Record Information
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-05-29 19:31:35 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB05947
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePhosphate
DescriptionPhosphate is a salt of phosphoric acid. In organic chemistry, a phosphate, or organophosphate, is an ester of phosphoric acid. Organic phosphates are important in biochemistry, biogeochemistry and ecology. Phosphate (Pi) is an essential component of life. In biological systems, phosphorus is found as a free phosphate ion in solution and is called inorganic phosphate, to distinguish it from phosphates bound in various phosphate esters. Inorganic phosphate is generally denoted Pi and at physiological (neutral) pH primarily consists of a mixture of HPO2-4 and H2PO-4 ions. phosphates are most commonly found in the form of adenosine phosphates, (AMP, ADP and ATP) and in DNA and RNA and can be released by the hydrolysis of ATP or ADP. Similar reactions exist for the other nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates. Phosphoanhydride bonds in ADP and ATP, or other nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates, contain high amounts of energy which give them their vital role in all living organisms. Phosphate must be actively transported into cells against its electrochemical gradient. In vertebrates, two unrelated families of Na+-dependent Pi transporters carry out this task. Remarkably, the two families transport different Pi species: whereas type II Na+/Pi cotransporters (SCL34) prefer divalent HPO4(2), type III Na+/Pi cotransporters (SLC20) transport monovalent H2PO4. The SCL34 family comprises both electrogenic and electroneutral members that are expressed in various epithelia and other polarized cells. Through regulated activity in apical membranes of the gut and kidney, they maintain body Pi homeostasis, and in salivary and mammary glands, liver, and testes they play a role in modulating the Pi content of luminal fluids. Phosphate levels in the blood play an important role in hormone signaling and in bone homeostasis. In classical endocrine regulation, low serum phosphate induces the renal production of the seco-steroid hormone 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3).This active metabolite of vitamin D acts to restore circulating mineral (i.e. phosphate and calcium) levels by increasing absorption in the intestine, reabsorption in the kidney, and mobilization of calcium and phosphate from bone. Thus, chronic renal failure is associated with hyperparathyroidism, which in turn contributes to osteomalacia (softening of the bones). Another complication of chronic renal failure is hyperphosphatemia (low levels of phosphate in the blood). Hyperphosphatemia (excess levels of phosphate in the blood) is a prevalent condition in kidney dialysis patients and is associated with increased risk of mortality. Hypophosphatemia (hungry bone syndrome) has been associated to postoperative electrolyte aberrations and after parathyroidectomy. (PMID: 17581921 , 11169009 , 11039261 , 9159312 , 17625581 )Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) has recently been recognized as a key mediator of phosphate homeostasis, its most notable effect being promotion of phosphate excretion. FGF-23 was discovered to be involved in diseases such as autosomal dominant hypophosphatemic rickets, X-linked hypophosphatemia, and tumor-induced osteomalacia in which phosphate wasting was coupled to inappropriately low levels of 1,25(OH)2D3. FGF-23 is regulated by dietary phosphate in humans. In particular it was found that phosphate restriction decreased FGF-23, and phosphate loading increased FGF-23.
  1. NFB Orthophosphate
  2. O-Phosphoric acid
  3. Ortho-phosphate
  4. Orthophosphate (PO43-)
  5. Orthophosphate(3-)
  6. Phosphate
  7. Phosphate (PO43-)
  8. Phosphate anion(3-)
  9. Phosphate ion (PO43-)
  10. Phosphate ion(3-)
  11. Phosphate trianion
  12. Phosphate(3-)
  13. Phosphoric acid ion(3-)
  14. Pi
Chemical FormulaO4P
Average Molecular Weight94.9714
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight94.95342
IUPAC Namephosphate
Traditional IUPAC Namephosphate
CAS Registry Number14265-44-2
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Non-metal Compounds
ClassNon-metal Oxoanionic Compounds
Sub ClassNon-metal Phosphates
Other Descriptors
  • phosphate ion(ChEBI)
  • N/A
Direct ParentNon-metal Phosphates
StatusDetected and Quantified
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000 mg/mLMERCK INDEX (1996)
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
pKa (strongest acidic)1.8ChemAxon
physiological charge-2ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count4ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area86.25ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Prostate
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified379.1 +/- 31.6 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
UrineDetected and Quantified1364.27 +/- 915.27 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified450 +/- 30 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedCommentHypophosphatemia
BloodDetected and Quantified290 +/- 50 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedCommentHypophosphatemia
BloodDetected and Quantified653.0 +/- 126.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHemodialysis
BloodDetected and Quantified270 (0-540) uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedCommentHypophosphatemia
BloodDetected and Quantified610 +/- 130 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedCommentHypophosphatemia
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
  • Oikawa O, Higuchi T, Yamazaki T, Yamamoto C, Fukuda N, Matsumoto K: Evaluation of serum fetuin-A relationships with biochemical parameters in patients on hemodialysis. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2007 Dec;11(4):304-8. Epub 2007 Dec 21. Pubmed: 18085392
  • Amanzadeh J, Reilly RF Jr: Hypophosphatemia: an evidence-based approach to its clinical consequences and management. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol. 2006 Mar;2(3):136-48. Pubmed: 16932412
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00532
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022617
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID1032
KEGG Compound IDC00009
BioCyc IDCPD-8587
BiGG ID33499
Wikipedia LinkPhosphate
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01429
Metagene LinkHMDB01429
PubChem Compound1061
ChEBI ID18367
Synthesis ReferenceCremer, Josef; Hartmann, Fridolin; Rodis, Franz; Hinz, Arnulf. Preparation of alkali or alkaline earth phosphates with simultaneous recovery of volatile mineral acids. Ger. (1966), 2 pp. CODEN: GWXXAW DE 1227435 19661027 CAN 66:12584 AN 1967:12584
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
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  3. Srivastava T, Alon US: Pathophysiology of hypercalciuria in children. Pediatr Nephrol. 2007 Oct;22(10):1659-73. Epub 2007 Apr 27. Pubmed: 17464515
  4. Pietak AM, Reid JW, Stott MJ, Sayer M: Silicon substitution in the calcium phosphate bioceramics. Biomaterials. 2007 Oct;28(28):4023-32. Epub 2007 May 17. Pubmed: 17544500
  5. Keul P, Sattler K, Levkau B: HDL and its sphingosine-1-phosphate content in cardioprotection. Heart Fail Rev. 2007 Dec;12(3-4):301-6. Pubmed: 17554629
  6. Isales CM, McDonald JM: Future developments in therapy. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Nov;1117:258-63. Epub 2007 Jun 21. Pubmed: 17584984
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  8. Breitkreutz D, Braiman-Wiksman L, Daum N, Denning MF, Tennenbaum T: Protein kinase C family: on the crossroads of cell signaling in skin and tumor epithelium. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2007 Nov;133(11):793-808. Epub 2007 Jul 28. Pubmed: 17661083
  9. Tiwari S, Riazi S, Ecelbarger CA: Insulin's impact on renal sodium transport and blood pressure in health, obesity, and diabetes. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Oct;293(4):F974-84. Epub 2007 Aug 8. Pubmed: 17686957
  10. Argraves KM, Argraves WS: HDL serves as a S1P signaling platform mediating a multitude of cardiovascular effects. J Lipid Res. 2007 Nov;48(11):2325-33. Epub 2007 Aug 13. Pubmed: 17698855
  11. Brown BA, Kantesaria PP, McDevitt LM: Fingolimod: a novel immunosuppressant for multiple sclerosis. Ann Pharmacother. 2007 Oct;41(10):1660-8. Epub 2007 Sep 4. Pubmed: 17785617
  12. Toussaint ND, Kerr PG: Vascular calcification and arterial stiffness in chronic kidney disease: implications and management. Nephrology (Carlton). 2007 Oct;12(5):500-9. Pubmed: 17803475
  13. Munteanu A, Zingg JM: Cellular, molecular and clinical aspects of vitamin E on atherosclerosis prevention. Mol Aspects Med. 2007 Oct-Dec;28(5-6):538-90. Epub 2007 Aug 3. Pubmed: 17825403
  14. Nauseef WM: How human neutrophils kill and degrade microbes: an integrated view. Immunol Rev. 2007 Oct;219:88-102. Pubmed: 17850484
  15. Allen LA, McCaffrey RL: To activate or not to activate: distinct strategies used by Helicobacter pylori and Francisella tularensis to modulate the NADPH oxidase and survive in human neutrophils. Immunol Rev. 2007 Oct;219:103-17. Pubmed: 17850485
  16. Giavazzi R, Bani MR, Taraboletti G: Tumor-host interaction in the optimization of paclitaxel-based combination therapies with vascular targeting compounds. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2007 Dec;26(3-4):481-8. Pubmed: 17896168
  17. Tonelli M, Wiebe N, Culleton B, Lee H, Klarenbach S, Shrive F, Manns B: Systematic review of the clinical efficacy and safety of sevelamer in dialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007 Oct;22(10):2856-66. Pubmed: 17906326
  18. Miyamoto K, Tatsumi S, Ito M, Segawa H: [New aspect of renal phosphate reabsorption and phosphate metabolism] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1485-92. Pubmed: 17906398
  19. Michigami T: [Vitamin D metabolism and action] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1493-8. Pubmed: 17906399
  20. Hoshi K: [Mechanisms of bone calcification] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1499-507. Pubmed: 17906400
  21. Takeuchi Y: [Pathophysiology in rickets/osteomalacia] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1508-13. Pubmed: 17906401
  22. Ito N, Fukumoto S: [FGF23-related hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1514-20. Pubmed: 17906402
  23. Sekine T: [Rickets/osteomalacia due to tubular dysfunction] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1529-33. Pubmed: 17906404
  24. Sato K: [Drug-induced osteomalacia] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1536-42. Pubmed: 17906405
  25. Hasegawa Y, Miyamoto J: [Hypophosphatemic rickets/osteomalacia. - Mainly on patients with PHEX mutations -] Clin Calcium. 2007 Oct;17(10):1592-9. Pubmed: 17906414
  26. Bragadeesh TK, Mathur G, Clark AL, Cleland JG: Novel cardiac myosin activators for acute heart failure. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2007 Oct;16(10):1541-8. Pubmed: 17922619
  27. Worthington HV, Clarkson JE, Eden OB: Interventions for preventing oral mucositis for patients with cancer receiving treatment. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Oct 17;(4):CD000978. Pubmed: 17943748
  28. Nixon GF, Mathieson FA, Hunter I: The potential roles of sphingolipids in vascular smooth-muscle function. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Nov;35(Pt 5):908-9. Pubmed: 17956243
  29. Johnson D, Shepherd RM, Gill D, Gorman T, Smith DM, Dunne MJ: Glucokinase activators: molecular tools for studying the physiology of insulin-secreting cells. Biochem Soc Trans. 2007 Nov;35(Pt 5):1208-10. Pubmed: 17956314
  30. Ku NO, Strnad P, Zhong BH, Tao GZ, Omary MB: Keratins let liver live: Mutations predispose to liver disease and crosslinking generates Mallory-Denk bodies. Hepatology. 2007 Nov;46(5):1639-49. Pubmed: 17969036
  31. Beutler E, Duparc S: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and antimalarial drug development. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007 Oct;77(4):779-89. Pubmed: 17978087
  32. Van Brocklyn JR: Sphingolipid signaling pathways as potential therapeutic targets in gliomas. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2007 Oct;7(10):984-90. Pubmed: 17979800
  33. Raben DM, Tu-Sekine B: Nuclear diacylglycerol kinases: regulation and roles. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:590-7. Pubmed: 17981572
  34. Dubin A, Estenssoro E: Mechanisms of tissue hypercarbia in sepsis. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:1340-51. Pubmed: 17981634
  35. Deng ZL, Sharff KA, Tang N, Song WX, Luo J, Luo X, Chen J, Bennett E, Reid R, Manning D, Xue A, Montag AG, Luu HH, Haydon RC, He TC: Regulation of osteogenic differentiation during skeletal development. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:2001-21. Pubmed: 17981687
  36. Liu X, Elojeimy S, Turner LS, Mahdy AE, Zeidan YH, Bielawska A, Bielawski J, Dong JY, El-Zawahry AM, Guo GW, Hannun YA, Holman DH, Rubinchik S, Szulc Z, Keane TE, Tavassoli M, Norris JS: Acid ceramidase inhibition: a novel target for cancer therapy. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:2293-8. Pubmed: 17981711
  37. Su N, Du X, Chen L: FGF signaling: its role in bone development and human skeleton diseases. Front Biosci. 2008 Jan 1;13:2842-65. Pubmed: 17981758
  38. Trimble JL, Kockler DR: Statin treatment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Ann Pharmacother. 2007 Dec;41(12):2019-23. Epub 2007 Nov 6. Pubmed: 17986515
  39. Zeitels SM, Burns JA: Office-based laryngeal laser surgery with the 532-nm pulsed-potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2007 Dec;15(6):394-400. Pubmed: 17986877
  40. Pebay A, Bonder CS, Pitson SM: Stem cell regulation by lysophospholipids. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2007 Nov;84(3-4):83-97. Epub 2007 Sep 5. Pubmed: 17991611
  41. Komarova YA, Mehta D, Malik AB: Dual regulation of endothelial junctional permeability. Sci STKE. 2007 Nov 13;2007(412):re8. Pubmed: 18000237
  42. Burger EL, Patel V: Calcium phosphates as bone graft extenders. Orthopedics. 2007 Nov;30(11):939-42. Pubmed: 18019987
  43. Qin C, D'Souza R, Feng JQ: Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1): new and important roles for biomineralization and phosphate homeostasis. J Dent Res. 2007 Dec;86(12):1134-41. Pubmed: 18037646
  44. Andress DL: Bone and mineral guidelines for patients with chronic kidney disease: a call for revision. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 Jan;3(1):179-83. Epub 2007 Dec 5. Pubmed: 18057310
  45. Fukumoto S: [Parathyroid and bone. Calcimimetics and bone metabolism] Clin Calcium. 2007 Dec;17(12):1865-9. Pubmed: 18057662
  46. Fei X, Qin Z, Liang Z: Contribution of CDP/Cux, a transcription factor, to cell cycle progression. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin (Shanghai). 2007 Dec;39(12):923-30. Pubmed: 18064384
  47. Bonomini F, Tengattini S, Fabiano A, Bianchi R, Rezzani R: Atherosclerosis and oxidative stress. Histol Histopathol. 2008 Mar;23(3):381-90. Pubmed: 18072094
  48. Orcel P, Chapurlat R: [Fibrous dysplasia of bone] Rev Prat. 2007 Oct 31;57(16):1749-55. Pubmed: 18092715
  49. Damron TA: Use of 3D beta-tricalcium phosphate (Vitoss) scaffolds in repairing bone defects. Nanomed. 2007 Dec;2(6):763-75. Pubmed: 18095844
  50. Hertz A, Bruce IJ: Inorganic materials for bone repair or replacement applications. Nanomed. 2007 Dec;2(6):899-918. Pubmed: 18095853
  51. Cappellini MD, Fiorelli G: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. Lancet. 2008 Jan 5;371(9606):64-74. Pubmed: 18177777
  52. Virkki LV, Biber J, Murer H, Forster IC: Phosphate transporters: a tale of two solute carrier families. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007 Sep;293(3):F643-54. Epub 2007 Jun 20. Pubmed: 17581921
  53. Pohlmeier R, Vienken J: Phosphate removal and hemodialysis conditions. Kidney Int Suppl. 2001 Feb;78:S190-4. Pubmed: 11169009
  54. Gallar P, Ortega O, Gutierrez M, Munoz M, Hilara L, Oliet A, Rodriguez I, Gimenez E, Vigil A: [Influencing factors in the control of phosphorus in peritoneal dialysis. Therapeutic options]. Nefrologia. 2000 Jul-Aug;20(4):355-61. Pubmed: 11039261
  55. Cruz DN, Perazella MA: Biochemical aberrations in a dialysis patient following parathyroidectomy. Am J Kidney Dis. 1997 May;29(5):759-62. Pubmed: 9159312
  56. Nemere I: The ins and outs of phosphate homeostasis. Kidney Int. 2007 Jul;72(2):140-2. Pubmed: 17625581

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Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 330 proteins in total.