Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Formaldehyde (HMDB01426)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2005-11-16 08:48:42 -0700
Update Date 2013-06-12 13:24:53 -0600
HMDB ID HMDB01426
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Formaldehyde
Description Formaldehyde is a highly reactive aldehyde gas formed by oxidation or incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. In solution, it has a wide range of uses: in the manufacture of resins and textiles, as a disinfectant, and as a laboratory fixative or preservative. Formaldehyde solution (formalin) is considered a hazardous compound, and its vapor toxic. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p717) -- Pubchem; The chemical compound formaldehyde (also known as methanal), is a gas with a pungent smell. It is the simplest aldehyde. Its chemical formula is H2CO. Formaldehyde was first synthesized by the Russian chemist Aleksandr Butlerov in 1859 but was conclusively identified by August Wilhelm van Hofmann in 1867. Although formaldehyde is a gas at room temperature, it is readily soluble in water, and it is most commonly sold as a 37% solution in water called by trade names such as formalin or formol. In water, formaldehyde polymerizes, and formalin actually contains very little formaldehyde in the form of H2CO monomer. Usually, these solutions contain a few percent methanol to limit the extent of polymerization. Formaldehyde exhibits most of the general chemical properties of the aldehydes, except that is generally more reactive than other aldehydes. Formaldehyde is a potent electrophile. It can participate in electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions with aromatic compounds and can undergo electrophilic addition reactions with alkenes. In the presence of basic catalysts, formaldehyde undergoes a Cannizaro reaction to produce formic acid and methanol. Because formaldehyde resins are used in many construction materials, including plywood, carpet, and spray-on insulating foams, and because these resins slowly give off formaldehyde over time, formaldehyde is one of the more common indoor air pollutants. At concentrations above 0.1 mg/kg in air, inhaled formaldehyde can irritate the eyes and mucous membranes, resulting in watery eyes, headache, a burning sensation in the throat, and difficulty breathing. -- Wikipedia.
Structure Thumb
Download: MOL | SDF | PDB | SMILES | InChI
Display: 2D Structure | 3D Structure
Synonyms
  1. Methaldehyde
  2. Methylene glycol
  3. Aldeide formica
  4. Chlodithan
  5. Chlodithane
  6. Fannoform
  7. Formaldehyde
  8. Formalina
  9. Formaline
  10. Formalith
  11. Formic aldehyde
  12. Formol
  13. Methanal
  14. Methylene oxide
  15. Oxomethylene
  16. Paraform
Chemical Formula CH2O
Average Molecular Weight 30.026
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 30.010564686
IUPAC Name formaldehyde
Traditional IUPAC Name formaldehyde
CAS Registry Number 50-00-0
SMILES C=O
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/CH2O/c1-2/h1H2
InChI Key WSFSSNUMVMOOMR-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Organic Compounds
Super Class Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
Class Carbonyl Compounds
Sub Class Aldehydes
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • aldehyde(ChEBI)
  • an <i>n</i>-alkanal(Cyc)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct Parent Aldehydes
Ontology
Status Detected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Waste products
Application Not Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
State Liquid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point -92 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility 400 mg/mL at 20 °C Not Available
LogP 0.35 HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
LogP -0.68 ALOGPS
LogP -0.47 ChemAxon
LogS 0.82 ALOGPS
pKa (strongest basic) -6.5 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 1 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 0 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 17.07 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 0 ChemAxon
Refractivity 6.31 ChemAxon
Polarizability 2.58 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 0 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge 0 ChemAxon
Spectra
[1H,1H] 2D NMR Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Muscle
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Bladder
  • Bone Marrow
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Brain
  • Myelin
  • Prostate
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Skin
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Lung
  • Nerve Cells
  • Platelet
  • Gonads
Pathways
Name SMPDB Link KEGG Link
Glycine and Serine Metabolism SMP00004 map00260 Link_out
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
13.3-19.3 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
  • Akadémiai Ki...
Urine Detected and Quantified
0.2 (0.12-0.31) umol/mmol creatinine Adult (>18 years old) Both Normal
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References None
Associated OMIM IDs None
DrugBank ID Not Available
DrugBank Metabolite ID DBMET00531 Link_out
Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
FoodDB ID FDB009445
KNApSAcK ID Not Available
Chemspider ID 692 Link_out
KEGG Compound ID C00067 Link_out
BioCyc ID FORMALDEHYDE Link_out
BiGG ID 33726 Link_out
Wikipedia Link Formaldehyde Link_out
NuGOwiki Link HMDB01426 Link_out
Metagene Link HMDB01426 Link_out
METLIN ID 3198 Link_out
PubChem Compound 712 Link_out
PDB ID FOR Link_out
ChEBI ID 16842 Link_out
References
Synthesis Reference Not Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Lu CY, Chou AK, Wu CL, Yang CH, Chen JT, Wu PC, Lin SH, Muhammad R, Yang LC: Gene-gun particle with pro-opiomelanocortin cDNA produces analgesia against formalin-induced pain in rats. Gene Ther. 2002 Aug;9(15):1008-14. Pubmed: 12101431 Link_out
  2. Yang G, Ayala G, De Marzo A, Tian W, Frolov A, Wheeler TM, Thompson TC, Harper JW: Elevated Skp2 protein expression in human prostate cancer: association with loss of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 and PTEN and with reduced recurrence-free survival. Clin Cancer Res. 2002 Nov;8(11):3419-26. Pubmed: 12429629 Link_out
  3. Castrillon DH, Sun D, Weremowicz S, Fisher RA, Crum CP, Genest DR: Discrimination of complete hydatidiform mole from its mimics by immunohistochemistry of the paternally imprinted gene product p57KIP2. Am J Surg Pathol. 2001 Oct;25(10):1225-30. Pubmed: 11688455 Link_out
  4. Marinkovic S, Gibo H, Zelic O, Nikodijevic I: The neurovascular relationships and the blood supply of the trochlear nerve: surgical anatomy of its cisternal segment. Neurosurgery. 1996 Jan;38(1):161-9. Pubmed: 8747965 Link_out
  5. Pagani S, Mirtella D, Mencarelli R, Rodriguez D, Cingolani M: Postmortem distribution of sildenafil in histological material. J Anal Toxicol. 2005 May-Jun;29(4):254-7. Pubmed: 15975255 Link_out
  6. Heck H, Casanova M: The implausibility of leukemia induction by formaldehyde: a critical review of the biological evidence on distant-site toxicity. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 2004 Oct;40(2):92-106. Pubmed: 15450713 Link_out
  7. Shinkai M, Shinkai T, Puri P, Stringer MD: Elevated expression of IL2 is associated with increased infiltration of CD8+ T cells in biliary atresia. J Pediatr Surg. 2006 Feb;41(2):300-5. Pubmed: 16481239 Link_out
  8. Panasiuk A, Prokopowicz D, Dzieciol J: p53 protein expression in chronic hepatitis C; effect of interferon alpha 2b therapy. Hepatogastroenterology. 2005 Jul-Aug;52(64):1176-9. Pubmed: 16001656 Link_out
  9. van Dijk WR, van Haperen MJ, Stefanko SZ, van der Kamp AW: Monoclonal antibody selectively reactive with myelin sheaths of the peripheral nervous system in paraffin-embedded material. Acta Neuropathol (Berl). 1986;71(3-4):311-5. Pubmed: 2432751 Link_out
  10. Shakleya DM, Kraner JC, Kaplan JA, Gannett PM, Callery PS: Identification of N,N-dimethylamphetamine formed by methylation of methamphetamine in formalin-fixed liver tissue by multistage mass spectrometry. Forensic Sci Int. 2006 Mar 10;157(2-3):87-92. Pubmed: 15893897 Link_out
  11. Burke AP, Mont E, Kolodgie F, Virmani R: Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura causing rapid unexpected death: value of CD61 immunohistochemical staining in diagnosis. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2005 May-Jun;14(3):150-5. Pubmed: 15914300 Link_out
  12. Visee S, Soltner C, Rialland X, Machet MC, Loussouarn D, Milinkevitch S, Pasco-Papon A, Mercier P, Rousselet MC: Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours of the brain: multidirectional differentiation does not influence prognosis. A clinicopathological report of 18 patients. Histopathology. 2005 Apr;46(4):403-12. Pubmed: 15810952 Link_out
  13. Sriram S, Ljunggren-Rose A, Yao SY, Whetsell WO Jr: Detection of chlamydial bodies and antigens in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis. J Infect Dis. 2005 Oct 1;192(7):1219-28. Epub 2005 Sep 2. Pubmed: 16136465 Link_out
  14. Wilfredo Canchis P, Gonzalez SA, Isabel Fiel M, Chiriboga L, Yee H, Edlin BR, Jacobson IM, Talal AH: Hepatocyte proliferation in chronic hepatitis C: correlation with degree of liver disease and serum alpha-fetoprotein. Liver Int. 2004 Jun;24(3):198-203. Pubmed: 15189269 Link_out
  15. Zeldin DC, Foley J, Boyle JE, Moomaw CR, Tomer KB, Parker C, Steenbergen C, Wu S: Predominant expression of an arachidonate epoxygenase in islets of Langerhans cells in human and rat pancreas. Endocrinology. 1997 Mar;138(3):1338-46. Pubmed: 9048644 Link_out
  16. Moore GR, Leung E, MacKay AL, Vavasour IM, Whittall KP, Cover KS, Li DK, Hashimoto SA, Oger J, Sprinkle TJ, Paty DW: A pathology-MRI study of the short-T2 component in formalin-fixed multiple sclerosis brain. Neurology. 2000 Nov 28;55(10):1506-10. Pubmed: 11094105 Link_out
  17. Koscielny J, Aslan T, Meyer O, Kiesewetter H, Jung F, Mrowietz C, Latza R: Use of the platelet reactivity index by Grotemeyer, platelet function analyzer, and retention test Homburg to monitor therapy with antiplatelet drugs. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2005;31(4):464-9. Pubmed: 16149025 Link_out
  18. Nader N, Raverot G, Emptoz-Bonneton A, Dechaud H, Bonnay M, Baudin E, Pugeat M: Mitotane has an estrogenic effect on sex hormone-binding globulin and corticosteroid-binding globulin in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006 Jun;91(6):2165-70. Epub 2006 Mar 21. Pubmed: 16551731 Link_out
  19. North WG, Memoli VA, Keegan BP: Immunohistochemical detection of NRSA on small cell lung cancer with a monoclonal antibody (MAG-1) that recognizes the carboxyl terminus of provasopressin. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol. 2005 Dec;13(4):363-6. Pubmed: 16280667 Link_out
  20. Katsetos CD, Jami MM, Krishna L, Jackson R, Patchefsky AS, Cooper HS: Novel immunohistochemical localization of 28,000 molecular-weight (Mr) calcium binding protein (calbindin-D28k) in enterochromaffin cells of the human appendix and neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids and small-cell carcinomas) of the midgut and foregut. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1994 Jun;118(6):633-9. Pubmed: 8204010 Link_out

Enzymes
Name: Peroxisomal sarcosine oxidase
Reactions:
Sarcosine + Water + Oxygen unknown Glycine + Formaldehyde + Hydrogen peroxide details
Gene Name: PIPOX
Uniprot ID: Q9P0Z9 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Dimethylglycine dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Reactions:
Dimethylglycine + electron-transfer flavoprotein + Water unknown Sarcosine + Formaldehyde + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein details
Dimethylglycine + Electron-transferring flavoprotein + Water unknown Sarcosine + Formaldehyde + Reduced electron-transferring flavoprotein details
Gene Name: DMGDH
Uniprot ID: Q9UI17 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Lactoperoxidase
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: LPO
Uniprot ID: P22079 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Peroxiredoxin-6
Reactions:
Methanol + Hydrogen peroxide unknown Formaldehyde + Water details
Gene Name: PRDX6
Uniprot ID: P30041 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Myeloperoxidase
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: MPO
Uniprot ID: P05164 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Eosinophil peroxidase
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: EPX
Uniprot ID: P11678 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Membrane primary amine oxidase
Reactions:
Methylamine + Oxygen + Water unknown Formaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Gene Name: AOC3
Uniprot ID: Q16853 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Retina-specific copper amine oxidase
Reactions:
Methylamine + Oxygen + Water unknown Formaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide details
Gene Name: AOC2
Uniprot ID: O75106 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Sarcosine dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Reactions:
Sarcosine + Water + electron-transfer flavoprotein unknown Glycine + Formaldehyde + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein details
Sarcosine + Electron-transferring flavoprotein + Water unknown Glycine + Formaldehyde + Reduced electron-transferring flavoprotein details
Gene Name: SARDH
Uniprot ID: Q9UL12 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 3A4
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP3A4
Uniprot ID: P08684 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 2C9
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP2C9
Uniprot ID: P11712 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 2C19
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP2C19
Uniprot ID: P33261 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 2E1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP2E1
Uniprot ID: P05181 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 3A43
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP3A43
Uniprot ID: Q9HB55 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 1B1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP1B1
Uniprot ID: Q16678 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 2C18
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP2C18
Uniprot ID: P33260 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 2F1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP2F1
Uniprot ID: P24903 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 4X1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP4X1
Uniprot ID: Q8N118 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 2B6
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP2B6
Uniprot ID: P20813 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 3A5
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP3A5
Uniprot ID: P20815 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 2A13
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP2A13
Uniprot ID: Q16696 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 3A7
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP3A7
Uniprot ID: P24462 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 4B1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP4B1
Uniprot ID: P13584 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 4Z1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP4Z1
Uniprot ID: Q86W10 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 1A2
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP1A2
Uniprot ID: P05177 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 19A1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP19A1
Uniprot ID: P11511 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 2C8
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP2C8
Uniprot ID: P10632 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 2S1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP2S1
Uniprot ID: Q96SQ9 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 2J2
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP2J2
Uniprot ID: P51589 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 2A7
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP2A7
Uniprot ID: P20853 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 2A6
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP2A6
Uniprot ID: P11509 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Catalase
Reactions:
Methanol + Hydrogen peroxide unknown Formaldehyde + Water details
Gene Name: CAT
Uniprot ID: P04040 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP1A1
Uniprot ID: A0N0X8 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Alpha-ketoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase alkB homolog 2
Reactions:
DNA-base-CH(3) + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown DNA-base + Formaldehyde + Succinic acid + CO(2) details
Gene Name: ALKBH2
Uniprot ID: Q6NS38 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Lysine-specific demethylase 2A
Reactions:
Protein N(6),N(6)-dimethyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2) details
Protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown protein L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2) details
Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown Protein lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + Carbon dioxide details
Gene Name: KDM2A
Uniprot ID: Q9Y2K7 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Lysine-specific demethylase 2B
Reactions:
Protein N(6),N(6)-dimethyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2) details
Protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown protein L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2) details
Protein N6,N6-dimethyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown Protein lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + Carbon dioxide details
Gene Name: KDM2B
Uniprot ID: Q8NHM5 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Cytochrome P450 2D6
Reactions: Not Available
Gene Name: CYP2D6
Uniprot ID: Q6NWU0 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Gene Sequence: FASTA
Name: Alkylated DNA repair protein alkB homolog 1
Reactions:
DNA-base-CH(3) + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown DNA-base + Formaldehyde + Succinic acid + CO(2) details
Gene Name: ALKBH1
Uniprot ID: Q13686 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Name: Lysine-specific demethylase 8
Reactions:
Protein N(6),N(6)-dimethyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2) details
Protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown protein L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2) details
Gene Name: KDM8
Uniprot ID: Q8N371 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Name: Bifunctional lysine-specific demethylase and histidyl-hydroxylase NO66
Reactions:
Protein N(6),N(6)-dimethyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2) details
Protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown protein L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2) details
Gene Name: NO66
Uniprot ID: Q9H6W3 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA
Name: Histone lysine demethylase PHF8
Reactions:
Protein N(6),N(6)-dimethyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2) details
Protein N(6)-methyl-L-lysine + Oxoglutaric acid + Oxygen unknown protein L-lysine + Succinic acid + Formaldehyde + CO(2) details
Gene Name: PHF8
Uniprot ID: Q9UPP1 Link_out
Protein Sequence: FASTA