||Phosphate is a salt of phosphoric acid. In organic chemistry, a phosphate, or organophosphate, is an ester of phosphoric acid. Organic phosphates are important in biochemistry, biogeochemistry and ecology. Phosphate (Pi) is an essential component of life. In biological systems, phosphorus is found as a free phosphate ion in solution and is called inorganic phosphate, to distinguish it from phosphates bound in various phosphate esters. Inorganic phosphate is generally denoted Pi and at physiological (neutral) pH primarily consists of a mixture of HPO2-4 and H2PO-4 ions. phosphates are most commonly found in the form of adenosine phosphates, (AMP, ADP and ATP) and in DNA and RNA and can be released by the hydrolysis of ATP or ADP. Similar reactions exist for the other nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates. Phosphoanhydride bonds in ADP and ATP, or other nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates, contain high amounts of energy which give them their vital role in all living organisms. Phosphate must be actively transported into cells against its electrochemical gradient. In vertebrates, two unrelated families of Na+-dependent Pi transporters carry out this task. Remarkably, the two families transport different Pi species: whereas type II Na+/Pi cotransporters (SCL34) prefer divalent HPO4(2), type III Na+/Pi cotransporters (SLC20) transport monovalent H2PO4. The SCL34 family comprises both electrogenic and electroneutral members that are expressed in various epithelia and other polarized cells. Through regulated activity in apical membranes of the gut and kidney, they maintain body Pi homeostasis, and in salivary and mammary glands, liver, and testes they play a role in modulating the Pi content of luminal fluids. Phosphate levels in the blood play an important role in hormone signaling and in bone homeostasis. In classical endocrine regulation, low serum phosphate induces the renal production of the seco-steroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3).This active metabolite of vitamin D acts to restore circulating mineral (i.e. phosphate and calcium) levels by increasing absorption in the intestine, reabsorption in the kidney, and mobilization of calcium and phosphate from bone. Thus, chronic renal failure is associated with hyperparathyroidism, which in turn contributes to osteomalacia (softening of the bones). Another complication of chronic renal failure is hyperphosphatemia (low levels of phosphate in the blood). Hyperphosphatemia (excess levels of phosphate in the blood) is a prevalent condition in kidney dialysis patients and is associated with increased risk of mortality. Hypophosphatemia (hungry bone syndrome) has been associated to postoperative electrolyte aberrations and after parathyroidectomy. (PMID: 17581921 , 11169009 , 11039261 , 9159312 , 17625581 )Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) has recently been recognized as a key mediator of phosphate homeostasis, its most notable effect being promotion of phosphate excretion. FGF-23 was discovered to be involved in diseases such as autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, X-linked hypophosphatemia, and tumor-induced osteomalacia in which phosphate wasting was coupled to inappropriately low levels of 1,25(OH)2D3. FGF-23 is regulated by dietary phosphate in humans. In particular it was found that phosphate restriction decreased FGF-23, and phosphate loading increased FGF-23.
- Srivastava T, Alon US: Pathophysiology of hypercalciuria in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007 Oct;22(10):1659-73. Epub 2007 Apr 27.
- Pietak AM, Reid JW, Stott MJ, Sayer M: Silicon substitution in the calcium phosphate bioceramics. Biomaterials. 2007 Oct;28(28):4023-32. Epub 2007 May 17.
- Keul P, Sattler K, Levkau B: HDL and its sphingosine-1-phosphate content in cardioprotection. Heart Fail Rev. 2007 Dec;12(3-4):301-6.
- Isales CM, McDonald JM: Future developments in therapy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Nov;1117:258-63. Epub 2007 Jun 21.
- Pumo V, Sciacca D, Malaguarnera M: Tumor lysis syndrome in elderly. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2007 Oct;64(1):31-42. Epub 2007 Jul 19.
- Breitkreutz D, Braiman-Wiksman L, Daum N, Denning MF, Tennenbaum T: Protein kinase C family: on the crossroads of cell signaling in skin and tumor epithelium. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2007 Nov;133(11):793-808. Epub 2007 Jul 28.
- Tiwari S, Riazi S, Ecelbarger CA: Insulin's impact on renal sodium transport and blood pressure in health, obesity, and diabetes. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Oct;293(4):F974-84. Epub 2007 Aug 8.
- Argraves KM, Argraves WS: HDL serves as a S1P signaling platform mediating a multitude of cardiovascular effects. J Lipid Res. 2007 Nov;48(11):2325-33. Epub 2007 Aug 13.
- Brown BA, Kantesaria PP, McDevitt LM: Fingolimod: a novel immunosuppressant for multiple sclerosis. Ann Pharmacother. 2007 Oct;41(10):1660-8. Epub 2007 Sep 4.
- Toussaint ND, Kerr PG: Vascular calcification and arterial stiffness in chronic kidney disease: implications and management. Nephrology (Carlton). 2007 Oct;12(5):500-9.
- Munteanu A, Zingg JM: Cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of vitamin E on atherosclerosis prevention. Mol Aspects Med. 2007 Oct-Dec;28(5-6):538-90. Epub 2007 Aug 3.
- Nauseef WM: How human neutrophils kill and degrade microbes: an integrated view. Immunol Rev. 2007 Oct;219:88-102.
- Allen LA, McCaffrey RL: To activate or not to activate: distinct strategies used by Helicobacter pylori and Francisella tularensis to modulate the NADPH oxidase and survive in human neutrophils. Immunol Rev. 2007 Oct;219:103-17.
- Giavazzi R, Bani MR, Taraboletti G: Tumor-host interaction in the optimization of paclitaxel-based combination therapies with vascular targeting compounds. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2007 Dec;26(3-4):481-8.
- Tonelli M, Wiebe N, Culleton B, Lee H, Klarenbach S, Shrive F, Manns B: Systematic review of the clinical efficacy and safety of sevelamer in dialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007 Oct;22(10):2856-66.
- Miyamoto K, Tatsumi S, Ito M, Segawa H: [New aspect of renal phosphate reabsorption and phosphate metabolism] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1485-92.
- Michigami T: [Vitamin D metabolism and action] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1493-8.
- Hoshi K: [Mechanisms of bone calcification] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1499-507.
- Takeuchi Y: [Pathophysiology in rickets/osteomalacia] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1508-13.
- Ito N, Fukumoto S: [FGF23-related hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1514-20.
- Sekine T: [Rickets/osteomalacia due to tubular dysfunction] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1529-33.
- Sato K: [Drug-induced osteomalacia] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1536-42.
- Hasegawa Y, Miyamoto J: [Hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia. - Mainly on patients with PHEX mutations -] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1592-9.
- Bragadeesh TK, Mathur G, Clark AL, Cleland JG: Novel cardiac myosin activators for acute heart failure. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2007 Oct;16(10):1541-8.
- Hem SL, Hogenesch H: Relationship between physical and chemical properties of aluminum-containing adjuvants and immunopotentiation. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2007 Oct;6(5):685-98.
- Worthington HV, Clarkson JE, Eden OB: Interventions for preventing oral mucositis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD000978.
- Nixon GF, Mathieson FA, Hunter I: The potential roles of sphingolipids in vascular smooth-muscle function. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Nov;35(Pt 5):908-9.
- Johnson D, Shepherd RM, Gill D, Gorman T, Smith DM, Dunne MJ: Glucokinase activators: molecular tools for studying the physiology of insulin-secreting cells. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Nov;35(Pt 5):1208-10.
- Ku NO, Strnad P, Zhong BH, Tao GZ, Omary MB: Keratins let liver live: Mutations predispose to liver disease and crosslinking generates Mallory-Denk bodies. Hepatology. 2007 Nov;46(5):1639-49.
- Beutler E, Duparc S: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and antimalarial drug development. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007 Oct;77(4):779-89.
- Van Brocklyn JR: Sphingolipid signaling pathways as potential therapeutic targets in gliomas. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2007 Oct;7(10):984-90.
- Raben DM, Tu-Sekine B: Nuclear diacylglycerol kinases: regulation and roles. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:590-7.
- Dubin A, Estenssoro E: Mechanisms of tissue hypercarbia in sepsis. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:1340-51.
- Deng ZL, Sharff KA, Tang N, Song WX, Luo J, Luo X, Chen J, Bennett E, Reid R, Manning D, Xue A, Montag AG, Luu HH, Haydon RC, He TC: Regulation of osteogenic differentiation during skeletal development. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:2001-21.
- Liu X, Elojeimy S, Turner LS, Mahdy AE, Zeidan YH, Bielawska A, Bielawski J, Dong JY, El-Zawahry AM, Guo GW, Hannun YA, Holman DH, Rubinchik S, Szulc Z, Keane TE, Tavassoli M, Norris JS: Acid ceramidase inhibition: a novel target for cancer therapy. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:2293-8.
- Su N, Du X, Chen L: FGF signaling: its role in bone development and human skeleton diseases. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:2842-65.
- Trimble JL, Kockler DR: Statin treatment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Ann Pharmacother. 2007 Dec;41(12):2019-23. Epub 2007 Nov 6.
- Zeitels SM, Burns JA: Office-based laryngeal laser surgery with the 532-nm pulsed-potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007 Dec;15(6):394-400.
- Pebay A, Bonder CS, Pitson SM: Stem cell regulation by lysophospholipids. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2007 Nov;84(3-4):83-97. Epub 2007 Sep 5.
- Komarova YA, Mehta D, Malik AB: Dual regulation of endothelial junctional permeability. Sci STKE. 2007 Nov 13;2007(412):re8.
- Burger EL, Patel V: Calcium phosphates as bone graft extenders. Orthopedics. 2007 Nov;30(11):939-42.
- Qin C, D'Souza R, Feng JQ: Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1): new and important roles for biomineralization and phosphate homeostasis. J Dent Res. 2007 Dec;86(12):1134-41.
- Andress DL: Bone and mineral guidelines for patients with chronic kidney disease: a call for revision. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 Jan;3(1):179-83. Epub 2007 Dec 5.
- Fukumoto S: [Parathyroid and bone. Calcimimetics and bone metabolism] Clin Calcium. 2007 Dec;17(12):1865-9.
- Fei X, Qin Z, Liang Z: Contribution of CDP/Cux, a transcription factor, to cell cycle progression. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2007 Dec;39(12):923-30.
- Bonomini F, Tengattini S, Fabiano A, Bianchi R, Rezzani R: Atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Histol Histopathol. 2008 Mar;23(3):381-90.
- Orcel P, Chapurlat R: [Fibrous dysplasia of bone] Rev Prat. 2007 Oct 31;57(16):1749-55.
- Damron TA: Use of 3D beta-tricalcium phosphate (Vitoss) scaffolds in repairing bone defects. Nanomed. 2007 Dec;2(6):763-75.
- Hertz A, Bruce IJ: Inorganic materials for bone repair or replacement applications. Nanomed. 2007 Dec;2(6):899-918.
- Cappellini MD, Fiorelli G: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Lancet. 2008 Jan 5;371(9606):64-74.
- Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4.
- Virkki LV, Biber J, Murer H, Forster IC: Phosphate transporters: a tale of two solute carrier families. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Sep;293(3):F643-54. Epub 2007 Jun 20.
- Pohlmeier R, Vienken J: Phosphate removal and hemodialysis conditions. Kidney Int Suppl. 2001 Feb;78:S190-4.
- Gallar P, Ortega O, Gutierrez M, Munoz M, Hilara L, Oliet A, Rodriguez I, Gimenez E, Vigil A: [Influencing factors in the control of phosphorus in peritoneal dialysis. Therapeutic options]. Nefrologia. 2000 Jul-Aug;20(4):355-61.
- Cruz DN, Perazella MA: Biochemical aberrations in a dialysis patient following parathyroidectomy. Am J Kidney Dis. 1997 May;29(5):759-62.
- Nemere I: The ins and outs of phosphate homeostasis. Kidney Int. 2007 Jul;72(2):140-2.