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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2014-08-21 16:32:04 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01426
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameFormaldehyde
DescriptionFormaldehyde is a highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717) -- Pubchem; The chemical compound formaldehyde (also known as methanal), is a gas with a pungent smell. It is the simplest aldehyde. Its chemical formula is H2CO. Formaldehyde was first synthesized by the Russian chemist Aleksandr Butlerov in 1859 but was conclusively identified by August Wilhelm van Hofmann in 1867. Although formaldehyde is a gas at room temperature, it is readily soluble in water, and it is most commonly sold as a 37% solution in water called by trade names such as formalin or formol. In water, formaldehyde polymerizes, and formalin actually contains very little formaldehyde in the form of H2CO monomer. Usually, these solutions contain a few percent methanol to limit the extent of polymerization. Formaldehyde exhibits most of the general chemical properties of the aldehydes, except that is generally more reactive than other aldehydes. Formaldehyde is a potent electrophile. It can participate in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions with aromatic compounds and can undergo electrophilic addition reactions with alkenes. In the presence of basic catalysts, formaldehyde undergoes a Cannizaro reaction to produce formic acid and methanol. Because formaldehyde resins are used in many construction materials, including plywood, carpet, and spray-on insulating foams, and because these resins slowly give off formaldehyde over time, formaldehyde is one of the more common indoor air pollutants. At concentrations above 0.1 mg/kg in air, inhaled formaldehyde can irritate the eyes and mucous membranes, resulting in watery eyes, headache, a burning sensation in the throat, and difficulty breathing. -- Wikipedia.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Methaldehyde
  2. Methylene glycol
  3. Aldeide formica
  4. Fannoform
  5. Formaldehyde
  6. Formalina
  7. Formaline
  8. Formalith
  9. Formic aldehyde
  10. Formol
  11. Methanal
  12. Methylene oxide
  13. Oxomethylene
  14. Paraform
Chemical FormulaCH2O
Average Molecular Weight30.026
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight30.010564686
IUPAC Nameformaldehyde
Traditional IUPAC Nameformaldehyde
CAS Registry Number50-00-0
SMILES
C=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/CH2O/c1-2/h1H2
InChI KeyWSFSSNUMVMOOMR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAliphatic Acyclic Compounds
ClassCarbonyl Compounds
Sub ClassAldehydes
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • aldehyde(ChEBI)
  • an n-alkanal(Cyc)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentAldehydes
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-92 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility400 mg/mL at 20 °CNot Available
LogP0.35HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility198 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.68ALOGPS
logP-0.47ChemAxon
logS0.82ALOGPS
pKa (strongest basic)-6.5ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count1ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area17.07ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity6.31ChemAxon
polarizability2.58ChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Bladder
  • Bone Marrow
  • Brain
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gonads
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Lung
  • Muscle
  • Myelin
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Skin
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified13.3-19.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Akadémiai Kiadó, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.2 (0.12-0.31) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00531
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB009445
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID692
KEGG Compound IDC00067
BioCyc IDFORMALDEHYDE
BiGG ID33726
Wikipedia LinkFormaldehyde
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01426
Metagene LinkHMDB01426
METLIN ID3198
PubChem Compound712
PDB IDFOR
ChEBI ID16842
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Lu CY, Chou AK, Wu CL, Yang CH, Chen JT, Wu PC, Lin SH, Muhammad R, Yang LC: Gene-gun particle with pro-opiomelanocortin cDNA produces analgesia against formalin-induced pain in rats. Gene Ther. 2002 Aug;9(15):1008-14. Pubmed: 12101431
  2. Yang G, Ayala G, De Marzo A, Tian W, Frolov A, Wheeler TM, Thompson TC, Harper JW: Elevated Skp2 protein expression in human prostate cancer: association with loss of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 and PTEN and with reduced recurrence-free survival. Clin Cancer Res. 2002 Nov;8(11):3419-26. Pubmed: 12429629
  3. Castrillon DH, Sun D, Weremowicz S, Fisher RA, Crum CP, Genest DR: Discrimination of complete hydatidiform mole from its mimics by immunohistochemistry of the paternally imprinted gene product p57KIP2. Am J Surg Pathol. 2001 Oct;25(10):1225-30. Pubmed: 11688455
  4. Marinkovic S, Gibo H, Zelic O, Nikodijevic I: The neurovascular relationships and the blood supply of the trochlear nerve: surgical anatomy of its cisternal segment. Neurosurgery. 1996 Jan;38(1):161-9. Pubmed: 8747965
  5. Pagani S, Mirtella D, Mencarelli R, Rodriguez D, Cingolani M: Postmortem distribution of sildenafil in histological material. J Anal Toxicol. 2005 May-Jun;29(4):254-7. Pubmed: 15975255
  6. Heck H, Casanova M: The implausibility of leukemia induction by formaldehyde: a critical review of the biological evidence on distant-site toxicity. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2004 Oct;40(2):92-106. Pubmed: 15450713
  7. Shinkai M, Shinkai T, Puri P, Stringer MD: Elevated expression of IL2 is associated with increased infiltration of CD8+ T cells in biliary atresia. J Pediatr Surg. 2006 Feb;41(2):300-5. Pubmed: 16481239
  8. Panasiuk A, Prokopowicz D, Dzieciol J: p53 protein expression in chronic hepatitis C; effect of interferon alpha 2b therapy. Hepatogastroenterology. 2005 Jul-Aug;52(64):1176-9. Pubmed: 16001656
  9. van Dijk WR, van Haperen MJ, Stefanko SZ, van der Kamp AW: Monoclonal antibody selectively reactive with myelin sheaths of the peripheral nervous system in paraffin-embedded material. Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 1986;71(3-4):311-5. Pubmed: 2432751
  10. Shakleya DM, Kraner JC, Kaplan JA, Gannett PM, Callery PS: Identification of N,N-dimethylamphetamine formed by methylation of methamphetamine in formalin-fixed liver tissue by multistage mass spectrometry. Forensic Sci Int. 2006 Mar 10;157(2-3):87-92. Pubmed: 15893897
  11. Burke AP, Mont E, Kolodgie F, Virmani R: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura causing rapid unexpected death: value of CD61 immunohistochemical staining in diagnosis. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2005 May-Jun;14(3):150-5. Pubmed: 15914300
  12. Visee S, Soltner C, Rialland X, Machet MC, Loussouarn D, Milinkevitch S, Pasco-Papon A, Mercier P, Rousselet MC: Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours of the brain: multidirectional differentiation does not influence prognosis. A clinicopathological report of 18 patients. Histopathology. 2005 Apr;46(4):403-12. Pubmed: 15810952
  13. Sriram S, Ljunggren-Rose A, Yao SY, Whetsell WO Jr: Detection of chlamydial bodies and antigens in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis. J Infect Dis. 2005 Oct 1;192(7):1219-28. Epub 2005 Sep 2. Pubmed: 16136465
  14. Wilfredo Canchis P, Gonzalez SA, Isabel Fiel M, Chiriboga L, Yee H, Edlin BR, Jacobson IM, Talal AH: Hepatocyte proliferation in chronic hepatitis C: correlation with degree of liver disease and serum alpha-fetoprotein. Liver Int. 2004 Jun;24(3):198-203. Pubmed: 15189269
  15. Zeldin DC, Foley J, Boyle JE, Moomaw CR, Tomer KB, Parker C, Steenbergen C, Wu S: Predominant expression of an arachidonate epoxygenase in islets of Langerhans cells in human and rat pancreas. Endocrinology. 1997 Mar;138(3):1338-46. Pubmed: 9048644
  16. Moore GR, Leung E, MacKay AL, Vavasour IM, Whittall KP, Cover KS, Li DK, Hashimoto SA, Oger J, Sprinkle TJ, Paty DW: A pathology-MRI study of the short-T2 component in formalin-fixed multiple sclerosis brain. Neurology. 2000 Nov 28;55(10):1506-10. Pubmed: 11094105
  17. Koscielny J, Aslan T, Meyer O, Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Mrowietz C, Latza R: Use of the platelet reactivity index by Grotemeyer, platelet function analyzer, and retention test Homburg to monitor therapy with antiplatelet drugs. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2005;31(4):464-9. Pubmed: 16149025
  18. Nader N, Raverot G, Emptoz-Bonneton A, Dechaud H, Bonnay M, Baudin E, Pugeat M: Mitotane has an estrogenic effect on sex hormone-binding globulin and corticosteroid-binding globulin in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jun;91(6):2165-70. Epub 2006 Mar 21. Pubmed: 16551731
  19. North WG, Memoli VA, Keegan BP: Immunohistochemical detection of NRSA on small cell lung cancer with a monoclonal antibody (MAG-1) that recognizes the carboxyl terminus of provasopressin. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2005 Dec;13(4):363-6. Pubmed: 16280667
  20. Katsetos CD, Jami MM, Krishna L, Jackson R, Patchefsky AS, Cooper HS: Novel immunohistochemical localization of 28,000 molecular-weight (Mr) calcium binding protein (calbindin-D28k) in enterochromaffin cells of the human appendix and neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids and small-cell carcinomas) of the midgut and foregut. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1994 Jun;118(6):633-9. Pubmed: 8204010

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes sarcosine, L-pipecolic acid and L-proline.
Gene Name:
PIPOX
Uniprot ID:
Q9P0Z9
Molecular weight:
44065.515
Reactions
Sarcosine + Water + Oxygen → Glycine + Formaldehyde + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
DMGDH
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI17
Molecular weight:
96810.135
Reactions
Dimethylglycine + electron-transfer flavoprotein + Water → Sarcosine + Formaldehyde + reduced electron-transfer flavoproteindetails
Dimethylglycine + Electron-transferring flavoprotein + Water → Sarcosine + Formaldehyde + Reduced electron-transferring flavoproteindetails
General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
May contribute to airway host defense against infection.
Gene Name:
LPO
Uniprot ID:
P22079
Molecular weight:
70983.6
General function:
Involved in antioxidant activity
Specific function:
Involved in redox regulation of the cell. Can reduce H(2)O(2) and short chain organic, fatty acid, and phospholipid hydroperoxides. May play a role in the regulation of phospholipid turnover as well as in protection against oxidative injury.
Gene Name:
PRDX6
Uniprot ID:
P30041
Molecular weight:
25034.715
Reactions
Methanol + Hydrogen peroxide → Formaldehyde + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Part of the host defense system of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is responsible for microbicidal activity against a wide range of organisms. In the stimulated PMN, MPO catalyzes the production of hypohalous acids, primarily hypochlorous acid in physiologic situations, and other toxic intermediates that greatly enhance PMN microbicidal activity.
Gene Name:
MPO
Uniprot ID:
P05164
Molecular weight:
83867.71
General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Mediates tyrosine nitration of secondary granule proteins in mature resting eosinophils. Shows significant inhibitory activity towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv by inducing bacterial fragmentation and lysis.
Gene Name:
EPX
Uniprot ID:
P11678
Molecular weight:
81039.5
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Cell adhesion protein that participates in lymphocyte recirculation by mediating the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node vascular endothelial cells in an L-selectin-independent fashion. Has a monoamine oxidase activity. May play a role in adipogenesis.
Gene Name:
AOC3
Uniprot ID:
Q16853
Molecular weight:
84621.27
Reactions
Methylamine + Oxygen + Water → Formaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Has a monoamine oxidase activity with substrate specificity for 2-phenylethylamine and tryptamine. May play a role in adipogenesis. May be a critical modulator of signal transmission in retina.
Gene Name:
AOC2
Uniprot ID:
O75106
Molecular weight:
80515.11
Reactions
Methylamine + Oxygen + Water → Formaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SARDH
Uniprot ID:
Q9UL12
Molecular weight:
101035.985
Reactions
Sarcosine + Water + electron-transfer flavoprotein → Glycine + Formaldehyde + reduced electron-transfer flavoproteindetails
Sarcosine + Electron-transferring flavoprotein + Water → Glycine + Formaldehyde + Reduced electron-transferring flavoproteindetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits low testosterone 6-beta-hydroxylase activity.
Gene Name:
CYP3A43
Uniprot ID:
Q9HB55
Molecular weight:
57756.285
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Participates in the metabolism of an as-yet-unknown biologically active molecule that is a participant in eye development.
Gene Name:
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q16678
Molecular weight:
60845.33
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID:
P33260
Molecular weight:
55710.075
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
May be involved in the metabolism of various pneumotoxicants including naphthalene. Is able to dealkylate ethoxycoumarin, propoxycoumarin, and pentoxyresorufin but possesses no activity toward ethoxyresorufin and only trace dearylation activity toward benzyloxyresorufin. Bioactivates 3-methylindole (3MI) by dehydrogenation to the putative electrophile 3-methylene-indolenine.
Gene Name:
CYP2F1
Uniprot ID:
P24903
Molecular weight:
55500.64
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP4X1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N118
Molecular weight:
58874.62
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular weight:
56277.81
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Active in the metabolic activation of hexamethylphosphoramide, N,N-dimethylaniline, 2'-methoxyacetophenone, N-nitrosomethylphenylamine, and the tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. Possesses phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A13
Uniprot ID:
Q16696
Molecular weight:
56687.095
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular weight:
57525.03
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP4B1
Uniprot ID:
P13584
Molecular weight:
58990.64
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP4Z1
Uniprot ID:
Q86W10
Molecular weight:
59085.45
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular weight:
57882.48
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has a potential importance for extrahepatic xenobiotic metabolism.
Gene Name:
CYP2S1
Uniprot ID:
Q96SQ9
Molecular weight:
55816.205
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme metabolizes arachidonic acid predominantly via a NADPH-dependent olefin epoxidation to all four regioisomeric cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. One of the predominant enzymes responsible for the epoxidation of endogenous cardiac arachidonic acid pools.
Gene Name:
CYP2J2
Uniprot ID:
P51589
Molecular weight:
57610.165
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2A7
Uniprot ID:
P20853
Molecular weight:
56424.735
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular weight:
56517.005
General function:
Involved in catalase activity
Specific function:
Occurs in almost all aerobically respiring organisms and serves to protect cells from the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide. Promotes growth of cells including T-cells, B-cells, myeloid leukemia cells, melanoma cells, mastocytoma cells and normal and transformed fibroblast cells.
Gene Name:
CAT
Uniprot ID:
P04040
Molecular weight:
59755.82
Reactions
Methanol + Hydrogen peroxide → Formaldehyde + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
A0N0X8
Molecular weight:
58164.8
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Dioxygenase that repairs alkylated DNA and RNA containing 1-methyladenine and 3-methylcytosine by oxidative demethylation. Can also repair alkylated DNA containing 1-ethenoadenine (in vitro). Has strong preference for double-stranded DNA. Has low efficiency with single-stranded substrates. Requires molecular oxygen, alpha-ketoglutarate and iron.
Gene Name:
ALKBH2
Uniprot ID:
Q6NS38
Molecular weight:
29322.22
Reactions
DNA-base-CH(3) + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → DNA-base + Formaldehyde + Succinic acid + CO(2)details
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Histone demethylase that specifically demethylates 'Lys-36' of histone H3, thereby playing a central role in histone code. Preferentially demethylates dimethylated H3 'Lys-36' residue while it has weak or no activity for mono- and tri-methylated H3 'Lys-36'. May also recognize and bind to some phosphorylated proteins and promote their ubiquitination and degradation. Required to maintain the heterochromatic state. Associates with centromeres and represses transcription of small non-coding RNAs that are encoded by the clusters of satellite repeats at the centromere. Required to sustain centromeric integrity and genomic stability, particularly during mitosis.
Gene Name:
KDM2A
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2K7
Molecular weight:
81677.13
Reactions
Protein N(6),N(6)-dimethyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2)details
Protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → protein L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2)details
Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → Protein lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Histone demethylase that demethylates 'Lys-4' and 'Lys-36' of histone H3, thereby playing a central role in histone code. Preferentially demethylates trimethylated H3 'Lys-4' and dimethylated H3 'Lys-36' residue while it has weak or no activity for mono- and tri-methylated H3 'Lys-36'. Preferentially binds the transcribed region of ribosomal RNA and represses the transcription of ribosomal RNA genes which inhibits cell growth and proliferation. May also serve as a substrate-recognition component of the SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein)-type E3 ubiquitin ligase complex.
Gene Name:
KDM2B
Uniprot ID:
Q8NHM5
Molecular weight:
144767.43
Reactions
Protein N(6),N(6)-dimethyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2)details
Protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → protein L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2)details
Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → Protein lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + Carbon dioxidedetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
Q6NWU0
Molecular weight:
55729.9
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Dioxygenase that repairs alkylated single-stranded DNA and RNA containing 3-methylcytosine by oxidative demethylation. Requires molecular oxygen, alpha-ketoglutarate and iron. May have a role in placental trophoblast lineage differentiation (By similarity). Has DNA lyase activity and introduces double-stranded breaks at abasic sites. Cleaves both single-stranded DNA and double-stranded DNA at abasic sites, with the greatest activity towards double-stranded DNA with two abasic sites. DNA lyase activity does not require alpha-ketoglutarate and iron.
Gene Name:
ALKBH1
Uniprot ID:
Q13686
Molecular weight:
43831.39
Reactions
DNA-base-CH(3) + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → DNA-base + Formaldehyde + Succinic acid + CO(2)details
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Histone demethylase required for G2/M phase cell cycle progression. Specifically demethylates dimethylated 'Lys-36' (H3K36me2) of histone H3, an epigenetic repressive mark, thereby acting as a transcription activator. Regulates expression of CCNA1 (cyclin-A1), leading to regulate cancer cell proliferation.
Gene Name:
KDM8
Uniprot ID:
Q8N371
Molecular weight:
50851.565
Reactions
Protein N(6),N(6)-dimethyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2)details
Protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → protein L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2)details
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Oxygenase that can act as both a histone lysine demethylase and a ribosomal histidine hydroxylase. Specifically demethylates 'Lys-4' (H3K4me) and 'Lys-36' (H3K36me) of histone H3, thereby playing a central role in histone code. Preferentially demethylates trimethylated H3 'Lys-4' (H3K4me3) and monomethylated H3 'Lys-4' (H3K4me1) residues, while it has weaker activity for dimethylated H3 'Lys-36' (H3K36me2). Also catalyzes the hydroxylation of 60S ribosomal protein L8 on 'His-216'. Acts as a regulator of osteoblast differentiation via its interaction with SP7/OSX by demethylating H3K4me and H3K36me, thereby inhibiting SP7/OSX-mediated promoter activation (By similarity). May also play a role in ribosome biogenesis and in the replication or remodeling of certain heterochromatic region. Participates in MYC-induced transcriptional activation.
Gene Name:
NO66
Uniprot ID:
Q9H6W3
Molecular weight:
71084.97
Reactions
Protein N(6),N(6)-dimethyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2)details
Protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → protein L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2)details
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Histone lysine demethylase with selectivity for the di- and monomethyl states that plays a key role cell cycle progression, rDNA transcription and brain development. Demethylates mono- and dimethylated histone H3 'Lys-9' residue (H3K9Me1 and H3K9Me2), dimethylated H3 'Lys-27' (H3K27Me2) and monomethylated histone H4 'Lys-20' residue (H4K20Me1). Acts as a transcription activator as H3K9Me1, H3K9Me2, H3K27Me2 and H4K20Me1 are epigenetic repressive marks. Involved in cell cycle progression by being required to control G1-S transition. Acts as a coactivator of rDNA transcription, by activating polymerase I (pol I) mediated transcription of rRNA genes. Required for brain development, probably by regulating expression of neuron-specific genes. Only has activity toward H4K20Me1 when nucleosome is used as a substrate and when not histone octamer is used as substrate. May also have weak activity toward dimethylated H3 'Lys-36' (H3K36Me2), however, the relevance of this result remains unsure in vivo. Specifically binds trimethylated 'Lys-4' of histone H3 (H3K4me3), affecting histone demethylase specificity: has weak activity toward H3K9Me2 in absence of H3K4me3, while it has high activity toward H3K9me2 when binding H3K4me3.
Gene Name:
PHF8
Uniprot ID:
Q9UPP1
Molecular weight:
117862.955
Reactions
Protein N(6),N(6)-dimethyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2)details
Protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen → protein L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2)details