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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-05-29 19:31:39 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01440
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NamedGTP
DescriptionUnder normal physiologic conditions, deoxyguanosine (dGuo) undergoes phosphorolysis by purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP, EC 2.4.2.1, an enzyme involved in the recycling of nucleosides and deoxynucleosides in cellular remodeling). However, when PNP is inhibited, deoxycytidine kinase (dCK, EC 2.7.1.74) shunts unmetabolized dGuo into deoxyguanosine triphosphate (dGTP), which accumulates and blocks DNA synthesis. Deficiency of purine nucleoside phosphorylase results in defective T-cell immunity. A correlation between the degree of T cell inhibition and the level of dCK activity is observed. (PMID: 11287638 , 402573 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate
  2. 2'-Deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate
  3. 2'-Deoxyguanosine triphosphate
  4. Deoxyguanosine triphosphate
Chemical FormulaC10H16N5O13P3
Average Molecular Weight507.181
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight506.995745159
IUPAC Name({[({[(2R,3S,5R)-5-(2-amino-6-oxo-6,9-dihydro-1H-purin-9-yl)-3-hydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)phosphonic acid
Traditional IUPAC Name({[(2R,3S,5R)-5-(2-amino-6-oxo-1H-purin-9-yl)-3-hydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy(hydroxy)phosphoryl)oxyphosphonic acid
CAS Registry Number2564-35-4
SMILES
NC1=NC2=C(N=CN2[C@H]2C[C@H](O)[C@@H](COP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OP(O)(O)=O)O2)C(=O)N1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H16N5O13P3/c11-10-13-8-7(9(17)14-10)12-3-15(8)6-1-4(16)5(26-6)2-25-30(21,22)28-31(23,24)27-29(18,19)20/h3-6,16H,1-2H2,(H,21,22)(H,23,24)(H2,18,19,20)(H3,11,13,14,17)/t4-,5+,6+/m0/s1
InChI KeyHAAZLUGHYHWQIW-KVQBGUIXSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, Nucleotides, and Analogues
ClassPurine Nucleotides
Sub ClassPurine Deoxyribonucleotides
Other Descriptors
  • Aromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
  • Deoxyribonucleotides(KEGG)
  • Organic Compounds
  • deoxyguanosine phosphate(ChEBI)
  • purine 2'-deoxyribonucleoside 5'-triphosphate(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Hypoxanthine
  • Imidazole
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Organic Hypophosphite
  • Organic Phosphite
  • Organic Pyrophosphate
  • Oxolane
  • Phosphoric Acid Ester
  • Purine
  • Purinone
  • Pyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct ParentPurine 2'-deoxyribonucleoside Triphosphates
Ontology
StatusExpected and Not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • DNA component
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.59 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.61ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.82ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)1.61ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count13ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count7ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area274.58ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity95.73ChemAxon
Polarizability39.1ChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Purine MetabolismSMP00050map00230
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022623
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID58613
KEGG Compound IDC00286
BioCyc IDDGTP
BiGG ID34502
Wikipedia LinkDeoxyguanosine triphosphate
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01440
Metagene LinkHMDB01440
METLIN ID6248
PubChem Compound65103
PDB IDDGT
ChEBI ID16497
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Kicska GA, Long L, Horig H, Fairchild C, Tyler PC, Furneaux RH, Schramm VL, Kaufman HL: Immucillin H, a powerful transition-state analog inhibitor of purine nucleoside phosphorylase, selectively inhibits human T lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Apr 10;98(8):4593-8. Epub 2001 Apr 3. Pubmed: 11287638
  2. Stoop JW, Zegers BJ, Hendrickx GF, van Heukelom LH, Staal GE, de Bree PK, Wadman SK, Ballieux RE: Purine nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency associated with selective cellular immunodeficiency. N Engl J Med. 1977 Mar 24;296(12):651-5. Pubmed: 402573

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Phosphorylates uridine and cytidine to uridine monophosphate and cytidine monophosphate. Does not phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides or purine ribonucleosides. Can use ATP or GTP as a phosphate donor. Can also phosphorylate cytidine and uridine nucleoside analogs such as 6-azauridine, 5-fluorouridine, 4-thiouridine, 5-bromouridine, N(4)-acetylcytidine, N(4)-benzoylcytidine, 5-fluorocytidine, 2-thiocytidine, 5-methylcytidine, and N(4)-anisoylcytidine.
Gene Name:
UCK1
Uniprot ID:
Q9HA47
Molecular weight:
22760.43
Reactions
dGTP + Uridine → dGDP + Uridine 5'-monophosphatedetails
dGTP + Cytidine → dGDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NME4
Uniprot ID:
O00746
Molecular weight:
20658.45
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + dGDP → ADP + dGTPdetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. Possesses nucleoside-diphosphate kinase, serine/threonine-specific protein kinase, geranyl and farnesyl pyrophosphate kinase, histidine protein kinase and 3'-5' exonuclease activities. Involved in cell proliferation, differentiation and development, signal transduction, G protein-coupled receptor endocytosis, and gene expression. Required for neural development including neural patterning and cell fate determination.
Gene Name:
NME1
Uniprot ID:
P15531
Molecular weight:
17148.635
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + dGDP → ADP + dGTPdetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-site intermediate.
Gene Name:
NME7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5B8
Molecular weight:
42491.365
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + dGDP → ADP + dGTPdetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. Negatively regulates Rho activity by interacting with AKAP13/LBC. Acts as a transcriptional activator of the MYC gene; binds DNA non-specifically (PubMed:8392752). Exhibits histidine protein kinase activity.
Gene Name:
NME2
Uniprot ID:
P22392
Molecular weight:
30136.92
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + dGDP → ADP + dGTPdetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-site intermediate. Probably has a role in normal hematopoiesis by inhibition of granulocyte differentiation and induction of apoptosis.
Gene Name:
NME3
Uniprot ID:
Q13232
Molecular weight:
19014.85
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + dGDP → ADP + dGTPdetails
General function:
Involved in nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity
Specific function:
Major role in the synthesis of nucleoside triphosphates other than ATP. The ATP gamma phosphate is transferred to the NDP beta phosphate via a ping-pong mechanism, using a phosphorylated active-site intermediate. Inhibitor of p53-induced apoptosis.
Gene Name:
NME6
Uniprot ID:
O75414
Molecular weight:
22002.965
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + dGDP → ADP + dGTPdetails
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Pyrophosphatase that hydrolyzes the non-canonical purine nucleotides inosine triphosphate (ITP), deoxyinosine triphosphate (dITP) as well as 2'-deoxy-N-6-hydroxylaminopurine triposphate (dHAPTP) and xanthosine 5'-triphosphate (XTP) to their respective monophosphate derivatives. The enzyme does not distinguish between the deoxy- and ribose forms. Probably excludes non-canonical purines from RNA and DNA precursor pools, thus preventing their incorporation into RNA and DNA and avoiding chromosomal lesions.
Gene Name:
ITPA
Uniprot ID:
Q9BY32
Molecular weight:
16833.23
Reactions
dGTP + Water → 2'-Deoxyguanosine 5'-monophosphate + Pyrophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Glycolytic enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to ADP, generating ATP. Stimulates POU5F1-mediated transcriptional activation. Plays a general role in caspase independent cell death of tumor cells. The ratio betwween the highly active tetrameric form and nearly inactive dimeric form determines whether glucose carbons are channeled to biosynthetic processes or used for glycolytic ATP production. The transition between the 2 forms contributes to the control of glycolysis and is important for tumor cell proliferation and survival.
Gene Name:
PKM
Uniprot ID:
P14618
Molecular weight:
65930.14
Reactions
dGTP + Pyruvic acid → dGDP + Phosphoenolpyruvic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in magnesium ion binding
Specific function:
Plays a key role in glycolysis (By similarity).
Gene Name:
PKLR
Uniprot ID:
P30613
Molecular weight:
61829.575
Reactions
dGTP + Pyruvic acid → dGDP + Phosphoenolpyruvic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Repair polymerase that plays a key role in base-excision repair. Has 5'-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase (dRP lyase) activity that removes the 5' sugar phosphate and also acts as a DNA polymerase that adds one nucleotide to the 3' end of the arising single-nucleotide gap. Conducts 'gap-filling' DNA synthesis in a stepwise distributive fashion rather than in a processive fashion as for other DNA polymerases.
Gene Name:
POLB
Uniprot ID:
P06746
Molecular weight:
38177.34
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Plays an essential role in the initiation of DNA replication. During the S phase of the cell cycle, the DNA polymerase alpha complex (composed of a catalytic subunit POLA1/p180, a regulatory subunit POLA2/p70 and two primase subunits PRIM1/p49 and PRIM2/p58) is recruited to DNA at the replicative forks via direct interactions with MCM10 and WDHD1. The primase subunit of the polymerase alpha complex initiates DNA synthesis by oligomerising short RNA primers on both leading and lagging strands. These primers are initially extended by the polymerase alpha catalytic subunit and subsequently transferred to polymerase delta and polymerase epsilon for processive synthesis on the lagging and leading strand, respectively. The reason this transfer occurs is because the polymerase alpha has limited processivity and lacks intrinsic 3' exonuclease activity for proofreading error, and therefore is not well suited for replicating long complexes.
Gene Name:
POLA1
Uniprot ID:
P09884
Molecular weight:
165911.405
Reactions
dGTP + DNA → Pyrophosphate + DNAdetails
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Required for optimal DNA polymerase delta activity
Gene Name:
POLD3
Uniprot ID:
Q15054
Molecular weight:
51400.0
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Repair polymerase. Involved in base excision repair (BER) responsible for repair of lesions that give rise to abasic (AP) sites in DNA. Has both DNA polymerase and terminal transferase activities. Has a 5'-deoxyribose-5-phosphate lyase (dRP lyase) activity.
Gene Name:
POLL
Uniprot ID:
Q9UGP5
Molecular weight:
63481.66
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding
Specific function:
May play a role in allowing polymerase epsilon to carry out its replication and/or repair function.
Gene Name:
POLE4
Uniprot ID:
Q9NR33
Molecular weight:
12208.63
Reactions
dGTP + DNA → Pyrophosphate + DNAdetails
General function:
Involved in damaged DNA binding
Specific function:
DNA polymerase specifically involved in DNA repair. Plays an important role in translesion synthesis, where the normal high fidelity DNA polymerases cannot proceed and DNA synthesis stalls. Plays an important role in the repair of UV-induced pyrimidine dimers. Depending on the context, it inserts the correct base, but causes frequent base transitions and transversions. May play a role in hypermutation at immunoglobulin genes. Forms a Schiff base with 5'-deoxyribose phosphate at abasic sites, but does not have lyase activity. Targets POLI to replication foci.
Gene Name:
POLH
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y253
Molecular weight:
78412.77
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Possesses two enzymatic activities: DNA synthesis (polymerase) and an exonucleolytic activity that degrades single stranded DNA in the 3'- to 5'-direction. Required with its accessory proteins (proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and replication factor C (RFC) or activator 1) for leading strand synthesis. Also involved in completing Okazaki fragments initiated by the DNA polymerase alpha/primase complex.
Gene Name:
POLD1
Uniprot ID:
P28340
Molecular weight:
123629.95
Reactions
dGTP + DNA → Pyrophosphate + DNAdetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Interacts with MAD2L2 to form the error prone DNA polymerase zeta involved in translesion DNA synthesis.
Gene Name:
REV3L
Uniprot ID:
O60673
Molecular weight:
352772.565
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Participates in DNA repair and in chromosomal DNA replication.
Gene Name:
POLE
Uniprot ID:
Q07864
Molecular weight:
261515.525
Reactions
dGTP + DNA → Pyrophosphate + DNAdetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Gap-filling polymerase involved in repair of DNA double-strand breaks by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Participates in immunoglobulin (Ig) light chain gene rearrangement in V(D)J recombination.
Gene Name:
POLM
Uniprot ID:
Q9NP87
Molecular weight:
54815.075
General function:
Involved in damaged DNA binding
Specific function:
DNA polymerase specifically involved in DNA repair. Plays an important role in translesion synthesis, where the normal high-fidelity DNA polymerases cannot proceed and DNA synthesis stalls. Depending on the context, it inserts the correct base, but causes frequent base transitions, transversions and frameshifts. Lacks 3'-5' proofreading exonuclease activity. Forms a Schiff base with 5'-deoxyribose phosphate at abasic sites, but does not have lyase activity.
Gene Name:
POLK
Uniprot ID:
Q9UBT6
Molecular weight:
98807.815
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding
Specific function:
Forms a complex with DNA polymerase epsilon subunit CHRAC1 and binds naked DNA, which is then incorporated into chromatin, aided by the nucleosome-remodeling activity of ISWI/SNF2H and ACF1.
Gene Name:
POLE3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NRF9
Molecular weight:
16859.4
Reactions
dGTP + DNA → Pyrophosphate + DNAdetails
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Involved in the replication of mitochondrial DNA. Associates with mitochondrial DNA.
Gene Name:
POLG
Uniprot ID:
P54098
Molecular weight:
139561.06
General function:
Involved in damaged DNA binding
Specific function:
Error-prone DNA polymerase specifically involved in DNA repair. Plays an important role in translesion synthesis, where the normal high-fidelity DNA polymerases cannot proceed and DNA synthesis stalls. Favors Hoogsteen base-pairing in the active site. Inserts the correct base with high-fidelity opposite an adenosine template. Exhibits low fidelity and efficiency opposite a thymidine template, where it will preferentially insert guanosine. May play a role in hypermutation of immunogobulin genes. Forms a Schiff base with 5'-deoxyribose phosphate at abasic sites, but may not have lyase activity.
Gene Name:
POLI
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNA4
Molecular weight:
83005.335
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Participates in DNA repair and in chromosomal DNA replication.
Gene Name:
POLE2
Uniprot ID:
P56282
Molecular weight:
56417.05
Reactions
dGTP + DNA → Pyrophosphate + DNAdetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Phosphorylates uridine and cytidine to uridine monophosphate and cytidine monophosphate. Does not phosphorylate deoxyribonucleosides or purine ribonucleosides. Can use ATP or GTP as a phosphate donor. Can also phosphorylate cytidine and uridine nucleoside analogs such as 6-azauridine, 5-fluorouridine, 4-thiouridine, 5-bromouridine, N(4)-acetylcytidine, N(4)-benzoylcytidine, 5-fluorocytidine, 2-thiocytidine, 5-methylcytidine, and N(4)-anisoylcytidine.
Gene Name:
UCK2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZX2
Molecular weight:
29298.92
Reactions
dGTP + Uridine → dGDP + Uridine 5'-monophosphatedetails
dGTP + Cytidine → dGDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May contribute to UTP accumulation needed for blast transformation and proliferation.
Gene Name:
UCKL1
Uniprot ID:
Q9NWZ5
Molecular weight:
59465.77
Reactions
dGTP + Uridine → dGDP + Uridine 5'-monophosphatedetails
dGTP + Cytidine → dGDP + Cytidine monophosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in binding
Specific function:
May activate or repress transcription via interactions with sequence specific DNA-binding proteins. Repression may be mediated at least in part by histone deacetylase activity (HDAC activity)
Gene Name:
MYBBP1A
Uniprot ID:
Q9BQG0
Molecular weight:
148853.2
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Has a DNA polymerase activity on nicked double-stranded DNA and on a singly primed DNA template. The enzyme activity is resistant to aphidicolin, and inhibited by dideoxynucleotides. Exhibites a single-stranded DNA-dependent ATPase activity. Could be involved in the repair of interstrand cross-links.
Gene Name:
POLQ
Uniprot ID:
O75417
Molecular weight:
289616.715
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
The function of the small subunit is not yet clear.
Gene Name:
POLD2
Uniprot ID:
P49005
Molecular weight:
51289.0
Reactions
dGTP + DNA → Pyrophosphate + DNAdetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Does not seem to have NDK kinase activity. Confers protection from cell death by Bax and alters the cellular levels of several antioxidant enzymes including Gpx5. May play a role in spermiogenesis by increasing the ability of late-stage spermatids to eliminate reactive oxygen species (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NME5
Uniprot ID:
P56597
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + dGDP → ADP + dGTPdetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
DNA primase is the polymerase that synthesizes small RNA primers for the Okazaki fragments made during discontinuous DNA replication.
Gene Name:
PRIM1
Uniprot ID:
P49642
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
dGTP + DNA → Pyrophosphate + DNAdetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
DNA primase is the polymerase that synthesizes small RNA primers for the Okazaki fragments made during discontinuous DNA replication.
Gene Name:
PRIM2
Uniprot ID:
P49643
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
dGTP + DNA → Pyrophosphate + DNAdetails