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Record Information
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:04:27 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common Name3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA
Description3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA (HMG-CoA) is formed when Acetyl-CoA condenses with acetoacetyl-CoA in a reaction that is catalyzed by the enzyme HMG-CoA synthase in the mevalonate pathway or mevalonate-dependent (MAD) route, an important cellular metabolic pathway present in virtually all organisms. HMG-CoA reductase (EC inhibitors, more commonly known as statins, are cholesterol-lowering drugs that have been widely used for many years to reduce the incidence of adverse cardiovascular events. HMG-CoA reductase catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the mevalonate pathway and these agents lower cholesterol by inhibiting its synthesis in the liver and in peripheral tissues. Androgen also stimulates lipogenesis in human prostate cancer cells directly by increasing transcription of the fatty acid synthase and HMG-CoA-reductase genes. (PMID: 14689582 ).
(S)-3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme AHMDB
3-Hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme AHMDB
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme AHMDB
HMG-coenzyme AHMDB
Hydroxymethylglutaroyl coenzyme AHMDB
Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme AHMDB
S-(Hydrogen 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl)coenzyme AHMDB
S-(Hydrogen 3-hydroxy-3-methylpentanedioateHMDB
S-(Hydrogen 3-hydroxy-3-methylpentanedioate) coenzyme AHMDB
S-(Hydrogen 3-hydroxy-3-methylpentanedioic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC27H44N7O20P3S
Average Molecular Weight911.659
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight911.157467109
IUPAC Name(3S)-5-{[2-(3-{3-[({[({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-(phosphonooxy)oxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)methyl]-2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanamido}propanamido)ethyl]sulfanyl}-3-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-oxopentanoic acid
Traditional Name(3S)-5-({2-[3-(3-{[({[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-3-(phosphonooxy)oxolan-2-yl]methoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy]methyl}-2-hydroxy-3-methylbutanamido)propanamido]ethyl}sulfanyl)-3-hydroxy-3-methyl-5-oxopentanoic acid
CAS Registry Number1553-55-5
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 3-hydroxyacyl coas. These are organic compounds containing a 3-hydroxyl acylated coenzyme A derivative.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acyl thioesters
Direct Parent3-hydroxyacyl CoAs
Alternative Parents
  • Coenzyme a or derivatives
  • Purine ribonucleoside diphosphate
  • Purine ribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphate
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Organic pyrophosphate
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Pyrimidine
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Organic phosphate
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Monosaccharide
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Fatty amide
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Oxolane
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Thiocarboxylic acid ester
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxamide group
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Sulfenyl compound
  • Thioether
  • Thiocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
StatusExpected but not Quantified
  • Endogenous
  • Food
  • Cell signaling
  • Component of Butanoate metabolism
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility4.1 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count20ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count11ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area421.16 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count24ChemAxon
Refractivity193.7 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability81.01 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
2-Methyl-3-Hydroxybutryl CoA Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00137Not Available
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase DeficiencySMP00138Not Available
3-hydroxyisobutyric acid dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00521Not Available
3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduriaSMP00522Not Available
3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type ISMP00237Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type ISMP00139Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IIISMP00140Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IVSMP00141Not Available
Alendronate pathwaySMP00095Not Available
Atorvastatin PathwaySMP00131Not Available
Beta-Ketothiolase DeficiencySMP00173Not Available
Butyrate MetabolismSMP00073map00650
Cerivastatin PathwaySMP00111Not Available
CHILD SyndromeSMP00387Not Available
Cholesteryl ester storage diseaseSMP00508Not Available
Chondrodysplasia Punctata II, X Linked Dominant (CDPX2)SMP00388Not Available
DesmosterolosisSMP00386Not Available
Fluvastatin PathwaySMP00119Not Available
Hyper-IgD syndromeSMP00509Not Available
HypercholesterolemiaSMP00209Not Available
Ibandronate PathwaySMP00079Not Available
Isobutyryl-coa dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00523Not Available
Isovaleric acidemiaSMP00524Not Available
Isovaleric AciduriaSMP00238Not Available
Ketone Body MetabolismSMP00071map00072
Lovastatin PathwaySMP00099Not Available
Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency (Wolman Disease)SMP00319Not Available
Maple Syrup Urine DiseaseSMP00199Not Available
Methylmalonate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00384Not Available
Methylmalonic AciduriaSMP00200Not Available
Mevalonic aciduriaSMP00510Not Available
Pamidronate PathwaySMP00117Not Available
Pravastatin PathwaySMP00089Not Available
Propionic AcidemiaSMP00236Not Available
Risedronate PathwaySMP00112Not Available
Rosuvastatin PathwaySMP00092Not Available
Simvastatin Action PathwaySMP00082Not Available
Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS)SMP00389Not Available
Steroid BiosynthesisSMP00023map00100
Succinyl CoA: 3-ketoacid CoA transferase deficiencySMP00569Not Available
Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine DegradationSMP00032map00280
Wolman diseaseSMP00511Not Available
Zoledronate PathwaySMP00107Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022587
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID388357
KEGG Compound IDC00356
BiGG ID34727
Wikipedia Link3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01375
Metagene LinkHMDB01375
PubChem Compound439218
ChEBI ID15467
Synthesis ReferenceWilliamson I P; Rodwell V W Isolation and purification of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A by ion-exchange chromatography. Journal of lipid research (1981), 22(1), 184-7.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Sato T, Oouchi M, Nagakubo H, Chiba T, Ogawa S, Sato C, Sugimura K, Fukuda M: Effect of pravastatin on plasma ketone bodies in diabetics with hypercholesterolemia. Tohoku J Exp Med. 1998 May;185(1):25-9. [9710942 ]
  2. Wysocki SJ, Wilkinson SP, Hahnel R, Wong CY, Panegyres PK: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaric aciduria, combined with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Clin Chim Acta. 1976 Aug 2;70(3):399-406. [947633 ]
  3. Lange Y, Ye J, Steck TL: Activation of membrane cholesterol by displacement from phospholipids. J Biol Chem. 2005 Oct 28;280(43):36126-31. Epub 2005 Aug 29. [16129675 ]
  4. Li X, Liu L, Tupper JC, Bannerman DD, Winn RK, Sebti SM, Hamilton AD, Harlan JM: Inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation and RhoA/RhoA kinase pathway induces apoptosis in human endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2002 May 3;277(18):15309-16. Epub 2002 Feb 11. [11839765 ]
  5. Mital BK, Garg SK: Anticarcinogenic, hypocholesterolemic, and antagonistic activities of Lactobacillus acidophilus. Crit Rev Microbiol. 1995;21(3):175-214. [8845062 ]
  6. Nozaki S, Nakagawa T, Nakata A, Yamashita S, Kameda-Takemura K, Nakamura T, Keno Y, Tokunaga K, Matsuzawa Y: Effects of pravastatin on plasma and urinary mevalonate concentrations in subjects with familial hypercholesterolaemia: a comparison of morning and evening administration. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 1996;49(5):361-4. [8866629 ]
  7. Ubels FL, Muntinga JH, van Doormaal JJ, Reitsma WD, Smit AJ: Effects of initial and long-term lipid-lowering therapy on vascular wall characteristics. Atherosclerosis. 2001 Jan;154(1):155-61. [11137095 ]
  8. Huang L, Wang Y, Grimm S: ATP-dependent transport of rosuvastatin in membrane vesicles expressing breast cancer resistance protein. Drug Metab Dispos. 2006 May;34(5):738-42. Epub 2006 Jan 13. [16415124 ]
  9. Son BK, Kozaki K, Iijima K, Eto M, Kojima T, Ota H, Senda Y, Maemura K, Nakano T, Akishita M, Ouchi Y: Statins protect human aortic smooth muscle cells from inorganic phosphate-induced calcification by restoring Gas6-Axl survival pathway. Circ Res. 2006 Apr 28;98(8):1024-31. Epub 2006 Mar 23. [16556867 ]
  10. Gianni L, Di Padova F, Zuin M, Podda M: Bile acid-induced inhibition of the lymphoproliferative response to phytohemagglutinin and pokeweed mitogen: an in vitro study. Gastroenterology. 1980 Feb;78(2):231-5. [7350045 ]
  11. Jenke HS, Lowel M, Berndt J: Effect of alterations in vitro and in vivo of the cholesterol content in rat liver microsomes on the activity of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase. Hoppe Seylers Z Physiol Chem. 1983 Feb;364(2):135-40. [6840702 ]
  12. Naseem SM, Heald FP: Sex mediated lipid metabolism in human aortic smooth muscle cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1987 Apr 14;144(1):284-91. [3579907 ]
  13. Knight BL, Patel DD, Soutar AK: The regulation of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity, cholesterol esterification and the expression of low-density lipoprotein receptors in cultured monocyte-derived macrophages. Biochem J. 1983 Feb 15;210(2):523-32. [6305342 ]
  14. Martin J, Denver R, Bailey M, Krum H: In vitro inhibitory effects of atorvastatin on cardiac fibroblasts: implications for ventricular remodelling. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2005 Sep;32(9):697-701. [16173924 ]
  15. Plotkin D, Miller S, Nakajima S, Peskin E, Burkman R, Richardson D, Mitchel Y, Waldstreicher J, Liu M, Shapiro D, Santoro N: Lowering low density lipoprotein cholesterol with simvastatin, a hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme a reductase inhibitor, does not affect luteal function in premenopausal women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Jul;87(7):3155-61. [12107216 ]
  16. Gil G, Smith JR, Goldstein JL, Brown MS: Optional exon in the 5'-untranslated region of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase gene: conserved sequence and splicing pattern in humans and hamsters. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Apr;84(7):1863-6. [3470763 ]
  17. Freeman MR, Solomon KR: Cholesterol and prostate cancer. J Cell Biochem. 2004 Jan 1;91(1):54-69. [14689582 ]


General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in ketogenesis (ketone body formation). Terminal step in leucine catabolism.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA → Acetyl-CoA + Acetoacetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme condenses acetyl-CoA with acetoacetyl-CoA to form HMG-CoA, which is the substrate for HMG-CoA reductase.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Acetoacetyl-CoA → 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + Coenzyme Adetails
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + Coenzyme A → Acetyl-CoA + Water + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme condenses acetyl-CoA with acetoacetyl-CoA to form HMG-CoA, which is the substrate for HMG-CoA reductase.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Acetoacetyl-CoA → 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + Coenzyme Adetails
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + Coenzyme A → Acetyl-CoA + Water + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA reductase (NADPH) activity
Specific function:
Transmembrane glycoprotein that is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis as well as in the biosynthesis of nonsterol isoprenoids that are essential for normal cell function including ubiquinone and geranylgeranyl proteins.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
(R)-mevalonate + Coenzyme A + NADP → 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPHdetails
(R)-mevalonate + Coenzyme A + NADP → 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of 3-methylglutaconyl-CoA to 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA. Has very low enoyl-CoA hydratase activity. Was originally identified as RNA-binding protein that binds in vitro to clustered 5'-AUUUA-3' motifs.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA → 3-Methylglutaconyl-CoA + Waterdetails
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA → 3-Methylglutaconyl-CoA + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Non-mitochondrial 3-hydroxymethyl-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase that catalyzes a cation-dependent cleavage of (S)-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA into acetyl-CoA and acetoacetate, a key step in ketogenesis, the products of which support energy production in nonhepatic animal tissues.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA → Acetyl-CoA + Acetoacetic aciddetails