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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:04:47 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01484
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB11665
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAcetoacetyl-CoA
DescriptionAcetoacetyl-CoA is an intermediate in the metabolism of Butanoate. It is a substrate for Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase 1 (mitochondrial), Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (mitochondrial), Short chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (mitochondrial), Trifunctional enzyme beta subunit (mitochondrial), Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase (cytoplasmic), Peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme, Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (cytosolic), Acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase (mitochondrial), 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase type II, Succinyl-CoA:3-ketoacid-coenzyme A transferase 2 (mitochondrial), 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (mitochondrial), 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase (peroxisomal) and Trifunctional enzyme alpha subunit (mitochondrial).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 3-Acetoacetyl-CoA
  2. 3-Acetoacetyl-Coenzyme A
  3. 3-Oxobutyryl-CoA
  4. 3-Oxobutyryl-Coenzyme A
  5. Acetoacetyl coa
  6. Acetoacetyl coenzyme A
  7. Acetoacetyl-CoA
  8. Acetoacetyl-Coenzyme A
  9. S-Acetoacetylcoenzyme A
Chemical FormulaC25H40N7O18P3S
Average Molecular Weight851.607
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight851.136337737
IUPAC Name{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-2-({[hydroxy({[hydroxy(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-3-{[2-({2-[(3-oxobutanoyl)sulfanyl]ethyl}carbamoyl)ethyl]carbamoyl}propoxy)phosphoryl]oxy})phosphoryl]oxy}methyl)oxolan-3-yl]oxy}phosphonic acid
Traditional Name[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-aminopurin-9-yl)-4-hydroxy-2-[({hydroxy[hydroxy(3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-3-{[2-({2-[(3-oxobutanoyl)sulfanyl]ethyl}carbamoyl)ethyl]carbamoyl}propoxy)phosphoryl]oxyphosphoryl}oxy)methyl]oxolan-3-yl]oxyphosphonic acid
CAS Registry Number1420-36-6
SMILES
CC(=O)CC(=O)SCCNC(=O)CCNC(=O)C(O)C(C)(C)COP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OC[C@H]1O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]1OP(O)(O)=O)N1C=NC2=C1N=CN=C2N
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C25H40N7O18P3S/c1-13(33)8-16(35)54-7-6-27-15(34)4-5-28-23(38)20(37)25(2,3)10-47-53(44,45)50-52(42,43)46-9-14-19(49-51(39,40)41)18(36)24(48-14)32-12-31-17-21(26)29-11-30-22(17)32/h11-12,14,18-20,24,36-37H,4-10H2,1-3H3,(H,27,34)(H,28,38)(H,42,43)(H,44,45)(H2,26,29,30)(H2,39,40,41)/t14-,18-,19-,20?,24-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=OJFDKHTZOUZBOS-XBTRWLRFSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 3-oxo-acyl coas. These are organic compounds containing a 3-oxo acylated coenzyme A derivative.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acyl thioesters
Direct Parent3-oxo-acyl CoAs
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Coenzyme a or derivatives
  • Purine ribonucleoside diphosphate
  • Purine ribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphate
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • Glycosyl compound
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Organic pyrophosphate
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • 1,3-dicarbonyl compound
  • Pyrimidine
  • Primary aromatic amine
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Organic phosphate
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Monosaccharide
  • Fatty amide
  • Saccharide
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Oxolane
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Thiocarboxylic acid ester
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Ketone
  • Carboxamide group
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Sulfenyl compound
  • Thioether
  • Thiocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid amide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Component of Butanoate metabolism
  • Component of Fatty acid metabolism
  • Component of Propanoate metabolism
  • Component of Pyruvate metabolism
  • Component of Tryptophan metabolism
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.83 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.37ALOGPS
logP-6.8ChemAxon
logS-2.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.95ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count18ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count9ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area380.7 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count22ChemAxon
Refractivity182.1 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability75.05 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue Location
  • Fibroblasts
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
2-aminoadipic 2-oxoadipic aciduriaSMP00719Not Available
2-Methyl-3-Hydroxybutryl CoA Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00137Not Available
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase DeficiencySMP00138Not Available
3-hydroxyisobutyric acid dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00521Not Available
3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduriaSMP00522Not Available
3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type ISMP00237Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type ISMP00139Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IIISMP00140Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IVSMP00141Not Available
Alendronate pathwaySMP00095Not Available
Atorvastatin PathwaySMP00131Not Available
Beta-Ketothiolase DeficiencySMP00173Not Available
Butyrate MetabolismSMP00073map00650
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (I)SMP00538Not Available
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (II)SMP00541Not Available
Cerivastatin PathwaySMP00111Not Available
CHILD SyndromeSMP00387Not Available
Cholesteryl ester storage diseaseSMP00508Not Available
Chondrodysplasia Punctata II, X Linked Dominant (CDPX2)SMP00388Not Available
DesmosterolosisSMP00386Not Available
Ethylmalonic EncephalopathySMP00181Not Available
Fatty acid MetabolismSMP00051map00071
Fluvastatin PathwaySMP00119Not Available
Glutaric Aciduria Type ISMP00185Not Available
Glutaric Aciduria Type ISMP00186Not Available
Hyper-IgD syndromeSMP00509Not Available
HypercholesterolemiaSMP00209Not Available
Hyperlysinemia I, FamilialSMP00527Not Available
Hyperlysinemia II or SaccharopinuriaSMP00528Not Available
Ibandronate PathwaySMP00079Not Available
Isobutyryl-coa dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00523Not Available
Isovaleric acidemiaSMP00524Not Available
Isovaleric AciduriaSMP00238Not Available
Ketone Body MetabolismSMP00071map00072
Leigh SyndromeSMP00196Not Available
Long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCAD)SMP00539Not Available
Lovastatin PathwaySMP00099Not Available
Lysine DegradationSMP00037map00310
Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency (Wolman Disease)SMP00319Not Available
Malonic AciduriaSMP00198Not Available
Malonyl-coa decarboxylase deficiencySMP00502Not Available
Maple Syrup Urine DiseaseSMP00199Not Available
Medium chain acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD)SMP00542Not Available
Methylmalonate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00384Not Available
Methylmalonic AciduriaSMP00200Not Available
Methylmalonic Aciduria Due to Cobalamin-Related DisordersSMP00201Not Available
Mevalonic aciduriaSMP00510Not Available
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Short Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsSMP00480Not Available
Pamidronate PathwaySMP00117Not Available
Pravastatin PathwaySMP00089Not Available
Primary hyperoxaluria II, PH2SMP00558Not Available
Propanoate MetabolismSMP00016map00640
Propionic AcidemiaSMP00236Not Available
Pyridoxine dependency with seizuresSMP00571Not Available
Pyruvate Decarboxylase E1 Component Deficiency (PDHE1 Deficiency)SMP00334Not Available
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex DeficiencySMP00212Not Available
Pyruvate kinase deficiencySMP00559Not Available
Pyruvate MetabolismSMP00060map00620
Risedronate PathwaySMP00112Not Available
Rosuvastatin PathwaySMP00092Not Available
Saccharopinuria/Hyperlysinemia IISMP00239Not Available
Short Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (SCAD Deficiency)SMP00235Not Available
Short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCHAD)SMP00568Not Available
Simvastatin Action PathwaySMP00082Not Available
Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS)SMP00389Not Available
Steroid BiosynthesisSMP00023map00100
Succinyl CoA: 3-ketoacid CoA transferase deficiencySMP00569Not Available
Trifunctional protein deficiencySMP00545Not Available
Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine DegradationSMP00032map00280
Very-long-chain acyl coa dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD)SMP00540Not Available
Wolman diseaseSMP00511Not Available
Zoledronate PathwaySMP00107Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022648
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID388353
KEGG Compound IDC00332
BioCyc IDACETOACETYL-COA
BiGG ID34646
Wikipedia LinkAcetoacetyl-CoA
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01484
Metagene LinkHMDB01484
METLIN ID449
PubChem Compound439214
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15345
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Clayton PT, Eaton S, Aynsley-Green A, Edginton M, Hussain K, Krywawych S, Datta V, Malingre HE, Berger R, van den Berg IE: Hyperinsulinism in short-chain L-3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency reveals the importance of beta-oxidation in insulin secretion. J Clin Invest. 2001 Aug;108(3):457-65. [11489939 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BWD1
Molecular weight:
41350.5
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Abolishes BNIP3-mediated apoptosis and mitochondrial damage.
Gene Name:
ACAA2
Uniprot ID:
P42765
Molecular weight:
41923.82
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Plays a major role in ketone body metabolism.
Gene Name:
ACAT1
Uniprot ID:
P24752
Molecular weight:
45199.2
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA → Coenzyme A + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme condenses acetyl-CoA with acetoacetyl-CoA to form HMG-CoA, which is the substrate for HMG-CoA reductase.
Gene Name:
HMGCS2
Uniprot ID:
P54868
Molecular weight:
52481.065
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Acetoacetyl-CoA → 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + Coenzyme Adetails
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + Coenzyme A → Acetyl-CoA + Water + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ACAA1
Uniprot ID:
P09110
Molecular weight:
34664.46
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HADHB
Uniprot ID:
P55084
Molecular weight:
51293.955
General function:
Involved in hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme condenses acetyl-CoA with acetoacetyl-CoA to form HMG-CoA, which is the substrate for HMG-CoA reductase.
Gene Name:
HMGCS1
Uniprot ID:
Q01581
Molecular weight:
57293.105
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Acetoacetyl-CoA → 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + Coenzyme Adetails
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA + Coenzyme A → Acetyl-CoA + Water + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Functions in mitochondrial tRNA maturation. Part of mitochondrial ribonuclease P, an enzyme composed of MRPP1/TRMT10C, MRPP2/HSD17B10 and MRPP3/KIAA0391, which cleaves tRNA molecules in their 5'-ends. By interacting with intracellular amyloid-beta, it may contribute to the neuronal dysfunction associated with Alzheimer disease (AD).
Gene Name:
HSD17B10
Uniprot ID:
Q99714
Molecular weight:
25983.695
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
EHHADH
Uniprot ID:
Q08426
Molecular weight:
69153.26
Reactions
3-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA + NAD → Acetoacetyl-CoA + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Plays an essential role in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation of short chain fatty acids. Exerts it highest activity toward 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA.
Gene Name:
HADH
Uniprot ID:
Q16836
Molecular weight:
36035.11
Reactions
3-Hydroxybutyryl-CoA + NAD → Acetoacetyl-CoA + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Bifunctional subunit.
Gene Name:
HADHA
Uniprot ID:
P40939
Molecular weight:
82998.97
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Bifunctional enzyme acting on the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway for fatty acids. Catalyzes the formation of 3-ketoacyl-CoA intermediates from both straight-chain and 2-methyl-branched-chain fatty acids.
Gene Name:
HSD17B4
Uniprot ID:
P51659
Molecular weight:
79685.715
General function:
Involved in CoA-transferase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme for ketone body catabolism. Transfers the CoA moiety from succinate to acetoacetate. Formation of the enzyme-CoA intermediate proceeds via an unstable anhydride species formed between the carboxylate groups of the enzyme and substrate.
Gene Name:
OXCT1
Uniprot ID:
P55809
Molecular weight:
56157.175
Reactions
Succinyl-CoA + Acetoacetic acid → Succinic acid + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in CoA-transferase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme for ketone body catabolism. Transfers the CoA moiety from succinate to acetoacetate. Formation of the enzyme-CoA intermediate proceeds via an unstable anhydride species formed between the carboxylate groups of the enzyme and substrate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
OXCT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BYC2
Molecular weight:
56139.41
Reactions
Succinyl-CoA + Acetoacetic acid → Succinic acid + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in acetoacetate-CoA ligase activity
Specific function:
Activates acetoacetate to acetoacetyl-CoA. May be involved in utilizing ketone body for the fatty acid-synthesis during adipose tissue development (By similarity).
Gene Name:
AACS
Uniprot ID:
Q86V21
Molecular weight:
75143.645
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Acetoacetic acid + Coenzyme A → Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate + Acetoacetyl-CoAdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the transformation of estrone (E1) into estradiol (E2), suggesting a central role in estrogen formation. Its strong expression in ovary and mammary gland suggest that it may constitute the major enzyme responsible for the conversion of E1 to E2 in women. Also has 3-ketoacyl-CoA reductase activity, reducing both long chain 3-ketoacyl-CoAs and long chain fatty acyl-CoAs, suggesting a role in long fatty acid elongation.
Gene Name:
HSD17B12
Uniprot ID:
Q53GQ0
Molecular weight:
34323.875
General function:
Involved in 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CRYL1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2S2
Molecular weight:
35418.91
General function:
Involved in fatty acid biosynthetic process
Specific function:
Condensing enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of polyunsaturated very long chain fatty acid (C20- and C22-PUFA). Acts specifically toward polyunsaturated acyl-CoA with the higher activity toward C20:4(n-6) acyl-CoA.
Gene Name:
ELOVL2
Uniprot ID:
Q9NXB9
Molecular weight:
34584.435
General function:
Involved in protein binding
Specific function:
Condensing enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of both saturated and monounsaturated very long chain fatty acids. Exhibits activity toward saturated C18 to C26 acyl-CoA substrates, with the highest activity towards C22:0 acyl-CoA. Important for saturated C24:0 and monounsaturated C24:1 sphingolipid synthesis.
Gene Name:
ELOVL1
Uniprot ID:
Q9BW60
Molecular weight:
32662.49