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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:10:45 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01547
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCorticosterone
DescriptionCorticosterone is an adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 11,21-Dihydroxypregn-4-ene-3,20-dione
  2. 11,21-Dihydroxyprogesterone
  3. 11-Hydroxycorticoaldosterone
  4. 17-Deoxycortisol
  5. 4-Pregnene-11 Corticosteron
  6. Corticosterone
  7. Kendall'S compound B
  8. Reichstein'S substance H
Chemical FormulaC21H30O4
Average Molecular Weight346.4605
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight346.214409448
IUPAC Name(1S,2R,10S,11S,14S,15S,17S)-17-hydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-6-en-5-one
Traditional Namecorticosterone
CAS Registry Number50-22-6
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@H](C(=O)CO)[C@@]1(C)C[C@H](O)[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CCC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]12C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H30O4/c1-20-8-7-13(23)9-12(20)3-4-14-15-5-6-16(18(25)11-22)21(15,2)10-17(24)19(14)20/h9,14-17,19,22,24H,3-8,10-11H2,1-2H3/t14-,15-,16+,17-,19+,20-,21-/m0/s1
InChI KeyOMFXVFTZEKFJBZ-HJTSIMOOSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassLipids
ClassSteroids and Steroid Derivatives
Sub ClassGluco/mineralocorticoids, Progestogins and Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • 11beta-hydroxy steroid(ChEBI)
  • 20-oxo steroid(ChEBI)
  • 21-hydroxy steroid(ChEBI)
  • 3-oxo steroid(ChEBI)
  • Aliphatic Homopolycyclic Compounds
  • C21 steroids (gluco/mineralocorticoids, progestogens) and derivatives(KEGG)
  • C21 steroids (gluco/mineralocorticoids, progestogins) and derivatives(Lipidmaps)
  • C21-steroid(ChEBI)
  • Mineralocorticoids(KEGG)
  • Pregnane and derivatives [Fig](KEGG)
  • glucocorticoid(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • 11 Hydroxy Steroid
  • 20 Keto Steroid
  • 3 Keto Steroid
  • Alpha Ketoaldehyde
  • Cyclic Alcohol
  • Cyclohexane
  • Cyclohexene
  • Decaline
  • Ketone
  • Primary Alcohol
  • Secondary Alcohol
Direct ParentGluco/mineralocorticoids, Progestogins and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Component of C21-Steroid hormone metabolism
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point179 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.199 mg/mLNot Available
LogP1.94HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.046ALOGPS
logP2.09ALOGPS
logP2.02ChemAxon
logS-3.9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.86ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.26ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity96 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability38.67 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSMS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Brain
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Gonads
  • Hypothalamus
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Nerve Cells
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
SteroidogenesisSMP00130map00140
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.027 +/- 0.005 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.023 +/- 0.0034 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDepersonalization syndrome details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Depersonalization disorder
  1. Nuller YL, Morozova MG, Kushnir ON, Hamper N: Effect of naloxone therapy on depersonalization: a pilot study. J Psychopharmacol. 2001 Jun;15(2):93-5. Pubmed: 11448093
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022684
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5550
KEGG Compound IDC02140
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID39187
Wikipedia LinkCorticosterone
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01547
Metagene LinkHMDB01547
METLIN ID6314
PubChem Compound5753
PDB IDC0R
ChEBI ID16827
References
Synthesis ReferenceOliveto, Eugene P.; Smith, Herbert Q.; Gerold, Corinne; Rausser, Richard; Hershberg, E. B. 11-Oxygenated steroids. XIV. New syntheses of corticosterone. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1956), 78 1414-16.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Oprica M, Zhu S, Goiny M, Pham TM, Mohammed AH, Winblad B, Bartfai T, Schultzberg M: Transgenic overexpression of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist in the CNS influences behaviour, serum corticosterone and brain monoamines. Brain Behav Immun. 2005 May;19(3):223-34. Pubmed: 15797311
  2. Hajdasz P: [Mineralocorticoids in cervical mucous and female blood serum: levels in the preovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle] Ginekol Pol. 2000 Sep;71(9):1007-10. Pubmed: 11082965
  3. Ghulam A, Kouach M, Racadot A, Boersma A, Vantyghem MC, Briand G: Quantitative analysis of human serum corticosterone by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1999 Apr 30;727(1-2):227-33. Pubmed: 10360442
  4. Pravosudov VV, Omanska A: Prolonged moderate elevation of corticosterone does not affect hippocampal anatomy or cell proliferation rates in mountain chickadees (Poecile gambeli). J Neurobiol. 2005 Jan;62(1):82-91. Pubmed: 15389682
  5. Pardridge WM, Sakiyama R, Judd HL: Protein-bound corticosteroid in human serum is selectively transported into rat brain and liver in vivo. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Jul;57(1):160-5. Pubmed: 6853674
  6. Kahri AI, Voutilainen R, Salmenpera M: Different biological action of corticosteroids, corticosterone and cortisol, as a base of zonal function of adrenal cortex. Acta Endocrinol (Copenh). 1979 Jun;91(2):329-37. Pubmed: 223358
  7. Pruett SB, Fan R, Myers LP, Wu WJ, Collier S: Quantitative analysis of the neuroendocrine-immune axis: linear modeling of the effects of exogenous corticosterone and restraint stress on lymphocyte subpopulations in the spleen and thymus in female B6C3F1 mice. Brain Behav Immun. 2000 Dec;14(4):270-87. Pubmed: 11120596
  8. Evans SB, Wilkinson CW, Bentson K, Gronbeck P, Zavosh A, Figlewicz DP: PVN activation is suppressed by repeated hypoglycemia but not antecedent corticosterone in the rat. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001 Nov;281(5):R1426-36. Pubmed: 11641112
  9. Lescoat G, Feliot J, Maniey J: [Evolution of plasma corticosterone concentration in basal conditions or after psychic aggression during growth in the Rat. Influence of neonatal gonadectomy (author's transl)] J Physiol (Paris). 1978 Dec;74(6):591-9. Pubmed: 570600
  10. Slominski A, Zbytek B, Semak I, Sweatman T, Wortsman J: CRH stimulates POMC activity and corticosterone production in dermal fibroblasts. J Neuroimmunol. 2005 May;162(1-2):97-102. Pubmed: 15833364
  11. Kero J, Poutanen M, Zhang FP, Rahman N, McNicol AM, Nilson JH, Keri RA, Huhtaniemi IT: Elevated luteinizing hormone induces expression of its receptor and promotes steroidogenesis in the adrenal cortex. J Clin Invest. 2000 Mar;105(5):633-41. Pubmed: 10712435

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the aromatization of androstendione to estrone have also been ascribed to cytochrome P450 XIB.
Gene Name:
CYP11B1
Uniprot ID:
P15538
Molecular weight:
57572.44
Reactions
Deoxycorticosterone + Reduced ferredoxin + Oxygen → Corticosterone + Oxidized ferredoxin + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Efficiently catalyzes the reduction of progesterone, androstenedione, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and testosterone to 5-beta-reduced metabolites. The bile acid intermediates 7-alpha,12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one can also act as substrates.
Gene Name:
AKR1D1
Uniprot ID:
P51857
Molecular weight:
32889.38
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Modulates intracellular glucocorticoid levels, thus protecting the nonselective mineralocorticoid receptor from occupation by glucocorticoids.
Gene Name:
HSD11B2
Uniprot ID:
P80365
Molecular weight:
44126.06
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of 7-ketocholesterol to 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol. In intact cells, the reaction runs only in one direction, from 7-ketocholesterol to 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HSD11B1
Uniprot ID:
P28845
Molecular weight:
32400.665
Reactions
Corticosterone + NADP → 11-Dehydrocorticosterone + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Receptor for both mineralocorticoids (MC) such as aldosterone and glucocorticoids (GC) such as corticosterone or cortisol. Binds to mineralocorticoid response elements (MRE) and transactivates target genes. The effect of MC is to increase ion and water transport and thus raise extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure and lower potassium levels
Gene Name:
NR3C2
Uniprot ID:
P08235
Molecular weight:
107066.6
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Preferentially catalyzes the conversion of 11-deoxycorticosterone to aldosterone via corticosterone and 18-hydroxycorticosterone.
Gene Name:
CYP11B2
Uniprot ID:
P19099
Molecular weight:
57559.62
Reactions
Corticosterone + reduced adrenal ferredoxin + Oxygen → 18-Hydroxycorticosterone + oxidized adrenal ferredoxin + Waterdetails
Corticosterone + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin + Oxygen → 18-Hydroxycorticosterone + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin + Waterdetails
Deoxycorticosterone + Reduced ferredoxin + Oxygen → Corticosterone + Oxidized ferredoxin + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
P450-CYP21B
Uniprot ID:
Q16874
Molecular weight:
56000.9
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP21A2
Uniprot ID:
Q08AG9
Molecular weight:
55972.9
General function:
Involved in defense response
Specific function:
Has antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria, and to a lesser extent also against Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Protects blood cells against infection with HIV-1 (in vitro). Inhibits corticotropin (ACTH)-stimulated corticosterone production
Gene Name:
DEFA4
Uniprot ID:
P12838
Molecular weight:
10504.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Specifically catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids. Required for the adrenal synthesis of mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids.
Gene Name:
CYP21A2
Uniprot ID:
P08686
Molecular weight:
56000.94
Reactions
11b-Hydroxyprogesterone + Reduced acceptor + Oxygen → Corticosterone + Acceptor + Waterdetails