Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:10:34 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01448
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameSulfate
DescriptionThe sulfate ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula SO42- and a molecular mass of 96.06 daltons; it consists of one central sulfur atom surrounded by four equivalent oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement. The sulfate ion carries a negative two charge and is the conjugate base of the hydrogen sulfate ion, HSO4-, which is the conjugate base of H2SO4, sulfuric acid. In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. Sulfate aerosols can act as cloud condensation nuclei and this leads to greater numbers of smaller droplets of water. Lots of smaller droplets can diffuse light more efficiently than just a few larger droplets.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Sulfate (ion 2-)
  2. Sulfate anion
  3. Sulfate anion(2-)
  4. Sulfate dianion
  5. Sulfate ion
  6. Sulfate ion (SO42-)
  7. Sulfate(2-)
  8. Sulfuric acid ion(2-)
  9. Sulphate
Chemical FormulaO4S
Average Molecular Weight96.063
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight95.951729178
IUPAC Namesulfate
Traditional IUPAC Namesulfate
CAS Registry Number14808-79-8
SMILES
[O-]S([O-])(=O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/H2O4S/c1-5(2,3)4/h(H2,1,2,3,4)/p-2
InChI KeyQAOWNCQODCNURD-UHFFFAOYSA-L
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Non-metal Compounds
ClassNon-metal Oxoanionic Compounds
Sub ClassNon-metal Sulfates
Other Descriptors
  • an anion(Cyc)
  • inorganic anion(ChEBI)
  • sulfur oxide(ChEBI)
  • sulfur oxoanion(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentNon-metal Sulfates
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, sulfur metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.84ChemAxon
pKa (strongest acidic)-3ChemAxon
physiological charge-2ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count4ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area80.26ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity11.53ChemAxon
polarizability5.81ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Sulfate/Sulfite MetabolismSMP00041map00920
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReference
BloodDetected and Quantified215.5 +/- 3.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
BloodDetected and Quantified490.0 (310.0-580.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
UrineDetected and Quantified2407.89 (2171.05-2697.36) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
  • Geigy Scient...
  • West Cadwell...
  • Basel, Switz...
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022629
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID1085
KEGG Compound IDC00059
BioCyc IDNH42SO4
BiGG ID33697
Wikipedia LinkSulfate
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01448
Metagene LinkHMDB01448
METLIN ID3233
PubChem Compound1117
PDB IDSO4
ChEBI ID16189
References
Synthesis ReferenceZhang, Qiu-Ju; Wang, Xiao; Chen, Jian-Min; Zhuang, Guo-Shun. Formation of Fe(II) (aq) and sulfate via heterogeneous reaction of SO2 with Fe2O3. Gaodeng Xuexiao Huaxue Xuebao (2006), 27(7), 1347-1350.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Lortat-Jacob H: Interferon and heparan sulphate. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Jun;34(Pt 3):461-4. Pubmed: 16709188
  2. Rhodes KE, Fawcett JW: Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans: preventing plasticity or protecting the CNS? J Anat. 2004 Jan;204(1):33-48. Pubmed: 14690476
  3. Eisenhofer G, Coughtrie MW, Goldstein DS: Dopamine sulphate: an enigma resolved. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol Suppl. 1999 Apr;26:S41-53. Pubmed: 10386253
  4. Ho HS, Lim SH, Loo S: The use of magnesium sulphate in the intensive care management of an Asian patient with tetanus. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1999 Jul;28(4):586-9. Pubmed: 10561778
  5. Perrimon N, Bernfield M: Specificities of heparan sulphate proteoglycans in developmental processes. Nature. 2000 Apr 13;404(6779):725-8. Pubmed: 10783877
  6. Duley L, Henderson-Smart D: Magnesium sulphate versus diazepam for eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000127. Pubmed: 10796145
  7. Duley L, Henderson-Smart D: Magnesium sulphate versus phenytoin for eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000;(2):CD000128. Pubmed: 10796146
  8. Duffy PE, Fried M: Malaria during pregnancy: parasites, antibodies and chondroitin sulphate A. Biochem Soc Trans. 1999 Aug;27(4):478-82. Pubmed: 10917625
  9. Bateman KL, Delehedde M, Sergeant N, Wartelle I, Vidyasagar R, Fernig DG: Heparan sulphate. Regulation of growth factors in the mammary gland. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2000;480:65-9. Pubmed: 10959410
  10. McCormick C, Duncan G, Tufaro F: Herpes simplex virus: discovering the link between heparan sulphate and hereditary bone tumours. Rev Med Virol. 2000 Nov-Dec;10(6):373-84. Pubmed: 11114076
  11. Manyemba J: Magnesium sulphate for eclampsia: putting the evidence into clinical practice. Cent Afr J Med. 2000 Jun;46(6):166-9. Pubmed: 11235060
  12. Duley L, Gulmezoglu AM: Magnesium sulphate versus lytic cocktail for eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2001;(1):CD002960. Pubmed: 11279786
  13. Kornacka MK: [Magnesium sulphate in the treatment of ischemic-hypoxic neonatal encephalopathy] Neurol Neurochir Pol. 2001 Mar-Apr;35(2):299-308. Pubmed: 11599227
  14. Karas Z: [Skin patch test with nickel sulphate--an attempt of broader interpretation of the results] Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2002 Aug;13(74):143-6. Pubmed: 12420348
  15. Morgenstern DA, Asher RA, Fawcett JW: Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in the CNS injury response. Prog Brain Res. 2002;137:313-32. Pubmed: 12440375
  16. Crowther CA, Hiller JE, Doyle LW: Magnesium sulphate for preventing preterm birth in threatened preterm labour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2002;(4):CD001060. Pubmed: 12519550
  17. Kakuta Y, Li L, Pedersen LC, Pedersen LG, Negishi M: Heparan sulphate N-sulphotransferase activity: reaction mechanism and substrate recognition. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Apr;31(2):331-4. Pubmed: 12653630
  18. Properzi F, Asher RA, Fawcett JW: Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans in the central nervous system: changes and synthesis after injury. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Apr;31(2):335-6. Pubmed: 12653631
  19. Kjellen L: Glucosaminyl N-deacetylase/N-sulphotransferases in heparan sulphate biosynthesis and biology. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Apr;31(2):340-2. Pubmed: 12653633
  20. Catlow K, Deakin JA, Delehedde M, Fernig DG, Gallagher JT, Pavao MS, Lyon M: Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor and its interaction with heparan sulphate and dermatan sulphate. Biochem Soc Trans. 2003 Apr;31(2):352-3. Pubmed: 12653636
  21. Smetana R, Stuhlinger HG, Kiss K, Glogar DH: Intravenous magnesium sulphate in acute myocardial infarction--is the answer "MAGIC"? Magnes Res. 2003 Mar;16(1):65-9. Pubmed: 12735485
  22. Duley L, Gulmezoglu AM, Henderson-Smart DJ: Magnesium sulphate and other anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(2):CD000025. Pubmed: 12804383
  23. van Horssen J, Wesseling P, van den Heuvel LP, de Waal RM, Verbeek MM: Heparan sulphate proteoglycans in Alzheimer's disease and amyloid-related disorders. Lancet Neurol. 2003 Aug;2(8):482-92. Pubmed: 12878436
  24. Markovich D, Murer H: The SLC13 gene family of sodium sulphate/carboxylate cotransporters. Pflugers Arch. 2004 Feb;447(5):594-602. Epub 2003 Aug 12. Pubmed: 12915942
  25. Nenci GG: Dermatan sulphate as an antithrombotic drug. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb. 2002 Sep-Dec;32(5-6):303-7. Pubmed: 13679662
  26. Duley L, Henderson-Smart D: Magnesium sulphate versus diazepam for eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(4):CD000127. Pubmed: 14583910
  27. Duley L, Henderson-Smart D: Magnesium sulphate versus phenytoin for eclampsia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2003;(4):CD000128. Pubmed: 14583911
  28. Thijs L, Fagard R, Forette F, Nawrot T, Staessen JA: Are low dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate levels predictive for cardiovascular diseases? A review of prospective and retrospective studies. Acta Cardiol. 2003 Oct;58(5):403-10. Pubmed: 14609305
  29. Gallagher JT, Turnbull JE: Heparan sulphate in the binding and activation of basic fibroblast growth factor. Glycobiology. 1992 Dec;2(6):523-8. Pubmed: 1472758
  30. Crespo-Santiago D: [The extracellular matrix of the central nervous system: chondroitin sulphate type proteoglycans and neural repair] Rev Neurol. 2004 May 1-15;38(9):843-51. Pubmed: 15152354
  31. Gallagher JT, Turnbull JE, Lyon M: Patterns of sulphation in heparan sulphate: polymorphism based on a common structural theme. Int J Biochem. 1992 Apr;24(4):553-60. Pubmed: 1516727
  32. Cheuk DK, Chau TC, Lee SL: A meta-analysis on intravenous magnesium sulphate for treating acute asthma. Arch Dis Child. 2005 Jan;90(1):74-7. Pubmed: 15613519
  33. Mittendorf R, Pryde PG: A review of the role for magnesium sulphate in preterm labour. BJOG. 2005 Mar;112 Suppl 1:84-8. Pubmed: 15715602
  34. Duley L: Evidence and practice: the magnesium sulphate story. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2005 Feb;19(1):57-74. Pubmed: 15749066
  35. Rusnati M, Oreste P, Zoppetti G, Presta M: Biotechnological engineering of heparin/heparan sulphate: a novel area of multi-target drug discovery. Curr Pharm Des. 2005;11(19):2489-99. Pubmed: 16026302
  36. Hacker U, Nybakken K, Perrimon N: Heparan sulphate proteoglycans: the sweet side of development. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2005 Jul;6(7):530-41. Pubmed: 16072037
  37. Rozenberg P: [Magnesium sulphate for the management of preeclampsia] Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2006 Jan;34(1):54-9. Epub 2006 Jan 6. Pubmed: 16406662
  38. Vives RR, Lortat-Jacob H, Fender P: Heparan sulphate proteoglycans and viral vectors : ally or foe? Curr Gene Ther. 2006 Feb;6(1):35-44. Pubmed: 16475944
  39. Kemp LE, Mulloy B, Gherardi E: Signalling by HGF/SF and Met: the role of heparan sulphate co-receptors. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Jun;34(Pt 3):414-7. Pubmed: 16709175
  40. Gallagher JT: Multiprotein signalling complexes: regional assembly on heparan sulphate. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Jun;34(Pt 3):438-41. Pubmed: 16709181
  41. Harmer NJ: Insights into the role of heparan sulphate in fibroblast growth factor signalling. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Jun;34(Pt 3):442-5. Pubmed: 16709182
  42. Stringer SE: The role of heparan sulphate proteoglycans in angiogenesis. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Jun;34(Pt 3):451-3. Pubmed: 16709184
  43. Kurup S, Abramsson A, Li JP, Lindahl U, Kjellen L, Betsholtz C, Gerhardt H, Spillmann D: Heparan sulphate requirement in platelet-derived growth factor B-mediated pericyte recruitment. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Jun;34(Pt 3):454-5. Pubmed: 16709185
  44. Rider CC: Heparin/heparan sulphate binding in the TGF-beta cytokine superfamily. Biochem Soc Trans. 2006 Jun;34(Pt 3):458-60. Pubmed: 16709187
  45. Parish CR: The role of heparan sulphate in inflammation. Nat Rev Immunol. 2006 Sep;6(9):633-43. Epub 2006 Aug 18. Pubmed: 16917509
  46. Campo GM, Avenoso A, Campo S, Ferlazzo AM, Calatroni A: Chondroitin sulphate: antioxidant properties and beneficial effects. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2006 Dec;6(12):1311-20. Pubmed: 17168807
  47. Bishop JR, Schuksz M, Esko JD: Heparan sulphate proteoglycans fine-tune mammalian physiology. Nature. 2007 Apr 26;446(7139):1030-7. Pubmed: 17460664
  48. Heisel J, Forster KK: [Therapy of osteoarthritis crystalline glucosamine sulphate/a review of the clinical effcacy] Arzneimittelforschung. 2007;57(4):203-17. Pubmed: 17515291
  49. Doyle LW, Crowther CA, Middleton P, Marret S: Magnesium sulphate for women at risk of preterm birth for neuroprotection of the fetus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Jul 18;(3):CD004661. Pubmed: 17636771
  50. Del Rio JA, Soriano E: Overcoming chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan inhibition of axon growth in the injured brain: lessons from chondroitinase ABC. Curr Pharm Des. 2007;13(24):2485-92. Pubmed: 17692016
  51. Peng L, Ye L, Guo X, Tan H, Zhou X, Wang C, Li R: Evaluation of formocresol versus ferric sulphate primary molar pulpotomy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int Endod J. 2007 Oct;40(10):751-7. Epub 2007 Aug 22. Pubmed: 17714467
  52. Bianchi-Bosisio A, D'Agrosa F, Gaboardi F, Gianazza E, Righetti PG: Sodium dodecyl sulphate electrophoresis of urinary proteins. J Chromatogr. 1991 Sep 13;569(1-2):243-60. Pubmed: 1939488
  53. Sutton DN, Tremlett MR, Woodcock TE, Nielsen MS: Management of autonomic dysfunction in severe tetanus: the use of magnesium sulphate and clonidine. Intensive Care Med. 1990;16(2):75-80. Pubmed: 2094230
  54. Murer H, Markovich D, Biber J: Renal and small intestinal sodium-dependent symporters of phosphate and sulphate. J Exp Biol. 1994 Nov;196:167-81. Pubmed: 7823020
  55. Thiele B, Steinbach F: Dextran sulphate induces a PKC and actin independent internalisation of CD4. Immunol Lett. 1994 Sep;42(1-2):105-10. Pubmed: 7829123
  56. Scott JE: Keratan sulphate--a 'reserve' polysaccharide? Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 1994 Apr;32(4):217-23. Pubmed: 8038262
  57. van Heerden PV, Jenkins IR, Woods WP, Rossi E, Cameron PD: Death by tanning--a case of fatal basic chromium sulphate poisoning. Intensive Care Med. 1994;20(2):145-7. Pubmed: 8201096
  58. Rosen SD, Bertozzi CR: Two selectins converge on sulphate. Leukocyte adhesion. Curr Biol. 1996 Mar 1;6(3):261-4. Pubmed: 8805242
  59. Izzo AA, Gaginella TS, Capasso F: The osmotic and intrinsic mechanisms of the pharmacological laxative action of oral high doses of magnesium sulphate. Importance of the release of digestive polypeptides and nitric oxide. Magnes Res. 1996 Jun;9(2):133-8. Pubmed: 8878010
  60. Khaw KT: Dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate and cardiovascular disease. J Endocrinol. 1996 Sep;150 Suppl:S149-53. Pubmed: 8943798
  61. Coombe DR: The role of stromal cell heparan sulphate in regulating haemopoiesis. Leuk Lymphoma. 1996 May;21(5-6):399-406. Pubmed: 9172804
  62. Stringer SE, Gallagher JT: Heparan sulphate. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1997 May;29(5):709-14. Pubmed: 9251237
  63. McGrath JA, Eady RA: Heparan sulphate proteoglycan and wound healing in skin. J Pathol. 1997 Nov;183(3):251-2. Pubmed: 9422978
  64. Gallagher JT: Structure-activity relationship of heparan sulphate. Biochem Soc Trans. 1997 Nov;25(4):1206-9. Pubmed: 9449976

Enzymes

Gene Name:
ARSD
Uniprot ID:
P51689
Gene Name:
ARSA
Uniprot ID:
P15289
Gene Name:
ARSB
Uniprot ID:
P15848
Gene Name:
ARSE
Uniprot ID:
P51690
Gene Name:
STS
Uniprot ID:
P08842
Gene Name:
GSTM2
Uniprot ID:
P28161
Gene Name:
GSTM1
Uniprot ID:
P09488
Gene Name:
MGST3
Uniprot ID:
O14880
Gene Name:
GSTM3
Uniprot ID:
P21266
Gene Name:
GSTA1
Uniprot ID:
P08263
Gene Name:
GSTZ1
Uniprot ID:
O43708
Gene Name:
GSTM5
Uniprot ID:
P46439
Gene Name:
MGST2
Uniprot ID:
Q99735
Gene Name:
GSTO1
Uniprot ID:
P78417
Gene Name:
GSTA5
Uniprot ID:
Q7RTV2
Gene Name:
GSTA2
Uniprot ID:
P09210
Gene Name:
GSTA3
Uniprot ID:
Q16772
Gene Name:
GSTA4
Uniprot ID:
O15217
Gene Name:
GSTO2
Uniprot ID:
Q9H4Y5
Gene Name:
GSTT1
Uniprot ID:
P30711
Gene Name:
GSTP1
Uniprot ID:
P09211
Gene Name:
SUOX
Uniprot ID:
P51687
Gene Name:
IDS
Uniprot ID:
P22304
Gene Name:
GNS
Uniprot ID:
P15586
Gene Name:
GALNS
Uniprot ID:
P34059
Gene Name:
SLC26A2
Uniprot ID:
P50443
Gene Name:
SLC13A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9UKG4
Gene Name:
LOC51064
Uniprot ID:
Q6FII1
Gene Name:
GSTT2
Uniprot ID:
P0CG29