, McArthur JC, Vargas DL, Pardo CA, Turchan J, Nath A, Mattson MP: Perturbation of sphingolipid metabolism and ceramide production in HIV-dementia. Ann Neurol. 2004 Feb;55(2):257-67. [14755730 ]
  2. Harzer K, Massenkeil G, Frohlich E: Concurrent increase of cholesterol, sphingomyelin and glucosylceramide in the spleen from non-neurologic Niemann-Pick type C patients but also patients possibly affected with other lipid trafficking disorders. FEBS Lett. 2003 Feb 27;537(1-3):177-81. [12606053 ]
  3. He X, Chen F, McGovern MM, Schuchman EH: A fluorescence-based, high-throughput sphingomyelin assay for the analysis of Niemann-Pick disease and other disorders of sphingomyelin metabolism. Anal Biochem. 2002 Jul 1;306(1):115-23. [12069422 ]
  4. Reichl D, Sterchi JM: Human peripheral lymph lipoproteins are enriched in sphingomyelin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992 Jul 9;1127(1):28-32. [1627631 ]
  5. Nelson JC, Jiang XC, Tabas I, Tall A, Shea S: Plasma sphingomyelin and subclinical atherosclerosis: findings from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Am J Epidemiol. 2006 May 15;163(10):903-12. Epub 2006 Apr 12. [16611667 ]
  6. Chen H, Born E, Mathur SN, Johlin FC Jr, Field FJ: Sphingomyelin content of intestinal cell membranes regulates cholesterol absorption. Evidence for pancreatic and intestinal cell sphingomyelinase activity. Biochem J. 1992 Sep 15;286 ( Pt 3):771-7. [1417735 ]
  7. Liu KZ, Mantsch HH: Simultaneous quantitation from infrared spectra of glucose concentrations, lactate concentrations, and lecithin/sphingomyelin ratios in amniotic fluid. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Mar;180(3 Pt 1):696-702. [10076150 ]
  8. Horter MJ, Sondermann S, Reinecke H, Bogdanski J, Woltering A, Kerber S, Breithardt G, Assmann G, Von Eckardstein A: Associations of HDL phospholipids and paraoxonase activity with coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Acta Physiol Scand. 2002 Oct;176(2):123-30. [12354172 ]
  9. Tanaka K, Nishizawa K, Yamamoto H, Naruto T, Izeki E, Taga T, Shimada M, Saeki Y: Analysis of very long-chain fatty acids and plasmalogen in the erythrocyte membrane: a simple method for the detection of peroxisomal disorders and discrimination between adrenoleukodystrophy and Zellweger syndrome. Neuropediatrics. 1990 Aug;21(3):119-23. [2234315 ]
  10. Cribier S, Morrot G, Neumann JM, Devaux PF: Lateral diffusion of erythrocyte phospholipids in model membranes comparison between inner and outer leaflet components. Eur Biophys J. 1990;18(1):33-41. [2155112 ]
  11. Nyberg L, Duan RD, Axelson J, Nilsson A: Identification of an alkaline sphingomyelinase activity in human bile. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996 Mar 29;1300(1):42-8. [8608160 ]
  12. Whitworth NS, Magann EF, Morrison JC: Evaluation of fetal lung maturity in diamniotic twins. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Jun;180(6 Pt 1):1438-41. [10368484 ]
  13. de Oliveira JS, Zaharenko AJ, de Freitas JC, Konno K, de Andrade SA, Portaro FC, Richardson M, Sant'anna OA, Tambourgi DV: Caissarolysin I (Bcs I), a new hemolytic toxin from the Brazilian sea anemone Bunodosoma caissarum: purification and biological characterization. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006 Mar;1760(3):453-61. Epub 2006 Jan 17. [16458433 ]
  14. Omarini LP, Frank-Burkhardt SE, Seemayer TA, Mentha G, Terrier F: Niemann-Pick disease type C: nodular splenomegaly. Abdom Imaging. 1995 Mar-Apr;20(2):157-60. [7787722 ]
  15. Berna L, Asfaw B, Conzelmann E, Cerny B, Ledvinova J: Determination of urinary sulfatides and other lipids by combination of reversed-phase and thin-layer chromatographies. Anal Biochem. 1999 May 1;269(2):304-11. [10222002 ]
  16. He X, Chen F, Gatt S, Schuchman EH: An enzymatic assay for quantifying sphingomyelin in tissues and plasma from humans and mice with Niemann-Pick disease. Anal Biochem. 2001 Jun 15;293(2):204-11. [11399033 ]
  17. Feki NC, Therond P, Couturier M, Limea G, Legrand A, Jouannet P, Auger J: Human sperm lipid content is modified after migration into human cervical mucus. Mol Hum Reprod. 2004 Feb;10(2):137-42. [14742699 ]
  18. Wang C, Yang J, Gao P, Lu X, Xu G: Identification of phospholipid structures in human blood by direct-injection quadrupole-linear ion-trap mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2005;19(17):2443-53. [16059884 ]
  19. Otterbach B, Stoffel W: Acid sphingomyelinase-deficient mice mimic the neurovisceral form of human lysosomal storage disease (Niemann-Pick disease). Cell. 1995 Jun 30;81(7):1053-61. [7600574 ]
  20. Fujiwaki T, Yamaguchi S, Tasaka M, Sakura N, Taketomi T: Application of delayed extraction-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for analysis of sphingolipids in pericardial fluid, peritoneal fluid and serum from Gaucher disease patients. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2002 Aug 25;776(1):115-23. [12127332 ]

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 52 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of some glycolipid via the addition of N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) in alpha-1,3-linkage to some substrate. Glycolipids probably serve for adherence of some pathogens
Gene Name:
GBGT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N5D6
Molecular weight:
40126.9
General function:
Involved in N-acetylglucosaminylphosphatidylinositol de
Specific function:
Involved in the second step of GPI biosynthesis. De-N-acetylation of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol.
Gene Name:
PIGL
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2B2
Molecular weight:
28530.965
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Bidirectional lipid cholinephosphotransferase capable of converting phosphatidylcholine (PC) and ceramide to sphingomyelin (SM) and diacylglycerol (DAG) and vice versa. Direction is dependent on the relative concentrations of DAG and ceramide as phosphocholine acceptors. Directly and specifically recognizes the choline head group on the substrate. Also requires two fatty chains on the choline-P donor molecule in order to be recognized efficiently as a substrate. Does not function strictly as a SM synthase. Required for cell growth
Gene Name:
SGMS2
Uniprot ID:
Q8NHU3
Molecular weight:
42279.8
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Bidirectional lipid cholinephosphotransferase capable of converting phosphatidylcholine (PC) and ceramide to sphingomyelin (SM) and diacylglycerol (DAG) and vice versa. Direction is dependent on the relative concentrations of DAG and ceramide as phosphocholine acceptors. Directly and specifically recognizes the choline head group on the substrate. Also requires two fatty chains on the choline-P donor molecule in order to be recognized efficiently as a substrate. Does not function strictly as a SM synthase. Suppresses BAX-mediated apoptosis and also prevents cell death in response to stimuli such as hydrogen peroxide, osmotic stress, elevated temperature and exogenously supplied sphingolipids. May protect against cell death by reversing the stress-inducible increase in levels of proapoptotic ceramide. Required for cell growth
Gene Name:
SGMS1
Uniprot ID:
Q86VZ5
Molecular weight:
49207.3
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Also has phospholipase C activities toward 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphocholine and 1,2-diacylglycerolphosphoglycerol. Isoform 2 and isoform 3 have lost catalytic activity.
Gene Name:
SMPD1
Uniprot ID:
P17405
Molecular weight:
69935.53
General function:
Involved in galactosylgalactosylxylosylprotein 3-beta-glucuronosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the biosynthesis of L2/HNK-1 carbohydrate epitope on glycoproteins. Can also play a role in glycosaminoglycan biosynthesis. Substrates include asialo-orosomucoid (ASOR), asialo-fetuin, and asialo-neural cell adhesion molecule. Requires sphingomyelin for activity: stearoyl-sphingomyelin was the most effective, followed by palmitoyl-sphingomyelin and lignoceroyl-sphingomyelin. Activity was demonstrated only for sphingomyelin with a saturated fatty acid and not for that with an unsaturated fatty acid, regardless of the length of the acyl group (By similarity).
Gene Name:
B3GAT1
Uniprot ID:
Q9P2W7
Molecular weight:
38255.675
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGQ
Uniprot ID:
Q9BRB3
Molecular weight:
65343.25
General function:
Involved in biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Necessary for the synthesis of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol, the very early intermediate in GPI-anchor biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGA
Uniprot ID:
P37287
Molecular weight:
54126.065
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGH
Uniprot ID:
Q14442
Molecular weight:
21080.415
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltr
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGP
Uniprot ID:
P57054
Molecular weight:
18089.055
General function:
Involved in phosphatidylinositol N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Part of the complex catalyzing the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to phosphatidylinositol, the first step of GPI biosynthesis.
Gene Name:
PIGC
Uniprot ID:
Q92535
Molecular weight:
33582.18
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Also has phospholipase C activity toward palmitoyl lyso-phosphocholine. Does not appear to have nucleotide pyrophosphatase activity.
Gene Name:
ENPP7
Uniprot ID:
Q6UWV6
Molecular weight:
51493.415
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Converts sphingomyelin to ceramide. Hydrolyze 1-acyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lyso-PC) and 1-O-alkyl-2-lyso-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (lyso-platelet-activating factor). The physiological substrate seems to be Lyso-PAF.
Gene Name:
SMPD2
Uniprot ID:
O60906
Molecular weight:
47645.29
General function:
Involved in lipid metabolic process
Specific function:
Saposin-D is a specific sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase activator (EC 3.1.4.12)
Gene Name:
PSAP
Uniprot ID:
P07602
Molecular weight:
58112.1
General function:
Involved in sphingolipid activator protein activity
Specific function:
Binds gangliosides and stimulates ganglioside GM2 degradation. It stimulates only the breakdown of ganglioside GM2 and glycolipid GA2 by beta-hexosaminidase A. It extracts single GM2 molecules from membranes and presents them in soluble form to beta-hexosaminidase A for cleavage of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine and conversion to GM3
Gene Name:
GM2A
Uniprot ID:
P17900
Molecular weight:
20838.1
General function:
Involved in immune response
Specific function:
T-cell surface glycoprotein CD1e, soluble is required for the presentation of glycolipid antigens on the cell surface. The membrane-associated form is not active
Gene Name:
CD1E
Uniprot ID:
P15812
Molecular weight:
43626.1
General function:
Involved in cholesterol binding
Specific function:
May be involved in the regulation of the lipid composition of sperm membranes during the maturation in the epididymis
Gene Name:
NPC2
Uniprot ID:
P61916
Molecular weight:
16570.1
General function:
Involved in immune response
Specific function:
Antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self glycolipids and presents them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells
Gene Name:
CD1D
Uniprot ID:
P15813
Molecular weight:
37717.0
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Mannosyltransferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers the first alpha-1,4-mannose to GlcN-acyl-PI during GPI precursor assembly
Gene Name:
PIGM
Uniprot ID:
Q9H3S5
Molecular weight:
49459.2
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
Specific function:
Probable acetyltransferase, which acetylates the inositol ring of phosphatidylinositol during biosynthesis of GPI-anchor. Acetylation during GPI-anchor biosynthesis is not essential for the subsequent mannosylation and is usually removed soon after the attachment of GPIs to proteins (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PIGW
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z7B1
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in GPI anchor biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Essential component of glycosylphosphatidylinositol- mannosyltransferase 1 which transfers the first of the 4 mannoses in the GPI-anchor precursors during GPI-anchor biosynthesis. Probably acts by stabilizing the mannosyltransferase PIGM
Gene Name:
PIGX
Uniprot ID:
Q8TBF5
Molecular weight:
28788.1
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific function:
Mannosyltransferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers a fourth mannose to some trimannosyl-GPIs during GPI precursor assembly. The presence of a fourth mannose in GPI is facultative and only scarcely detected, suggesting that it only exists in some tissues
Gene Name:
PIGZ
Uniprot ID:
Q86VD9
Molecular weight:
63472.6
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to generate 2 second messenger molecules diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3). DAG mediates the activation of protein kinase C (PKC), while IP3 releases Ca(2+) from intracellular stores. Essential for trophoblast and placental development. May participate in cytokinesis by hydrolyzing PIP2 at the cleavage furrow.
Gene Name:
PLCD3
Uniprot ID:
Q8N3E9
Molecular weight:
89257.54
General function:
Involved in galactosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Beta-1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase that plays a key role in the synthesis of lacto- or neolacto-series carbohydrate chains on glycolipids, notably by participating in biosynthesis of HNK-1 and Lewis X carbohydrate structures. Has strong activity toward lactosylceramide (LacCer) and neolactotetraosylceramide (nLc(4)Cer; paragloboside), resulting in the synthesis of Lc(3)Cer and neolactopentaosylceramide (nLc(5)Cer), respectively. Probably plays a central role in regulating neolacto-series glycolipid synthesis during embryonic development.
Gene Name:
B3GNT5
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYG0
Molecular weight:
44052.295
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to form ceramide and phosphocholine. Ceramide mediates numerous cellular functions, such as apoptosis and growth arrest, and is capable of regulating these 2 cellular events independently. Also hydrolyzes sphingosylphosphocholine. Regulates the cell cycle by acting as a growth suppressor in confluent cells. Probably acts as a regulator of postnatal development and participates in bone and dentin mineralization.
Gene Name:
SMPD3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY59
Molecular weight:
71080.1
General function:
Involved in galactosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transfer of Gal to GlcNAc-based acceptors with a preference for the core3 O-linked glycan GlcNAc(beta1,3)GalNAc structure. Can use glycolipid LC3Cer as an efficient acceptor
Gene Name:
B3GALT5
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2C3
Molecular weight:
36188.9
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
Specific function:
Mannosyltransferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers the third alpha-1,2-mannose to Man2-GlcN-acyl-PI during GPI precursor assembly
Gene Name:
PIGB
Uniprot ID:
Q92521
Molecular weight:
65055.9
General function:
Involved in GPI anchor biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Involved in GPI-anchor biosynthesis through the transfer of ethanolamine phosphate to the third mannose of GPI
Gene Name:
PIGF
Uniprot ID:
Q07326
Molecular weight:
24889.3
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Ethanolamine phosphate transferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers ethanolamine phosphate to the GPI second mannose
Gene Name:
PIGG
Uniprot ID:
Q5H8A4
Molecular weight:
108171.7
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Ethanolamine phosphate transferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers ethanolamine phosphate to the first alpha-1,4-linked mannose of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol precursor of GPI-anchor
Gene Name:
PIGN
Uniprot ID:
O95427
Molecular weight:
105809.2
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Ethanolamine phosphate transferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers ethanolamine phosphate to the GPI third mannose which links the GPI-anchor to the C-terminus of the proteins by an amide bond
Gene Name:
PIGO
Uniprot ID:
Q8TEQ8
Molecular weight:
118697.6
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Component of the GPI transamidase complex. Essential for transfer of GPI to proteins, particularly for formation of carbonyl intermediates
Gene Name:
PIGS
Uniprot ID:
Q96S52
Molecular weight:
61655.5
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Component of the GPI transamidase complex. Essential for transfer of GPI to proteins, particularly for formation of carbonyl intermediates
Gene Name:
PIGT
Uniprot ID:
Q969N2
Molecular weight:
65699.0
General function:
Involved in GPI anchor biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Component of the GPI transamidase complex. May be involved in the recognition of either the GPI attachment signal or the lipid portion of GPI
Gene Name:
PIGU
Uniprot ID:
Q9H490
Molecular weight:
50051.2
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
Alpha-1,6-mannosyltransferase involved in glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor biosynthesis. Transfers the second mannose to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol during GPI precursor assembly
Gene Name:
PIGV
Uniprot ID:
Q9NUD9
Molecular weight:
55712.1
General function:
Involved in GPI anchor biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Component of the GPI-GlcNAc transferase (GPI-GnT) complex in the endoplasmic reticulum, a complex that catalyzes transfer of GlcNAc from UDP-GlcNAc to an acceptor phosphatidylinositol, the first step in the production of GPI- anchors for cell surface proteins. May act by regulating the catalytic subunit PIGA
Gene Name:
PIGY
Uniprot ID:
Q3MUY2
Molecular weight:
8057.5
General function:
Involved in glycolipid transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in TGN-to-plasma membrane transport and in the formation of post-Golgi constitutive carriers. May play a role in ensuring the coordination of the budding and the fission reactions
Gene Name:
PLEKHA8
Uniprot ID:
Q96JA3
Molecular weight:
58306.0
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the hydrolysis of membrane sphingomyelin to form phosphorylcholine and ceramide.
Gene Name:
SMPD4
Uniprot ID:
Q9NXE4
Molecular weight:
86192.575
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Non-lysosomal glucosylceramidase that catalyzes the conversion of glucosylceramide to free glucose and ceramide. Involved in sphingomyelin generation and prevention of glycolipid accumulation. May also catalyze the hydrolysis of bile acid 3-O-glucosides, however, the relevance of such activity is unclear in vivo.
Gene Name:
GBA2
Uniprot ID:
Q9HCG7
Molecular weight:
104648.13
General function:
Involved in sphingomyelin biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SAMD8
Uniprot ID:
Q96LT4
Molecular weight:
48320.2
General function:
Involved in cysteine-type endopeptidase activity
Specific function:
Mediates GPI anchoring in the endoplasmic reticulum, by replacing a protein's C-terminal GPI attachment signal peptide with a pre-assembled GPI. During this transamidation reaction, the GPI transamidase forms a carbonyl intermediate with the substrate protein
Gene Name:
PIGK
Uniprot ID:
Q92643
Molecular weight:
45251.4
General function:
Involved in tubulin binding
Specific function:
Essential for GPI-anchoring of precursor proteins but not for GPI synthesis. Acts before or during formation of the carbonyl intermediate
Gene Name:
GPAA1
Uniprot ID:
O43292
Molecular weight:
67622.5
General function:
Involved in glycolipid transporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PLEKHA9
Uniprot ID:
O95397
Molecular weight:
43538.3
General function:
Involved in glycolipid transporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GLTPD2
Uniprot ID:
A6NH11
Molecular weight:
31641.2
General function:
Involved in glycolipid transporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PLEKHA8
Uniprot ID:
B5MDU3
Molecular weight:
49308.8
General function:
Involved in immune response
Specific function:
Antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self lipid and glycolipid antigens and presents them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells
Gene Name:
CD1A
Uniprot ID:
P06126
Molecular weight:
37077.1
General function:
Involved in glycolipid transporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GLTPD1
Uniprot ID:
Q5TA50
Molecular weight:
24364.8
General function:
Involved in immune response
Specific function:
Antigen-presenting protein that binds self and non-self lipid and glycolipid antigens and presents them to T-cell receptors on natural killer T-cells
Gene Name:
CD1C
Uniprot ID:
P29017
Molecular weight:
37653.7
General function:
Involved in lipid binding
Specific function:
Binds to the lipid A moiety of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a glycolipid present in the outer membrane of all Gram-negative bacteria. The LBP/LPS complex seems to interact with the CD14 receptor
Gene Name:
LBP
Uniprot ID:
P18428
Molecular weight:
53383.0
General function:
Involved in glycolipid transporter activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
DKFZp434L0435
Uniprot ID:
Q9UFH6
Molecular weight:
6175.1

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 52 proteins in total.