Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Alpha-Linolenic acid (HMDB01388)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2005-11-16 08:48:42 -0700
Update Date 2013-02-08 17:10:27 -0700
HMDB ID HMDB01388
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Alpha-Linolenic acid
Description Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). It is a member of the group of essential fatty acids called omega-3 fatty acids. Alpha-linolenic acid, in particular, is not synthesized by mammals and therefore is an essential dietary requirement for all mammals. Certain nuts (English walnuts) and vegetable oils (canola, soybean, flaxseed/linseed, olive) are particularly rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA). Omega-3 fatty acids get their name based on the location of one of their first double bond. In all omega-3 fatty acids, the first double bond is located between the third and fourth carbon atom counting from the methyl end of the fatty acid (n-3). Although humans and other mammals can synthesize saturated and some monounsaturated fatty acids from carbon groups in carbohydrates and proteins, they lack the enzymes necessary to insert a cis double bond at the n-6 or the n-3 position of a fatty acid. Omega-3 fatty acids like a-linolenic acid are important structural components of cell membranes. When incorporated into phospholipids, they affect cell membrane properties such as fluidity, flexibility, permeability and the activity of membrane bound enzymes. Omega-3 fatty acids can modulate the expression of a number of genes, including those involved with fatty acid metabolism and inflammation. Alpha linolenic acid and other omega 3 fatty acids may regulate gene expression by interacting with specific transcription factors, including peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) and liver X receptors (LXRs).
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. (9,12,15)-linolenate
  2. (9,12,15)-linolenic acid
  3. (9Z,12Z,15Z)-Octadecatrienoate
  4. (9Z,12Z,15Z)-Octadecatrienoic acid
  5. (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoate
  6. (Z,Z,Z)-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid
  7. 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoate
  8. 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid
  9. 9-cis,12-cis,15-cis-Octadecatrienoate
  10. 9-cis,12-cis,15-cis-Octadecatrienoic acid
  11. a-Linolenate
  12. a-Linolenic acid
  13. All-cis-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoate
  14. All-cis-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid
  15. alpha-Linolenate
  16. alpha-Linolenic acid
  17. cis,cis,cis-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoate
  18. cis,cis,cis-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid
  19. cis-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoate
  20. cis-9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid
  21. Industrene 120
  22. Linolenate
  23. Linolenic acid
Chemical Formula C18H30O2
Average Molecular Weight 278.4296
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 278.224580204
IUPAC Name (9Z,12Z,15Z)-octadeca-9,12,15-trienoic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name α-linolenic acid
CAS Registry Number 463-40-1
SMILES CC\C=C/C\C=C/C\C=C/CCCCCCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/C18H30O2/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18(19)20/h3-4,6-7,9-10H,2,5,8,11-17H2,1H3,(H,19,20)/b4-3-,7-6-,10-9-
InChI Key DTOSIQBPPRVQHS-PDBXOOCHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Lipids
Class Lineolic Acids and Derivatives
Sub Class N/A
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • Organic Compounds
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids(KEGG)
  • Straight Chain Fatty Acids
  • Unsaturated Fatty Acids
  • Unsaturated fatty acids(KEGG)
  • Unsaturated fatty acids(Lipidmaps)
  • linolenic acid(ChEBI)
  • omega-3 fatty acid(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Acyclic Alkene
  • Carboxylic Acid
Direct Parent Lineolic Acids and Derivatives
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Essential fatty acid
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
State Liquid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point -16.5 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility Not Available Not Available
LogP 6.46 SANGSTER (1993)
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
Water Solubility 2.660E-04 g/L ALOGPS
LogP 6.62 ALOGPS
LogP 6.06 ChemAxon
LogS -6.02 ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic) 4.99 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 2 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 1 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 37.3 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 13 ChemAxon
Refractivity 89.64 ChemAxon
Polarizability 34.44 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 0 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge -1 ChemAxon
Spectra
1H NMR Spectrum
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 10
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 25
MS/MS Spectrum Quattro_QQQ 40
MS/MS Spectrum GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)
MS/MS Spectrum GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies)
MS/MS Spectrum GC-MS
[1H,13C] 2D NMR Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Muscle
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Placenta
  • Epidermis
  • Prostate
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Platelet
  • Nervous Tissues
Pathways
Name SMPDB Link KEGG Link
Alpha Linolenic Acid and Linoleic Acid Metabolism SMP00018 map00592 Link_out
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
5.11 +/- 3.8 uM Adult (>18 years old) Not Specified Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
17.5 +/- 7.6 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
16.8 +/- 7.3 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
18.5 +/- 7.9 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
1.1 +/- 0.8 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Geigy Scient...
Blood Detected and Quantified
1.975 +/- 1.223 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.115 +/- 0.004 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.73 +/- 0.54 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Female Normal
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 21.2 +/- 7.2 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Hypertension
Blood Detected and Quantified 20.5 +/- 7.5 uM Adult (>18 years old) Male Essential hypertension
Blood Detected and Quantified 22.7 +/- 6.2 uM Adult (>18 years old) Female Essential hypertension
Urine Detected and Quantified 0.49 +/- 0.46 umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Female Cancer
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Hypertension
  • Wang S, Ma A, Song S, Quan Q, Zhao X, Zheng X: Fasting serum free fatty acid composition, waist/hip ratio and insulin activity in essential hypertensive patients. Hypertens Res. 2008 Apr;31(4):623-32. Pubmed: 18633173 Link_out
      Essential hypertension
      • Wang S, Ma A, Song S, Quan Q, Zhao X, Zheng X: Fasting serum free fatty acid composition, waist/hip ratio and insulin activity in essential hypertensive patients. Hypertens Res. 2008 Apr;31(4):623-32. Pubmed: 18633173 Link_out
          Thyroid cancer
          • Kim KM, Jung BH, Lho DS, Chung WY, Paeng KJ, Chung BC: Alteration of urinary profiles of endogenous steroids and polyunsaturated fatty acids in thyroid cancer. Cancer Lett. 2003 Dec 30;202(2):173-9. Pubmed: 14643447 Link_out
              Associated OMIM IDs
              DrugBank ID DB00132 Link_out
              DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
              Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
              Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
              FoodDB ID FDB012462
              KNApSAcK ID C00007247 Link_out
              Chemspider ID 4444437 Link_out
              KEGG Compound ID C06427 Link_out
              BioCyc ID LINOLENIC_ACID Link_out
              BiGG ID 48237 Link_out
              Wikipedia Link Linolenic acid Link_out
              NuGOwiki Link HMDB01388 Link_out
              Metagene Link HMDB01388 Link_out
              METLIN ID 6208 Link_out
              PubChem Compound 5280934 Link_out
              PDB ID LNL Link_out
              ChEBI ID 27432 Link_out
              References
              Synthesis Reference Li, Guihua; Qian, Xiangming; Jiang, Yanchao; Ma, Shushi. Preparation of a-linolenic acid from linseed oil. Zhengzhou Gongcheng Xueyuan Xuebao (2004), 25(3), 13-15.
              Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
              General References
              1. Christensen JH, Fabrin K, Borup K, Barber N, Poulsen J: Prostate tissue and leukocyte levels of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in men with benign prostate hyperplasia or prostate cancer. BJU Int. 2006 Feb;97(2):270-3. Pubmed: 16430627 Link_out
              2. Attar-Bashi NM, Frauman AG, Sinclair AJ: Alpha-linolenic acid and the risk of prostate cancer. What is the evidence? J Urol. 2004 Apr;171(4):1402-7. Pubmed: 15017185 Link_out
              3. Rastogi SK, Singh J: Effect of chemical penetration enhancer and iontophoresis on the in vitro percutaneous absorption enhancement of insulin through porcine epidermis. Pharm Dev Technol. 2005;10(1):97-104. Pubmed: 15776817 Link_out
              4. Allman MA, Pena MM, Pang D: Supplementation with flaxseed oil versus sunflowerseed oil in healthy young men consuming a low fat diet: effects on platelet composition and function. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1995 Mar;49(3):169-78. Pubmed: 7774533 Link_out
              5. Fokkema MR, Brouwer DA, Hasperhoven MB, Martini IA, Muskiet FA: Short-term supplementation of low-dose gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), or GLA plus ALA does not augment LCP omega 3 status of Dutch vegans to an appreciable extent. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2000 Nov;63(5):287-92. Pubmed: 11090255 Link_out
              6. Becker CC, Lund P, Holmer G, Jensen H, Sandstrom B: Effects of butter oil blends with increased concentrations of stearic, oleic and linolenic acid on blood lipids in young adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jul;53(7):535-41. Pubmed: 10452408 Link_out
              7. Jones DB, Scaretto L, Carter R, Mann JI: Glucose, insulin and platelet fatty acids following myocardial infarction: an association with infarct size. Diabete Metab. 1987 Jul-Aug;13(4):463-6. Pubmed: 3315767 Link_out
              8. Crastes de Paulet A, Babin F, Billeaud C, Bougle D, Sarda P, Mendy F: [Biological effects on premature neonates of a milk formula enriched with alpha-linolenic acid: a multicenter study] Bull Acad Natl Med. 1994 Feb;178(2):267-73; discussion 273-8. Pubmed: 7913655 Link_out
              9. Richieri GV, Ogata RT, Kleinfeld AM: Equilibrium constants for the binding of fatty acids with fatty acid-binding proteins from adipocyte, intestine, heart, and liver measured with the fluorescent probe ADIFAB. J Biol Chem. 1994 Sep 30;269(39):23918-30. Pubmed: 7929039 Link_out
              10. Li D, Sinclair A, Wilson A, Nakkote S, Kelly F, Abedin L, Mann N, Turner A: Effect of dietary alpha-linolenic acid on thrombotic risk factors in vegetarian men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 May;69(5):872-82. Pubmed: 10232625 Link_out
              11. Bhatia KS, Singh J: Effect of linolenic acid/ethanol or limonene/ethanol and iontophoresis on the in vitro percutaneous absorption of LHRH and ultrastructure of human epidermis. Int J Pharm. 1999 Apr 15;180(2):235-50. Pubmed: 10370194 Link_out
              12. Baylin A, Kabagambe EK, Ascherio A, Spiegelman D, Campos H: Adipose tissue alpha-linolenic acid and nonfatal acute myocardial infarction in Costa Rica. Circulation. 2003 Apr 1;107(12):1586-91. Epub 2003 Mar 10. Pubmed: 12668490 Link_out
              13. Williard DE, Nwankwo JO, Kaduce TL, Harmon SD, Irons M, Moser HW, Raymond GV, Spector AA: Identification of a fatty acid delta6-desaturase deficiency in human skin fibroblasts. J Lipid Res. 2001 Apr;42(4):501-8. Pubmed: 11290821 Link_out
              14. Campbell FM, Gordon MJ, Dutta-Roy AK: Preferential uptake of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids by isolated human placental membranes. Mol Cell Biochem. 1996 Feb 9;155(1):77-83. Pubmed: 8717442 Link_out
              15. Cunnane SC, Hamadeh MJ, Liede AC, Thompson LU, Wolever TM, Jenkins DJ: Nutritional attributes of traditional flaxseed in healthy young adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Jan;61(1):62-8. Pubmed: 7825540 Link_out
              16. Bajaj M, Suraamornkul S, Romanelli A, Cline GW, Mandarino LJ, Shulman GI, DeFronzo RA: Effect of a sustained reduction in plasma free fatty acid concentration on intramuscular long-chain fatty Acyl-CoAs and insulin action in type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetes. 2005 Nov;54(11):3148-53. Pubmed: 16249438 Link_out
              17. Connor WE: Importance of n-3 fatty acids in health and disease. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jan;71(1 Suppl):171S-5S. Pubmed: 10617967 Link_out
              18. Lauritzen I, Blondeau N, Heurteaux C, Widmann C, Romey G, Lazdunski M: Polyunsaturated fatty acids are potent neuroprotectors. EMBO J. 2000 Apr 17;19(8):1784-93. Pubmed: 10775263 Link_out
              19. Cho E, Hung S, Willett WC, Spiegelman D, Rimm EB, Seddon JM, Colditz GA, Hankinson SE: Prospective study of dietary fat and the risk of age-related macular degeneration. Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Feb;73(2):209-18. Pubmed: 11157315 Link_out
              20. Kris-Etherton PM, Harris WS, Appel LJ: Fish consumption, fish oil, omega-3 fatty acids, and cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2002 Nov 19;106(21):2747-57. Pubmed: 12438303 Link_out
              21. Brouwer IA, Katan MB, Zock PL: Dietary alpha-linolenic acid is associated with reduced risk of fatal coronary heart disease, but increased prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis. J Nutr. 2004 Apr;134(4):919-22. Pubmed: 15051847 Link_out

              Enzymes
              Name: Calcium-dependent phospholipase A2
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G5
              Uniprot ID: P39877 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Group IIF secretory phospholipase A2
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G2F
              Uniprot ID: Q9BZM2 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Cytosolic phospholipase A2
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G4A
              Uniprot ID: P47712 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Phospholipase A2
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G1B
              Uniprot ID: P04054 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Group XIIB secretory phospholipase A2-like protein
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G12B
              Uniprot ID: Q9BX93 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Group 10 secretory phospholipase A2
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G10
              Uniprot ID: O15496 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Group IIE secretory phospholipase A2
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G2E
              Uniprot ID: Q9NZK7 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Group XIIA secretory phospholipase A2
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G12A
              Uniprot ID: Q9BZM1 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: 85/88 kDa calcium-independent phospholipase A2
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G6
              Uniprot ID: O60733 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Phospholipase A2, membrane associated
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G2A
              Uniprot ID: P14555 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Group IID secretory phospholipase A2
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G2D
              Uniprot ID: Q9UNK4 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Cytosolic phospholipase A2 gamma
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G4C
              Uniprot ID: Q9UP65 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Group 3 secretory phospholipase A2
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G3
              Uniprot ID: Q9NZ20 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: BAAT
              Uniprot ID: Q14032 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Cytosolic acyl coenzyme A thioester hydrolase
              Reactions:
              Alpha-Linolenoyl-CoA + Water unknown Coenzyme A + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: ACOT7
              Uniprot ID: O00154 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Acyl-coenzyme A thioesterase 2, mitochondrial
              Reactions:
              Alpha-Linolenoyl-CoA + Water unknown Coenzyme A + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: ACOT2
              Uniprot ID: P49753 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Acyl-coenzyme A thioesterase 4
              Reactions:
              Alpha-Linolenoyl-CoA + Water unknown Coenzyme A + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: ACOT4
              Uniprot ID: Q8N9L9 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Acyl-coenzyme A thioesterase 8
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: ACOT8
              Uniprot ID: O14734 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 1
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: TRPV1
              Uniprot ID: Q8NER1 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Fatty acid desaturase 1
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: FADS1
              Uniprot ID: O60427 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Sodium/calcium exchanger 1
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: SLC8A1
              Uniprot ID: P32418 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Fatty acid desaturase 2
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: FADS2
              Uniprot ID: O95864 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Elongation of very long chain fatty acids protein 4
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: ELOVL4
              Uniprot ID: Q9GZR5 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Phospholipase B1, membrane-associated
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLB1
              Uniprot ID: Q6P1J6 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Cytosolic phospholipase A2 delta
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G4D
              Uniprot ID: Q86XP0 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Cytosolic phospholipase A2 epsilon
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G4E
              Uniprot ID: Q3MJ16 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Cytosolic phospholipase A2 zeta
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G4F
              Uniprot ID: Q68DD2 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Cytosolic phospholipase A2 beta
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G4B
              Uniprot ID: P0C869 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Acyl-coenzyme A thioesterase 1
              Reactions:
              Alpha-Linolenoyl-CoA + Water unknown Coenzyme A + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: ACOT1
              Uniprot ID: Q86TX2 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: HRAS-like suppressor 3
              Reactions:
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 1-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Phosphatidylcholine + Water unknown 2-Acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + Alpha-Linolenic acid details
              Gene Name: PLA2G16
              Uniprot ID: P53816 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA