Record Information
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:10:34 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSulfate
DescriptionThe sulfate ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula SO42- and a molecular mass of 96.06 daltons; it consists of one central sulfur atom surrounded by four equivalent oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. The sulfate ion carries a negative two charge and is the conjugate base of the hydrogen sulfate ion, HSO4-, which is the conjugate base of H2SO4, sulfuric acid. In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. Sulfate aerosols can act as cloud condensation nuclei and this leads to greater numbers of smaller droplets of water. Lots of smaller droplets can diffuse light more efficiently than just a few larger droplets.
  1. Sulfate (ion 2-)
  2. Sulfate anion
  3. Sulfate anion(2-)
  4. Sulfate dianion
  5. Sulfate ion
  6. Sulfate ion (SO42-)
  7. Sulfate(2-)
  8. Sulfuric acid ion(2-)
  9. Sulphate
Chemical FormulaO4S
Average Molecular Weight96.063
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight95.951729178
IUPAC Namesulfate
Traditional IUPAC Namesulfate
CAS Registry Number14808-79-8
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Non-metal Compounds
ClassNon-metal Oxoanionic Compounds
Sub ClassNon-metal Sulfates
Other Descriptors
  • an anion(Cyc)
  • inorganic anion(ChEBI)
  • sulfur oxide(ChEBI)
  • sulfur oxoanion(ChEBI)
  • N/A
Direct ParentNon-metal Sulfates
StatusDetected and Quantified
  • Endogenous
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, sulfur metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
pKa (strongest acidic)-3ChemAxon
physiological charge-2ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count4ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area80.26ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Sulfate/Sulfite MetabolismSMP00041map00920
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified215.5 +/- 3.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified490.0 (310.0-580.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
UrineDetected and Quantified2407.89 (2171.05-2697.36) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022629
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID1085
KEGG Compound IDC00059
BioCyc IDNH42SO4
BiGG ID33697
Wikipedia LinkSulfate
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01448
Metagene LinkHMDB01448
PubChem Compound1117
ChEBI ID16189
Synthesis ReferenceZhang, Qiu-Ju; Wang, Xiao; Chen, Jian-Min; Zhuang, Guo-Shun. Formation of Fe(II) (aq) and sulfate via heterogeneous reaction of SO2 with Fe2O3. Gaodeng Xuexiao Huaxue Xuebao (2006), 27(7), 1347-1350.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Lortat-Jacob H: Interferon and heparan sulphate. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Jun;34(Pt 3):461-4. Pubmed: 16709188
  2. Rhodes KE, Fawcett JW: Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans: preventing plasticity or protecting the CNS? J Anat. 2004 Jan;204(1):33-48. Pubmed: 14690476
  3. Eisenhofer G, Coughtrie MW, Goldstein DS: Dopamine sulphate: an enigma resolved. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Suppl. 1999 Apr;26:S41-53. Pubmed: 10386253
  4. Ho HS, Lim SH, Loo S: The use of magnesium sulphate in the intensive care management of an Asian patient with tetanus. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1999 Jul;28(4):586-9. Pubmed: 10561778
  5. Perrimon N, Bernfield M: Specificities of heparan sulphate proteoglycans in developmental processes. Nature. 2000 Apr 13;404(6779):725-8. Pubmed: 10783877
  6. Duley L, Henderson-Smart D: Magnesium sulphate versus diazepam for eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000127. Pubmed: 10796145
  7. Duley L, Henderson-Smart D: Magnesium sulphate versus phenytoin for eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000128. Pubmed: 10796146
  8. Duffy PE, Fried M: Malaria during pregnancy: parasites, antibodies and chondroitin sulphate A. Biochem Soc Trans. 1999 Aug;27(4):478-82. Pubmed: 10917625
  9. Bateman KL, Delehedde M, Sergeant N, Wartelle I, Vidyasagar R, Fernig DG: Heparan sulphate. Regulation of growth factors in the mammary gland. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2000;480:65-9. Pubmed: 10959410
  10. McCormick C, Duncan G, Tufaro F: Herpes simplex virus: discovering the link between heparan sulphate and hereditary bone tumours. Rev Med Virol. 2000 Nov-Dec;10(6):373-84. Pubmed: 11114076
  11. Manyemba J: Magnesium sulphate for eclampsia: putting the evidence into clinical practice. Cent Afr J Med. 2000 Jun;46(6):166-9. Pubmed: 11235060
  12. Duley L, Gulmezoglu AM: Magnesium sulphate versus lytic cocktail for eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(1):CD002960. Pubmed: 11279786
  13. Kornacka MK: [Magnesium sulphate in the treatment of ischemic-hypoxic neonatal encephalopathy] Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2001 Mar-Apr;35(2):299-308. Pubmed: 11599227
  14. Karas Z: [Skin patch test with nickel sulphate--an attempt of broader interpretation of the results] Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2002 Aug;13(74):143-6. Pubmed: 12420348
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  19. Kjellen L: Glucosaminyl N-deacetylase/N-sulphotransferases in heparan sulphate biosynthesis and biology. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Apr;31(2):340-2. Pubmed: 12653633
  20. Catlow K, Deakin JA, Delehedde M, Fernig DG, Gallagher JT, Pavao MS, Lyon M: Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor and its interaction with heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Apr;31(2):352-3. Pubmed: 12653636
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  22. Duley L, Gulmezoglu AM, Henderson-Smart DJ: Magnesium sulphate and other anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(2):CD000025. Pubmed: 12804383
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  32. Cheuk DK, Chau TC, Lee SL: A meta-analysis on intravenous magnesium sulphate for treating acute asthma. Arch Dis Child. 2005 Jan;90(1):74-7. Pubmed: 15613519
  33. Mittendorf R, Pryde PG: A review of the role for magnesium sulphate in preterm labour. BJOG. 2005 Mar;112 Suppl 1:84-8. Pubmed: 15715602
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  39. Kemp LE, Mulloy B, Gherardi E: Signalling by HGF/SF and Met: the role of heparan sulphate co-receptors. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Jun;34(Pt 3):414-7. Pubmed: 16709175
  40. Gallagher JT: Multiprotein signalling complexes: regional assembly on heparan sulphate. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Jun;34(Pt 3):438-41. Pubmed: 16709181
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  42. Stringer SE: The role of heparan sulphate proteoglycans in angiogenesis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Jun;34(Pt 3):451-3. Pubmed: 16709184
  43. Kurup S, Abramsson A, Li JP, Lindahl U, Kjellen L, Betsholtz C, Gerhardt H, Spillmann D: Heparan sulphate requirement in platelet-derived growth factor B-mediated pericyte recruitment. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Jun;34(Pt 3):454-5. Pubmed: 16709185
  44. Rider CC: Heparin/heparan sulphate binding in the TGF-beta cytokine superfamily. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Jun;34(Pt 3):458-60. Pubmed: 16709187
  45. Parish CR: The role of heparan sulphate in inflammation. Nat Rev Immunol. 2006 Sep;6(9):633-43. Epub 2006 Aug 18. Pubmed: 16917509
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  47. Bishop JR, Schuksz M, Esko JD: Heparan sulphate proteoglycans fine-tune mammalian physiology. Nature. 2007 Apr 26;446(7139):1030-7. Pubmed: 17460664
  48. Heisel J, Forster KK: [Therapy of osteoarthritis crystalline glucosamine sulphate/a review of the clinical effcacy] Arzneimittelforschung. 2007;57(4):203-17. Pubmed: 17515291
  49. Doyle LW, Crowther CA, Middleton P, Marret S: Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD004661. Pubmed: 17636771
  50. Del Rio JA, Soriano E: Overcoming chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan inhibition of axon growth in the injured brain: lessons from chondroitinase ABC. Curr Pharm Des. 2007;13(24):2485-92. Pubmed: 17692016
  51. Peng L, Ye L, Guo X, Tan H, Zhou X, Wang C, Li R: Evaluation of formocresol versus ferric sulphate primary molar pulpotomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int Endod J. 2007 Oct;40(10):751-7. Epub 2007 Aug 22. Pubmed: 17714467
  52. Bianchi-Bosisio A, D'Agrosa F, Gaboardi F, Gianazza E, Righetti PG: Sodium dodecyl sulphate electrophoresis of urinary proteins. J Chromatogr. 1991 Sep 13;569(1-2):243-60. Pubmed: 1939488
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  54. Murer H, Markovich D, Biber J: Renal and small intestinal sodium-dependent symporters of phosphate and sulphate. J Exp Biol. 1994 Nov;196:167-81. Pubmed: 7823020
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