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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-08-17 21:43:29 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01429
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB05947
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePhosphate
DescriptionPhosphate is a salt of phosphoric acid. In organic chemistry, a phosphate, or organophosphate, is an ester of phosphoric acid. Organic phosphates are important in biochemistry, biogeochemistry and ecology. Phosphate (Pi) is an essential component of life. In biological systems, phosphorus is found as a free phosphate ion in solution and is called inorganic phosphate, to distinguish it from phosphates bound in various phosphate esters. Inorganic phosphate is generally denoted Pi and at physiological (neutral) pH primarily consists of a mixture of HPO2-4 and H2PO-4 ions. phosphates are most commonly found in the form of adenosine phosphates, (AMP, ADP and ATP) and in DNA and RNA and can be released by the hydrolysis of ATP or ADP. Similar reactions exist for the other nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates. Phosphoanhydride bonds in ADP and ATP, or other nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates, contain high amounts of energy which give them their vital role in all living organisms. Phosphate must be actively transported into cells against its electrochemical gradient. In vertebrates, two unrelated families of Na+-dependent Pi transporters carry out this task. Remarkably, the two families transport different Pi species: whereas type II Na+/Pi cotransporters (SCL34) prefer divalent HPO4(2), type III Na+/Pi cotransporters (SLC20) transport monovalent H2PO4. The SCL34 family comprises both electrogenic and electroneutral members that are expressed in various epithelia and other polarized cells. Through regulated activity in apical membranes of the gut and kidney, they maintain body Pi homeostasis, and in salivary and mammary glands, liver, and testes they play a role in modulating the Pi content of luminal fluids. Phosphate levels in the blood play an important role in hormone signaling and in bone homeostasis. In classical endocrine regulation, low serum phosphate induces the renal production of the seco-steroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3).This active metabolite of vitamin D acts to restore circulating mineral (i.e. phosphate and calcium) levels by increasing absorption in the intestine, reabsorption in the kidney, and mobilization of calcium and phosphate from bone. Thus, chronic renal failure is associated with hyperparathyroidism, which in turn contributes to osteomalacia (softening of the bones). Another complication of chronic renal failure is hyperphosphatemia (low levels of phosphate in the blood). Hyperphosphatemia (excess levels of phosphate in the blood) is a prevalent condition in kidney dialysis patients and is associated with increased risk of mortality. Hypophosphatemia (hungry bone syndrome) has been associated to postoperative electrolyte aberrations and after parathyroidectomy. (PMID: 17581921 , 11169009 , 11039261 , 9159312 , 17625581 )Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) has recently been recognized as a key mediator of phosphate homeostasis, its most notable effect being promotion of phosphate excretion. FGF-23 was discovered to be involved in diseases such as autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, X-linked hypophosphatemia, and tumor-induced osteomalacia in which phosphate wasting was coupled to inappropriately low levels of 1,25(OH)2D3. FGF-23 is regulated by dietary phosphate in humans. In particular it was found that phosphate restriction decreased FGF-23, and phosphate loading increased FGF-23.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
[PO4](3-)ChEBI
OrthophosphateChEBI
PHOSPHATE ionChEBI
PO4(3-)ChEBI
Phosphoric acidGenerator
Orthophosphoric acidGenerator
PHOSPHoric acid ionGenerator
NFB OrthophosphateHMDB
O-Phosphoric acidHMDB
ortho-PhosphateHMDB
Orthophosphate (PO43-)HMDB
Orthophosphate(3-)HMDB
Phosphate (PO43-)HMDB
Phosphate anion(3-)HMDB
Phosphate ion (PO43-)HMDB
Phosphate ion(3-)HMDB
Phosphate trianionHMDB
Phosphate(3-)HMDB
Phosphoric acid ion(3-)HMDB
PiHMDB
Chemical FormulaO4P
Average Molecular Weight94.9714
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight94.95342
IUPAC Namephosphate
Traditional Namephosphate
CAS Registry Number14265-44-2
SMILES
[O-]P([O-])([O-])=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/H3O4P/c1-5(2,3)4/h(H3,1,2,3,4)/p-3
InChI KeyInChIKey=NBIIXXVUZAFLBC-UHFFFAOYSA-K
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as non-metal phosphates. These are inorganic non-metallic compoundscontaining a phosphate as its largest oxoanion.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassNon-metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassNon-metal phosphates
Direct ParentNon-metal phosphates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Non-metal phosphate
  • Inorganic oxide
  • Acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAcyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000 mg/mLMERCK INDEX (1996)
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-1ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area86.25 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity11.29 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability4.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-5fa0319f90e59fa29fd6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0002-9000000000-4d04c52017553b8714c8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-000t-9000000000-cb8134bc14f66db5b0bbView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-755717f229a32cd2dccfView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-003ecbaa2a45f587b953View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-d32bf6727c65f9ec0f1dView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Prostate
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)SMP00136Not Available
2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiencySMP00549Not Available
2-Methyl-3-Hydroxybutryl CoA Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00137Not Available
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase DeficiencySMP00138Not Available
3-hydroxyisobutyric acid dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00521Not Available
3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduriaSMP00522Not Available
3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type ISMP00237Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type ISMP00139Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IIISMP00140Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IVSMP00141Not Available
3-Methylthiofentanyl Action PathwaySMP00679Not Available
3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00721Not Available
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00243Not Available
Acebutolol PathwaySMP00296Not Available
Acetaminophen Metabolism PathwaySMP00640Not Available
Adefovir Dipivoxil PathwaySMP00418Not Available
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)SMP00535Not Available
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencySMP00144Not Available
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencySMP00167Not Available
AICA-RibosiduriaSMP00168Not Available
Alanine MetabolismSMP00055map00250
Alendronate pathwaySMP00095Not Available
Alfentanil PathwaySMP00413Not Available
Alprenolol PathwaySMP00297Not Available
Alvimopan Action PathwaySMP00685Not Available
Amino Sugar MetabolismSMP00045map00520
Amiodarone Action PathwaySMP00665Not Available
Amlodipine PathwaySMP00376Not Available
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009map00910
Anileridine Action PathwaySMP00674Not Available
Arbutamine Action PathwaySMP00664Not Available
Arginine and Proline MetabolismSMP00020map00330
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)SMP00362Not Available
ArgininemiaSMP00357Not Available
Argininosuccinic AciduriaSMP00003Not Available
Aspartate MetabolismSMP00067map00250
Atenolol PathwaySMP00298Not Available
Atorvastatin PathwaySMP00131Not Available
Azathioprine PathwaySMP00427Not Available
Benzocaine PathwaySMP00392Not Available
Beta Ureidopropionase DeficiencySMP00172Not Available
Beta-Ketothiolase DeficiencySMP00173Not Available
Betaine MetabolismSMP00123map00260
Betaxolol PathwaySMP00299Not Available
Betazole Action PathwaySMP00736Not Available
Bevantolol Action PathwaySMP00668Not Available
Bisoprolol PathwaySMP00300Not Available
Bopindolol Action PathwaySMP00657Not Available
Bupivacaine PathwaySMP00393Not Available
Bupranolol Action PathwaySMP00670Not Available
Buprenorphine Action PathwaySMP00684Not Available
Canavan DiseaseSMP00175Not Available
Capecitabine Metabolism PathwaySMP00607Not Available
Capecitabine PathwaySMP00469Not Available
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase DeficiencySMP00002Not Available
Carfentanil PathwaySMP00414Not Available
Carteolol Action PathwaySMP00658Not Available
Carvedilol PathwaySMP00367Not Available
Cerivastatin PathwaySMP00111Not Available
CHILD SyndromeSMP00387Not Available
Chloroprocaine PathwaySMP00394Not Available
Cholesteryl ester storage diseaseSMP00508Not Available
Chondrodysplasia Punctata II, X Linked Dominant (CDPX2)SMP00388Not Available
Cimetidine PathwaySMP00232Not Available
Citalopram PathwaySMP00424Not Available
Citric Acid CycleSMP00057map00020
Citrullinemia Type ISMP00001Not Available
Clopidogrel Metabolism PathwaySMP00610Not Available
Clopidogrel PathwaySMP00260Not Available
Cocaine PathwaySMP00395Not Available
Codeine PathwaySMP00405Not Available
Congenital disorder of glycosylation CDG-IIdSMP00579Not Available
Congenital lactic acidosisSMP00546Not Available
Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencySMP00504Not Available
Cystathionine Beta-Synthase DeficiencySMP00177Not Available
D-glyceric aciduraSMP00529Not Available
Desipramine PathwaySMP00423Not Available
DesmosterolosisSMP00386Not Available
Dezocine Action PathwaySMP00676Not Available
Dibucaine PathwaySMP00396Not Available
Dihydromorphine Action PathwaySMP00689Not Available
Dihydropyrimidinase DeficiencySMP00178Not Available
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)SMP00179Not Available
Diltiazem PathwaySMP00359Not Available
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00242Not Available
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00484Not Available
Dimethylthiambutene Action PathwaySMP00680Not Available
Diphenoxylate Action PathwaySMP00675Not Available
Disopyramide PathwaySMP00325Not Available
Dobutamine Action PathwaySMP00662Not Available
Docetaxel PathwaySMP00435Not Available
Doxorubicin Metabolism PathwaySMP00650Not Available
Epinephrine Action PathwaySMP00661Not Available
Erlotinib PathwaySMP00472Not Available
Escitalopram PathwaySMP00425Not Available
Esmolol PathwaySMP00301Not Available
Esomeprazole PathwaySMP00225Not Available
Ethylmorphine Action PathwaySMP00681Not Available
Etoposide Metabolism PathwaySMP00601Not Available
Etoposide PathwaySMP00442Not Available
Excitatory Neural Signalling Through 5-HTR 4 and SerotoninSMP00309Not Available
Excitatory Neural Signalling Through 5-HTR 6 and Serotonin SMP00312Not Available
Excitatory Neural Signalling Through 5-HTR 7 and Serotonin SMP00311Not Available
Fabry diseaseSMP00525Not Available
Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiencySMP00530Not Available
Famotidine PathwaySMP00231Not Available
Fanconi-bickel syndromeSMP00572Not Available
Felodipine PathwaySMP00377Not Available
Fentanyl PathwaySMP00415Not Available
Flecainide PathwaySMP00331Not Available
Fluoxetine PathwaySMP00426Not Available
Fluvastatin PathwaySMP00119Not Available
Folate malabsorption, hereditarySMP00724Not Available
Folate MetabolismSMP00053map00670
Fosphenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) PathwaySMP00326Not Available
Fructose and Mannose DegradationSMP00064map00051
Fructose intolerance, hereditarySMP00725Not Available
Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiencySMP00562Not Available
FructosuriaSMP00561Not Available
Fumarase deficiencySMP00547Not Available
G(M2)-Gangliosidosis: Variant B, Tay-sachs diseaseSMP00534Not Available
Galactose MetabolismSMP00043map00052
GalactosemiaSMP00182Not Available
Gastric Acid ProductionSMP00589Not Available
Gaucher DiseaseSMP00349Not Available
Globoid Cell LeukodystrophySMP00348Not Available
GluconeogenesisSMP00128map00010
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00518Not Available
GLUT-1 deficiency syndromeSMP00580Not Available
Glutamate MetabolismSMP00072map00250
Glutaminolysis and CancerSMP02298Not Available
Glycerol Kinase DeficiencySMP00187Not Available
Glycerolipid MetabolismSMP00039map00561
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
Glycine N-methyltransferase DeficiencySMP00222Not Available
Glycogen Storage Disease Type 1A (GSD1A) or Von Gierke DiseaseSMP00374Not Available
Glycogen synthetase deficiencySMP00552Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type IA. Von gierke diseaseSMP00581Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type IBSMP00573Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type ICSMP00574Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type III. Cori disease, Debrancher glycogenosisSMP00553Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type IV. Amylopectinosis, Anderson diseaseSMP00554Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type VI. Hers diseaseSMP00555Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type VII. Tarui diseaseSMP00531Not Available
GlycolysisSMP00040map00010
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeSMP00365Not Available
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)SMP00188Not Available
Heroin PathwaySMP00407Not Available
Histidine MetabolismSMP00044map00340
HistidinemiaSMP00191Not Available
HomocarnosinosisSMP00385Not Available
Homocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia due to defect in cobalamin metabolism, cblG complementation typeSMP00570Not Available
Hydrocodone PathwaySMP00411Not Available
Hydromorphone PathwaySMP00410Not Available
Hyper-IgD syndromeSMP00509Not Available
HypercholesterolemiaSMP00209Not Available
Hyperglycinemia, non-ketoticSMP00485Not Available
Hyperinsulinism-Hyperammonemia SyndromeSMP00339Not Available
HypermethioninemiaSMP00341Not Available
Hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (HOGA)SMP00505Not Available
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]SMP00506Not Available
Hyperprolinemia Type ISMP00361Not Available
Hyperprolinemia Type IISMP00360Not Available
HypoacetylaspartiaSMP00192Not Available
Ibandronate PathwaySMP00079Not Available
Ibutilide PathwaySMP00332Not Available
Imipramine PathwaySMP00422Not Available
Inositol MetabolismSMP00011map00562
Inositol Phosphate MetabolismSMP00462map00562
Insulin SignallingSMP00391Not Available
Intracellular Signalling Through Adenosine Receptor A2a and AdenosineSMP00320Not Available
Intracellular Signalling Through Adenosine Receptor A2b and AdenosineSMP00321Not Available
Intracellular Signalling Through FSH Receptor and Follicle Stimulating HormoneSMP00333Not Available
Intracellular Signalling Through Histamine H2 Receptor and HistamineSMP00335Not Available
Intracellular Signalling Through LHCGR Receptor and Luteinizing Hormone/ChoriogonadotropinSMP00338Not Available
Intracellular Signalling Through Prostacyclin Receptor and ProstacyclinSMP00354Not Available
Irinotecan Metabolism PathwaySMP00600Not Available
Irinotecan PathwaySMP00433Not Available
Isobutyryl-coa dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00523Not Available
Isoprenaline Action PathwaySMP00663Not Available
Isovaleric acidemiaSMP00524Not Available
Isovaleric AciduriaSMP00238Not Available
Isradipine PathwaySMP00378Not Available
Joubert syndromeSMP00582Not Available
Ketobemidone Action PathwaySMP00690Not Available
Krabbe diseaseSMP00526Not Available
L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiencySMP00507Not Available
Labetalol PathwaySMP00368Not Available
Lactic AcidemiaSMP00313Not Available
Lactose DegradationSMP00457Not Available
Lactose IntoleranceSMP00458Not Available
Lactose SynthesisSMP00444Not Available
Lamivudine Metabolism PathwaySMP00649Not Available
Lansoprazole PathwaySMP00227Not Available
Leigh SyndromeSMP00196Not Available
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)SMP00364Not Available
Leucine Stimulation on Insulin SignalingSMP00682Not Available
Levallorphan Action PathwaySMP00683Not Available
Levobunolol Action PathwaySMP00666Not Available
Levobupivacaine PathwaySMP00397Not Available
Levomethadyl Acetate Action Action PathwaySMP00677Not Available
Levorphanol Action PathwaySMP00673Not Available
Lidocaine (Antiarrhythmic) PathwaySMP00328Not Available
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) PathwaySMP00398Not Available
Lovastatin PathwaySMP00099Not Available
Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency (Wolman Disease)SMP00319Not Available
Maple Syrup Urine DiseaseSMP00199Not Available
Mepivacaine PathwaySMP00399Not Available
Mercaptopurine Metabolism PathwaySMP00609Not Available
Mercaptopurine PathwaySMP00428Not Available
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD)SMP00347Not Available
Methadone PathwaySMP00408Not Available
Methadyl Acetate Action PathwaySMP00678Not Available
Methionine Adenosyltransferase DeficiencySMP00221Not Available
Methionine MetabolismSMP00033map00270
Methotrexate PathwaySMP00432Not Available
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)SMP00543Not Available
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)SMP00340Not Available
Methylmalonate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00384Not Available
Methylmalonic AciduriaSMP00200Not Available
Metiamide Action PathwaySMP00735Not Available
Metipranolol Action PathwaySMP00667Not Available
Metoprolol PathwaySMP00302Not Available
Mevalonic aciduriaSMP00510Not Available
Mexiletine PathwaySMP00329Not Available
Mitochondrial complex II deficiencySMP00548Not Available
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeSMP00536Not Available
Mitochondrial Electron Transport ChainSMP00355map00190
MNGIE (Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalopathy)SMP00202Not Available
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencySMP00203Not Available
Morphine PathwaySMP00406Not Available
Mucopolysaccharidosis VI. Sly syndromeSMP00556Not Available
Muscle/Heart ContractionSMP00588Not Available
Mycophenolic Acid Metabolism PathwaySMP00652Not Available
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencySMP00537Not Available
Nadolol PathwaySMP00303Not Available
Nalbuphine Action PathwaySMP00691Not Available
Naloxone Action PathwaySMP00688Not Available
Naltrexone Action PathwaySMP00687Not Available
Nebivolol PathwaySMP00366Not Available
Nevirapine Metabolism PathwaySMP00642Not Available
Nicotinate and Nicotinamide MetabolismSMP00048map00760
Nicotine PathwaySMP00431Not Available
Nifedipine PathwaySMP00379Not Available
Nimodipine PathwaySMP00380Not Available
Nisoldipine PathwaySMP00381Not Available
Nitrendipine PathwaySMP00382Not Available
Nizatidine PathwaySMP00233Not Available
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaSMP00223Not Available
Omeprazole PathwaySMP00226Not Available
Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)SMP00363Not Available
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTC Deficiency)SMP00205Not Available
Oxprenolol PathwaySMP00304Not Available
Oxybuprocaine PathwaySMP00400Not Available
Oxycodone PathwaySMP00409Not Available
Oxymorphone PathwaySMP00412Not Available
Paclitaxel PathwaySMP00434Not Available
Pamidronate PathwaySMP00117Not Available
Pantoprazole PathwaySMP00228Not Available
Penbutolol PathwaySMP00305Not Available
Pentazocine Action PathwaySMP00686Not Available
Pentose Phosphate PathwaySMP00031map00030
Phenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) PathwaySMP00327Not Available
Phosphatidylinositol Phosphate MetabolismSMP00463map00562
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency 1 (PEPCK1)SMP00560Not Available
Pindolol PathwaySMP00306Not Available
Pirenzepine PathwaySMP00246Not Available
Plasmalogen SynthesisSMP00479Not Available
Practolol Action PathwaySMP00669Not Available
Pravastatin PathwaySMP00089Not Available
Prilocaine PathwaySMP00401Not Available
Primary hyperoxaluria II, PH2SMP00558Not Available
Primary Hyperoxaluria Type ISMP00352Not Available
Procainamide (Antiarrhythmic) PathwaySMP00324Not Available
Procaine PathwaySMP00402Not Available
Prolidase Deficiency (PD)SMP00207Not Available
Prolinemia Type IISMP00208Not Available
Proparacaine PathwaySMP00403Not Available
Propionic AcidemiaSMP00236Not Available
Propoxyphene Action PathwaySMP00672Not Available
Propranolol PathwaySMP00307Not Available
Purine MetabolismSMP00050map00230
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencySMP00210Not Available
Pyrimidine MetabolismSMP00046map00240
Pyruvate Carboxylase DeficiencySMP00350Not Available
Pyruvate Decarboxylase E1 Component Deficiency (PDHE1 Deficiency)SMP00334Not Available
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex DeficiencySMP00212Not Available
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E2)SMP00551Not Available
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E3)SMP00550Not Available
Pyruvate kinase deficiencySMP00559Not Available
Pyruvate MetabolismSMP00060map00620
Quinidine PathwaySMP00323Not Available
Rabeprazole PathwaySMP00229Not Available
Ranitidine PathwaySMP00230Not Available
Remifentanil PathwaySMP00416Not Available
Riboflavin MetabolismSMP00070map00740
Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiencySMP00519Not Available
Risedronate PathwaySMP00112Not Available
Ropivacaine PathwaySMP00404Not Available
Rosuvastatin PathwaySMP00092Not Available
Roxatidine acetate Action PathwaySMP00734Not Available
S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) Hydrolase DeficiencySMP00214Not Available
Salla Disease/Infantile Sialic Acid Storage DiseaseSMP00240Not Available
sarcosine oncometabolite pathway SMP02313Not Available
SarcosinemiaSMP00244Not Available
Sialuria or French Type SialuriaSMP00216Not Available
Sialuria or French Type SialuriaSMP00217Not Available
Simvastatin Action PathwaySMP00082Not Available
Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS)SMP00389Not Available
Sotalol Action PathwaySMP00660Not Available
Spermidine and Spermine BiosynthesisSMP00445Not Available
Sphingolipid MetabolismSMP00034map00500
Starch and Sucrose MetabolismSMP00058map00500
Steroid BiosynthesisSMP00023map00100
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00567Not Available
Sucrase-isomaltase deficiencySMP00557Not Available
Sufentanil PathwaySMP00417Not Available
Sulfate/Sulfite MetabolismSMP00041map00920
Sulfite oxidase deficiencySMP00532Not Available
Tay-Sachs DiseaseSMP00390Not Available
Tenofovir PathwaySMP00419Not Available
The oncogenic action of 2-hydroxyglutarateSMP02291Not Available
The oncogenic action of D-2-hydroxyglutarate in Hydroxygluaricaciduria SMP02359Not Available
The oncogenic action of FumarateSMP02295Not Available
The oncogenic action of L-2-hydroxyglutarate in HydroxygluaricaciduriaSMP02358Not Available
The oncogenic action of SuccinateSMP02292Not Available
Thiamine MetabolismSMP00076map00730
Thioguanine PathwaySMP00430Not Available
Timolol Action PathwaySMP00659Not Available
Tocainide PathwaySMP00330Not Available
Tramadol Action Action PathwaySMP00671Not Available
Transaldolase deficiencySMP00520Not Available
Transfer of Acetyl Groups into MitochondriaSMP00466Not Available
Trehalose DegradationSMP00467Not Available
Triosephosphate isomeraseSMP00563Not Available
UMP Synthase Deiciency (Orotic Aciduria)SMP00219Not Available
Urea CycleSMP00059map00330
Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine DegradationSMP00032map00280
Verapamil PathwaySMP00375Not Available
Vinblastine PathwaySMP00436Not Available
Vincristine PathwaySMP00437Not Available
Vindesine PathwaySMP00438Not Available
Vinorelbine PathwaySMP00439Not Available
Warburg EffectSMP00654Not Available
Wolman diseaseSMP00511Not Available
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)SMP00220Not Available
Xanthinuria type ISMP00512Not Available
Xanthinuria type IISMP00513Not Available
Zoledronate PathwaySMP00107Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified379.1 +/- 31.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified589.65-1105.60 uMNewborn (0 - <14 days old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified505.42-884.45 uMInfant (15 days - <1 year old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified452.77-716.01 uMChildren (1 - <5 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified431.71-621.24 uMChildren (5 - <13 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified336.94-579.12 uMAdolescent (13 - <16 years old)Female
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified305.36-526.47 uMAdolescent (16 - <19 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified368.53-652.83 uMAdolescent (13 - <16 years old)Male
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableInfant (0-1 year old)Not AvailableNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified27850 +/- 36040 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified28550 +/- 33790 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified21450 +/- 21020 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified17620 +/- 13800 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified21630 +/- 15830 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified24100 +/- 16390 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified22690 +/- 19270 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2787.81 +/- 1528.51 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1364.27 +/- 915.27 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified450 +/- 30 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Hypophosphatemia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified290 +/- 50 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Hypophosphatemia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified653.0 +/- 126.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHemodialysis details
BloodDetected and Quantified270 (0-540) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Hypophosphatemia
details
BloodDetected and Quantified610 +/- 130 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Hypophosphatemia
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Hemodialysis
  1. Oikawa O, Higuchi T, Yamazaki T, Yamamoto C, Fukuda N, Matsumoto K: Evaluation of serum fetuin-A relationships with biochemical parameters in patients on hemodialysis. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2007 Dec;11(4):304-8. Epub 2007 Dec 21. [18085392 ]
Hypophosphatemia
  1. Amanzadeh J, Reilly RF Jr: Hypophosphatemia: an evidence-based approach to its clinical consequences and management. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 2006 Mar;2(3):136-48. [16932412 ]
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00532
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022617
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID1032
KEGG Compound IDC00009
BioCyc IDCPD-8587
BiGG ID33499
Wikipedia LinkPhosphate
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01429
Metagene LinkHMDB01429
METLIN ID3231
PubChem Compound1061
PDB IDPO4
ChEBI ID18367
References
Synthesis ReferenceCremer, Josef; Hartmann, Fridolin; Rodis, Franz; Hinz, Arnulf. Preparation of alkali or alkaline earth phosphates with simultaneous recovery of volatile mineral acids. Ger. (1966), 2 pp. CODEN: GWXXAW DE 1227435 19661027 CAN 66:12584 AN 1967:12584
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  2. Hem SL, Hogenesch H: Relationship between physical and chemical properties of aluminum-containing adjuvants and immunopotentiation. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2007 Oct;6(5):685-98. [17931150 ]
  3. Srivastava T, Alon US: Pathophysiology of hypercalciuria in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007 Oct;22(10):1659-73. Epub 2007 Apr 27. [17464515 ]
  4. Pietak AM, Reid JW, Stott MJ, Sayer M: Silicon substitution in the calcium phosphate bioceramics. Biomaterials. 2007 Oct;28(28):4023-32. Epub 2007 May 17. [17544500 ]
  5. Keul P, Sattler K, Levkau B: HDL and its sphingosine-1-phosphate content in cardioprotection. Heart Fail Rev. 2007 Dec;12(3-4):301-6. [17554629 ]
  6. Isales CM, McDonald JM: Future developments in therapy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Nov;1117:258-63. Epub 2007 Jun 21. [17584984 ]
  7. Pumo V, Sciacca D, Malaguarnera M: Tumor lysis syndrome in elderly. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol. 2007 Oct;64(1):31-42. Epub 2007 Jul 19. [17658268 ]
  8. Breitkreutz D, Braiman-Wiksman L, Daum N, Denning MF, Tennenbaum T: Protein kinase C family: on the crossroads of cell signaling in skin and tumor epithelium. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2007 Nov;133(11):793-808. Epub 2007 Jul 28. [17661083 ]
  9. Tiwari S, Riazi S, Ecelbarger CA: Insulin's impact on renal sodium transport and blood pressure in health, obesity, and diabetes. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Oct;293(4):F974-84. Epub 2007 Aug 8. [17686957 ]
  10. Argraves KM, Argraves WS: HDL serves as a S1P signaling platform mediating a multitude of cardiovascular effects. J Lipid Res. 2007 Nov;48(11):2325-33. Epub 2007 Aug 13. [17698855 ]
  11. Brown BA, Kantesaria PP, McDevitt LM: Fingolimod: a novel immunosuppressant for multiple sclerosis. Ann Pharmacother. 2007 Oct;41(10):1660-8. Epub 2007 Sep 4. [17785617 ]
  12. Toussaint ND, Kerr PG: Vascular calcification and arterial stiffness in chronic kidney disease: implications and management. Nephrology (Carlton). 2007 Oct;12(5):500-9. [17803475 ]
  13. Munteanu A, Zingg JM: Cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of vitamin E on atherosclerosis prevention. Mol Aspects Med. 2007 Oct-Dec;28(5-6):538-90. Epub 2007 Aug 3. [17825403 ]
  14. Nauseef WM: How human neutrophils kill and degrade microbes: an integrated view. Immunol Rev. 2007 Oct;219:88-102. [17850484 ]
  15. Allen LA, McCaffrey RL: To activate or not to activate: distinct strategies used by Helicobacter pylori and Francisella tularensis to modulate the NADPH oxidase and survive in human neutrophils. Immunol Rev. 2007 Oct;219:103-17. [17850485 ]
  16. Giavazzi R, Bani MR, Taraboletti G: Tumor-host interaction in the optimization of paclitaxel-based combination therapies with vascular targeting compounds. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2007 Dec;26(3-4):481-8. [17896168 ]
  17. Tonelli M, Wiebe N, Culleton B, Lee H, Klarenbach S, Shrive F, Manns B: Systematic review of the clinical efficacy and safety of sevelamer in dialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007 Oct;22(10):2856-66. [17906326 ]
  18. Miyamoto K, Tatsumi S, Ito M, Segawa H: [New aspect of renal phosphate reabsorption and phosphate metabolism] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1485-92. [17906398 ]
  19. Michigami T: [Vitamin D metabolism and action] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1493-8. [17906399 ]
  20. Hoshi K: [Mechanisms of bone calcification] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1499-507. [17906400 ]
  21. Takeuchi Y: [Pathophysiology in rickets/osteomalacia] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1508-13. [17906401 ]
  22. Ito N, Fukumoto S: [FGF23-related hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1514-20. [17906402 ]
  23. Sekine T: [Rickets/osteomalacia due to tubular dysfunction] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1529-33. [17906404 ]
  24. Sato K: [Drug-induced osteomalacia] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1536-42. [17906405 ]
  25. Hasegawa Y, Miyamoto J: [Hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia. - Mainly on patients with PHEX mutations -] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1592-9. [17906414 ]
  26. Bragadeesh TK, Mathur G, Clark AL, Cleland JG: Novel cardiac myosin activators for acute heart failure. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2007 Oct;16(10):1541-8. [17922619 ]
  27. Worthington HV, Clarkson JE, Eden OB: Interventions for preventing oral mucositis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD000978. [17943748 ]
  28. Nixon GF, Mathieson FA, Hunter I: The potential roles of sphingolipids in vascular smooth-muscle function. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Nov;35(Pt 5):908-9. [17956243 ]
  29. Johnson D, Shepherd RM, Gill D, Gorman T, Smith DM, Dunne MJ: Glucokinase activators: molecular tools for studying the physiology of insulin-secreting cells. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Nov;35(Pt 5):1208-10. [17956314 ]
  30. Ku NO, Strnad P, Zhong BH, Tao GZ, Omary MB: Keratins let liver live: Mutations predispose to liver disease and crosslinking generates Mallory-Denk bodies. Hepatology. 2007 Nov;46(5):1639-49. [17969036 ]
  31. Beutler E, Duparc S: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and antimalarial drug development. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007 Oct;77(4):779-89. [17978087 ]
  32. Van Brocklyn JR: Sphingolipid signaling pathways as potential therapeutic targets in gliomas. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2007 Oct;7(10):984-90. [17979800 ]
  33. Raben DM, Tu-Sekine B: Nuclear diacylglycerol kinases: regulation and roles. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:590-7. [17981572 ]
  34. Dubin A, Estenssoro E: Mechanisms of tissue hypercarbia in sepsis. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:1340-51. [17981634 ]
  35. Deng ZL, Sharff KA, Tang N, Song WX, Luo J, Luo X, Chen J, Bennett E, Reid R, Manning D, Xue A, Montag AG, Luu HH, Haydon RC, He TC: Regulation of osteogenic differentiation during skeletal development. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:2001-21. [17981687 ]
  36. Liu X, Elojeimy S, Turner LS, Mahdy AE, Zeidan YH, Bielawska A, Bielawski J, Dong JY, El-Zawahry AM, Guo GW, Hannun YA, Holman DH, Rubinchik S, Szulc Z, Keane TE, Tavassoli M, Norris JS: Acid ceramidase inhibition: a novel target for cancer therapy. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:2293-8. [17981711 ]
  37. Su N, Du X, Chen L: FGF signaling: its role in bone development and human skeleton diseases. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:2842-65. [17981758 ]
  38. Trimble JL, Kockler DR: Statin treatment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Ann Pharmacother. 2007 Dec;41(12):2019-23. Epub 2007 Nov 6. [17986515 ]
  39. Zeitels SM, Burns JA: Office-based laryngeal laser surgery with the 532-nm pulsed-potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007 Dec;15(6):394-400. [17986877 ]
  40. Pebay A, Bonder CS, Pitson SM: Stem cell regulation by lysophospholipids. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2007 Nov;84(3-4):83-97. Epub 2007 Sep 5. [17991611 ]
  41. Komarova YA, Mehta D, Malik AB: Dual regulation of endothelial junctional permeability. Sci STKE. 2007 Nov 13;2007(412):re8. [18000237 ]
  42. Burger EL, Patel V: Calcium phosphates as bone graft extenders. Orthopedics. 2007 Nov;30(11):939-42. [18019987 ]
  43. Qin C, D'Souza R, Feng JQ: Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1): new and important roles for biomineralization and phosphate homeostasis. J Dent Res. 2007 Dec;86(12):1134-41. [18037646 ]
  44. Andress DL: Bone and mineral guidelines for patients with chronic kidney disease: a call for revision. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 Jan;3(1):179-83. Epub 2007 Dec 5. [18057310 ]
  45. Fukumoto S: [Parathyroid and bone. Calcimimetics and bone metabolism] Clin Calcium. 2007 Dec;17(12):1865-9. [18057662 ]
  46. Fei X, Qin Z, Liang Z: Contribution of CDP/Cux, a transcription factor, to cell cycle progression. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2007 Dec;39(12):923-30. [18064384 ]
  47. Bonomini F, Tengattini S, Fabiano A, Bianchi R, Rezzani R: Atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Histol Histopathol. 2008 Mar;23(3):381-90. [18072094 ]
  48. Orcel P, Chapurlat R: [Fibrous dysplasia of bone] Rev Prat. 2007 Oct 31;57(16):1749-55. [18092715 ]
  49. Damron TA: Use of 3D beta-tricalcium phosphate (Vitoss) scaffolds in repairing bone defects. Nanomed. 2007 Dec;2(6):763-75. [18095844 ]
  50. Hertz A, Bruce IJ: Inorganic materials for bone repair or replacement applications. Nanomed. 2007 Dec;2(6):899-918. [18095853 ]
  51. Cappellini MD, Fiorelli G: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Lancet. 2008 Jan 5;371(9606):64-74. [18177777 ]
  52. Virkki LV, Biber J, Murer H, Forster IC: Phosphate transporters: a tale of two solute carrier families. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Sep;293(3):F643-54. Epub 2007 Jun 20. [17581921 ]
  53. Pohlmeier R, Vienken J: Phosphate removal and hemodialysis conditions. Kidney Int Suppl. 2001 Feb;78:S190-4. [11169009 ]
  54. Gallar P, Ortega O, Gutierrez M, Munoz M, Hilara L, Oliet A, Rodriguez I, Gimenez E, Vigil A: [Influencing factors in the control of phosphorus in peritoneal dialysis. Therapeutic options]. Nefrologia. 2000 Jul-Aug;20(4):355-61. [11039261 ]
  55. Cruz DN, Perazella MA: Biochemical aberrations in a dialysis patient following parathyroidectomy. Am J Kidney Dis. 1997 May;29(5):759-62. [9159312 ]
  56. Nemere I: The ins and outs of phosphate homeostasis. Kidney Int. 2007 Jul;72(2):140-2. [17625581 ]

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 330 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides. Helps to regulate adenosine levels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NT5C1B
Uniprot ID:
Q96P26
Molecular weight:
68803.055
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides and has a broad substrate specificity. Helps to regulate adenosine levels in heart during ischemia and hypoxia.
Gene Name:
NT5C1A
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXI3
Molecular weight:
41020.145
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides, with a preference for dUMP and dTMP, intermediate activity towards dGMP, and low activity towards dCMP and dAMP.
Gene Name:
NT5C
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCD5
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates specifically the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of uracil and thymine deoxyribonucleotides, and so protects mitochondrial DNA replication from excess dTTP. Has only marginal activity towards dIMP and dGMP.
Gene Name:
NT5M
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPB1
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in ATP citrate synthase activity
Specific function:
ATP citrate-lyase is the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA in many tissues. Has a central role in de novo lipid synthesis. In nervous tissue it may be involved in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine.
Gene Name:
ACLY
Uniprot ID:
P53396
Molecular weight:
120838.27
General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
Specific function:
ACC-beta may be involved in the provision of malonyl-CoA or in the regulation of fatty acid oxidation, rather than fatty acid biosynthesis. Carries out three functions: biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase.
Gene Name:
ACACB
Uniprot ID:
O00763
Molecular weight:
276538.575
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes a 2-step reaction, involving the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the covalently attached biotin in the first step and the transfer of the carboxyl group to pyruvate in the second. Catalyzes in a tissue specific manner, the initial reactions of glucose (liver, kidney) and lipid (adipose tissue, liver, brain) synthesis from pyruvate.
Gene Name:
PC
Uniprot ID:
P11498
Molecular weight:
129632.565
General function:
Involved in acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the rate-limiting reaction in the biogenesis of long-chain fatty acids. Carries out three functions: biotin carboxyl carrier protein, biotin carboxylase and carboxyltransferase.
Gene Name:
ACACA
Uniprot ID:
Q13085
Molecular weight:
269997.01
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
In the nervous system, could hydrolyze ATP and other nucleotides to regulate purinergic neurotransmission. Could also be implicated in the prevention of platelet aggregation by hydrolyzing platelet-activating ADP to AMP. Hydrolyzes ATP and ADP equally well.
Gene Name:
ENTPD1
Uniprot ID:
P49961
Molecular weight:
58706.0
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Calcium-dependent nucleotidase with a preference for UDP. The order of activity with different substrates is UDP > GDP > UTP > GTP. Has very low activity towards ADP and even lower activity towards ATP. Does not hydrolyze AMP and GMP. Involved in proteoglycan synthesis.
Gene Name:
CANT1
Uniprot ID:
Q8WVQ1
Molecular weight:
44839.24
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Has a threefold preference for the hydrolysis of ATP over ADP.
Gene Name:
ENTPD3
Uniprot ID:
O75355
Molecular weight:
59104.76
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALPP
Uniprot ID:
P05187
Molecular weight:
57953.31
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALPI
Uniprot ID:
P09923
Molecular weight:
56811.695
General function:
Involved in acid phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACP2
Uniprot ID:
P11117
Molecular weight:
48343.92
General function:
Involved in acid phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Acts on tyrosine phosphorylated proteins, low-MW aryl phosphates and natural and synthetic acyl phosphates. Isoform 3 does not possess phosphatase activity.
Gene Name:
ACP1
Uniprot ID:
P24666
Molecular weight:
18042.315
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
This isozyme may play a role in skeletal mineralization.
Gene Name:
ALPL
Uniprot ID:
P05186
Molecular weight:
57304.435
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Involved in osteopontin/bone sialoprotein dephosphorylation. Its expression seems to increase in certain pathological states such as Gaucher and Hodgkin diseases, the hairy cell, the B-cell, and the T-cell leukemias.
Gene Name:
ACP5
Uniprot ID:
P13686
Molecular weight:
36598.47
General function:
Involved in acid phosphatase activity
Specific function:
A non-specific tyrosine phosphatase that dephosphorylates a diverse number of substrates under acidic conditions (pH 4-6) including alkyl, aryl, and acyl orthophosphate monoesters and phosphorylated proteins. Has lipid phosphatase activity and inactivates lysophosphatidic acid in seminal plasma. Isoform 2: the cellular form also has ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Generates adenosine from AMP which acts as a pain suppressor. Acts as a tumor suppressor of prostate cancer through dephosphorylation of ERBB2 and deactivation of MAPK-mediated signaling.
Gene Name:
ACPP
Uniprot ID:
P15309
Molecular weight:
44565.715
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALPPL2
Uniprot ID:
P10696
Molecular weight:
57376.515
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidic acid (PA) to diacylglycerol (DG). In addition it hydrolyzes lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), ceramide-1-phosphate (C-1-P) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P). The relative catalytic efficiency is PA > C-1-P > LPA > S-1-P.
Gene Name:
PPAP2C
Uniprot ID:
O43688
Molecular weight:
32573.435
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Broad-specificity phosphohydrolase that dephosphorylates exogenous bioactive glycerolipids and sphingolipids. Catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidic acid (PA) to diacylglycerol (DG). Pivotal regulator of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signaling in the cardiovascular system. Major enzyme responsible of dephosphorylating LPA in platelets, which terminates signaling actions of LPA. May control circulating, and possibly also regulate localized, LPA levels resulting from platelet activation. It has little activity towards ceramide-1-phosphate (C-1-P) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P). The relative catalytic efficiency is LPA > PA > S-1-P > C-1-P. It's down-regulation may contribute to the development of colon adenocarcinoma.
Gene Name:
PPAP2A
Uniprot ID:
O14494
Molecular weight:
32155.715
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of phosphatidic acid (PA) to diacylglycerol (DG). In addition it hydrolyzes lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), ceramide-1-phosphate (C-1-P) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P). The relative catalytic efficiency is LPA = PA > C-1-P > S-1-P. May be involved in cell adhesion and in cell-cell interactions.
Gene Name:
PPAP2B
Uniprot ID:
O14495
Molecular weight:
35115.61
General function:
Involved in ligase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PCCB
Uniprot ID:
P05166
Molecular weight:
58215.13
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
PCCA
Uniprot ID:
P05165
Molecular weight:
80058.295
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GART
Uniprot ID:
P22102
Molecular weight:
107766.295
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Produces N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) and 2-keto-3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-nononic acid (KDN). Can also use N-acetylmannosamine 6-phosphate and mannose 6-phosphate as substrates to generate phosphorylated forms of Neu5Ac and KDN, respectively.
Gene Name:
NANS
Uniprot ID:
Q9NR45
Molecular weight:
40307.26
General function:
Involved in inositol or phosphatidylinositol phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Converts adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) to adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate (APS) and 3'(2')-phosphoadenosine 5'- phosphate (PAP) to AMP. Has 1000-fold lower activity towards inositol 1,4-bisphosphate (Ins(1,4)P2) and inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate (Ins(1,3,4)P3), but does not hydrolyze Ins(1)P, Ins(3,4)P2, Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 or InsP6.
Gene Name:
BPNT1
Uniprot ID:
O95861
Molecular weight:
33392.035
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Involved in the urea cycle of ureotelic animals where the enzyme plays an important role in removing excess ammonia from the cell.
Gene Name:
CPS1
Uniprot ID:
P31327
Molecular weight:
165649.075
General function:
Involved in inositol or phosphatidylinositol phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Major isoenzyme hydrolyzing the calcium-mobilizing second messenger Ins(1,4,5)P3, this is a signal-terminating reaction.
Gene Name:
INPP5A
Uniprot ID:
Q14642
Molecular weight:
47819.155
General function:
Involved in inositol or phosphatidylinositol phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
INPP1
Uniprot ID:
P49441
Molecular weight:
43997.62
General function:
Involved in inositol or phosphatidylinositol phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Inositol 5-phosphatase, which converts inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate to inositol 1,4-bisphosphate. Also converts phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate to phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate to inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate in vitro. May be involved in modulation of the function of inositol and phosphatidylinositol polyphosphate-binding proteins that are present at membranes ruffles (By similarity).
Gene Name:
INPP5J
Uniprot ID:
Q15735
Molecular weight:
70238.575
General function:
Involved in inositol or phosphatidylinositol phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Inositol 5-phosphatase which acts on inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate. Has 6-fold higher affinity for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate than for inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. May negatively regulate assembly of the actin cytoskeleton.
Gene Name:
INPP5K
Uniprot ID:
Q9BT40
Molecular weight:
42783.425
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
LPH splits lactose in the small intestine.
Gene Name:
LCT
Uniprot ID:
P09848
Molecular weight:
218584.77
General function:
Involved in phosphorylase activity
Specific function:
Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties.
Gene Name:
PYGL
Uniprot ID:
P06737
Molecular weight:
93133.25
General function:
Involved in phosphorylase activity
Specific function:
Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties.
Gene Name:
PYGM
Uniprot ID:
P11217
Molecular weight:
87316.355
General function:
Involved in phosphorylase activity
Specific function:
Phosphorylase is an important allosteric enzyme in carbohydrate metabolism. Enzymes from different sources differ in their regulatory mechanisms and in their natural substrates. However, all known phosphorylases share catalytic and structural properties.
Gene Name:
PYGB
Uniprot ID:
P11216
Molecular weight:
96695.18
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes glucose-6-phosphate to glucose in the endoplasmic reticulum. Forms with the glucose-6-phosphate transporter (SLC37A4/G6PT) the complex responsible for glucose production through glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. Hence, it is the key enzyme in homeostatic regulation of blood glucose levels.
Gene Name:
G6PC
Uniprot ID:
P35575
Molecular weight:
40483.21
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring pentosyl groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the reversible phosphorylation of S-methyl-5'-thioadenosine (MTA) to adenine and 5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate. Involved in the breakdown of MTA, a major by-product of polyamine biosynthesis. Responsible for the first step in the methionine salvage pathway after MTA has been generated from S-adenosylmethionine. Has broad substrate specificity with 6-aminopurine nucleosides as preferred substrates.
Gene Name:
MTAP
Uniprot ID:
Q13126
Molecular weight:
31235.76
General function:
Involved in methionine adenosyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of S-adenosylmethionine from methionine and ATP.
Gene Name:
MAT1A
Uniprot ID:
Q00266
Molecular weight:
43647.6
General function:
Involved in ligase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MCCC2
Uniprot ID:
Q9HCC0
Molecular weight:
61332.65
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MCCC1
Uniprot ID:
Q96RQ3
Molecular weight:
80472.45
General function:
Involved in glutamate-cysteine ligase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GCLC
Uniprot ID:
P48506
Molecular weight:
68629.42
General function:
Involved in acylphosphatase activity
Specific function:
Its physiological role is not yet clear.
Gene Name:
ACYP2
Uniprot ID:
P14621
Molecular weight:
11139.52
General function:
Involved in acylphosphatase activity
Specific function:
Its physiological role is not yet clear.
Gene Name:
ACYP1
Uniprot ID:
P07311
Molecular weight:
11260.84
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Synthesizes selenophosphate from selenide and ATP.
Gene Name:
SEPHS1
Uniprot ID:
P49903
Molecular weight:
42910.325
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Synthesizes selenophosphate from selenide and ATP.
Gene Name:
SEPHS2
Uniprot ID:
Q99611
Molecular weight:
47304.695
General function:
Involved in CTP synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent amination of UTP to CTP with either L-glutamine or ammonia as the source of nitrogen.
Gene Name:
CTPS1
Uniprot ID:
P17812
Molecular weight:
66689.9
General function:
Involved in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
May play an important role in regulating the switch between different pathways for energy production during spermiogenesis and in the spermatozoon. Required for sperm motility and male fertility (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GAPDHS
Uniprot ID:
O14556
Molecular weight:
44500.835
General function:
Involved in glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Has both glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and nitrosylase activities, thereby playing a role in glycolysis and nuclear functions, respectively. Participates in nuclear events including transcription, RNA transport, DNA replication and apoptosis. Nuclear functions are probably due to the nitrosylase activity that mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of nuclear target proteins such as SIRT1, HDAC2 and PRKDC. Modulates the organization and assembly of the cytoskeleton. Facilitates the CHP1-dependent microtubule and membrane associations through its ability to stimulate the binding of CHP1 to microtubules (By similarity). Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in glycolysis that catalyzes the first step of the pathway by converting D-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P) into 3-phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate. Component of the GAIT (gamma interferon-activated inhibitor of translation) complex which mediates interferon-gamma-induced transcript-selective translation inhibition in inflammation processes. Upon interferon-gamma treatment assembles into the GAIT complex which binds to stem loop-containing GAIT elements in the 3'-UTR of diverse inflammatory mRNAs (such as ceruplasmin) and suppresses their translation.
Gene Name:
GAPDH
Uniprot ID:
P04406
Molecular weight:
31547.76
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSS
Uniprot ID:
P48637
Molecular weight:
52384.325

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Involved in the export of copper out of the cells, such as the efflux of hepatic copper into the bile.
Gene Name:
ATP7B
Uniprot ID:
P35670
Molecular weight:
157261.34
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May supply copper to copper-requiring proteins within the secretory pathway, when localized in the trans-Golgi network. Under conditions of elevated extracellular copper, it relocalized to the plasma membrane where it functions in the efflux of copper from cells.
Gene Name:
ATP7A
Uniprot ID:
Q04656
Molecular weight:
163372.275

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 330 proteins in total.