You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-02-16 08:53:46 UTC
Update Date2014-10-29 17:55:34 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01847
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCaffeine
DescriptionCaffeine is the most widely consumed psychostimulant drug in the world that mostly is consumed in the form of coffee. Whether caffeine and/or coffee consumption contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), the single leading cause of death in the US, is unclear. The literature indicates a strong relationship between boiled, unfiltered coffee consumption and elevated cholesterol levels; however, there is a critical gap in the literature regarding the effects of coffee or caffeine consumption on fibrinogen or CRP, which is an independent predictor of CVD risk. Available studies are limited by small samples sizes, inclusion of only men (or few women) and unrepresented age or ethnic groups. There is a critical need for controlled laboratory and epidemiological studies that include fibrinogen and CRP markers of CVD risk before conclusions can be drawn regarding the health effects of caffeine and/or coffee in a normal, healthy population of men and women. (PMID: 16856769 ). The relationship between caffeine consumption and various illnesses such as cardiovascular disease and cancer remains equivocal. Prudence might dictate that pregnant women and chronically ill individuals exercise restraint in their use of caffeine, although research suggests relatively low or nonexistent levels of risk associated with moderate caffeine consumption. (PMID: 7844249 ). There is extensive evidence that caffeine at dietary doses increases blood pressure (BP). However, concern that the drug may contribute to cardiovascular disease appears to have been dampened by (1) the belief that habitual use leads to the development of tolerance, and (2) confusion regarding relevant epidemiologic findings. When considered comprehensively, findings from experimental and epidemiologic studies converge to show that BP remains reactive to the pressor effects of caffeine in the diet. Overall, the impact of dietary caffeine on population BP levels is likely to be modest, probably in the region of 4/2 mm Hg. At these levels, however, population studies of BP indicate that caffeine use could account for premature deaths in the region of 14% for coronary heart disease and 20% for stroke. (PMID: 14747639 ). Caffeine is a purine alkaloid that occurs naturally in coffee beans. At intake levels associated with coffee consumption, caffeine appears to exert most of its biological effects through the antagonism of the A1 and A2A subtypes of the adenosine receptor. Adenosine is an endogenous neuromodulator with mostly inhibitory effects, and adenosine antagonism by caffeine results in effects that are generally stimulatory. Some physiological effects associated with caffeine administration include central nervous system stimulation, acute elevation of blood pressure, increased metabolic rate, and diuresis. Caffeine is rapidly and almost completely absorbed in the stomach and small intestine and distributed to all tissues, including the brain. Caffeine metabolism occurs primarily in the liver, where the activity of the cytochrome P450 isoform CYP1A2 accounts for almost 95% of the primary metabolism of caffeine. CYP1A2-catalyzed 3-demethylation of caffeine results in the formation of 1,7-dimethylxanthine (paraxanthine). Paraxanthine may be demethylated by CYP1A2 to form 1-methylxanthine, which may be oxidized to 1-methyluric acid by xanthine oxidase. Paraxanthine may also be hydroxylated by CYP2A6 to form 1,7-dimethyluric acid, or acetylated by N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) to form 5-acetylamino-6-formylamino-3-methyluracil, an unstable compound that may be deformylated nonenzymatically to form 5-acetylamino-6-amino-3-methyluracil. Caffeine concentrations in coffee beverages can be quite variable. A standard cup of coffee is often assumed to provide 100 mg of caffeine, but a recent analysis of 14 different specialty coffees purchased at coffee shops in the US found that the amount of caffeine in 8 oz (=240 ml) of brewed coffee ranged from 72 to 130 mg.Caffeine in espresso coffees ranged from 58 to 76 mg in a single shot. (PMID 16507475 ). Caffeine is a member of the methylxanthine family of drugs, and is the most widely consumed behaviourally active substance in the western world. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that caffeine modulates both innate and adaptive immune responses. For instance studies indicate that caffeine and its major metabolite paraxanthine suppress neutrophil and monocyte chemotaxis, and also suppress production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha from human blood. Caffeine has also been reported to suppress human lymphocyte function as indicated by reduced T-cell proliferation and impaired production of Th1 (interleukin [IL]-2 and interferon [IFN]-gamma), Th2 (IL-4, IL-5) and Th3 (IL-10) cytokines. Studies also indicate that caffeine suppresses antibody production. The evidence suggests that at least some of the immunomodulatory actions of caffeine are mediated via inhibition of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-phosphodiesterase (PDE), and consequential increase in intracellular cAMP concentrations. Overall, these studies indicate that caffeine, like other members of the methylxanthine family, is largely anti-inflammatory in nature, and based on the pharmacokinetics of caffeine, many of its immunomodulatory effects occur at concentrations that are relevant to normal human consumption. (PMID 16540173 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 1,3,7-Trimethyl-2,6-dioxopurine
  2. 1,3,7-Trimethyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
  3. 1,3,7-Trimethylxanthine
  4. 1-Methyl-Theobromine
  5. 3,7-Dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione
  6. 7-Methyl Theophylline
  7. Anhydrous caffeine (JP15)
  8. Guaranine
  9. Hycomine
  10. Lanorinal
  11. Methyltheobromide
  12. Methylxanthine theophylline
  13. Monohydrate Caffeine
  14. Propoxyphene
  15. Thein
Chemical FormulaC8H10N4O2
Average Molecular Weight194.1906
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight194.080375584
IUPAC Name1,3,7-trimethyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
Traditional Namecaffeine
CAS Registry Number58-08-2
SMILES
CN1C=NC2=C1C(=O)N(C)C(=O)N2C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C8H10N4O2/c1-10-4-9-6-5(10)7(13)12(3)8(14)11(6)2/h4H,1-3H3
InChI KeyRYYVLZVUVIJVGH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAromatic Heteropolycyclic Compounds
ClassImidazopyrimidines
Sub ClassPurines and Purine Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Organic Compounds
  • Purine alkaloids(KEGG)
  • Purinones
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
  • trimethylxanthine(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Imidazole
  • Pyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
Direct ParentXanthines
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Drug metabolite
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point238 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility21.6 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP-0.07HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility11.0ALOGPS
logP-0.24ALOGPS
logP-0.55ChemAxon
logS-1.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.92ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area58.44 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity49.83 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.96 Å3ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MSLC-MSMS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Prostate
  • Skin
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Caffeine MetabolismSMP00028map00232
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified78.0 (26.0-129.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • McPherson, Richar...
    • Louise M. Malark...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified9.65 +/- 4.82 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Dame, ZT. et al. ...
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.33 (0.0-1.01) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified1.139 +/- 0.407 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothTraumatic Brain Injury (TBI) details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.5 (0.0-1.35) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Asthma
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Asthma
  1. Zydron M, Baranowski J, Baranowska I: Separation, pre-concentration, and HPLC analysis of methylxanthines in urine samples. J Sep Sci. 2004 Oct;27(14):1166-72. Pubmed: 15537072
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB00201
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00535
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB002100
KNApSAcK IDC00001492
Chemspider ID2424
KEGG Compound IDC07481
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkCaffeine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01847
Metagene LinkHMDB01847
METLIN ID1455
PubChem Compound2519
PDB IDCFF
ChEBI ID27732
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. Pubmed: 19212411
  2. Miyake Y, Sakaguchi K, Iwasaki Y, Ikeda H, Makino Y, Kobashi H, Araki Y, Ando M, Kita K, Shiratori Y: New prognostic scoring model for liver transplantation in patients with non-acetaminophen-related fulminant hepatic failure. Transplantation. 2005 Oct 15;80(7):930-6. Pubmed: 16249741
  3. Wilkinson SC, Maas WJ, Nielsen JB, Greaves LC, van de Sandt JJ, Williams FM: Interactions of skin thickness and physicochemical properties of test compounds in percutaneous penetration studies. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2006 May;79(5):405-13. Epub 2006 Jan 25. Pubmed: 16435152
  4. Spiller HA, Winter ML, Klein-Schwartz W, Bangh SA: Efficacy of activated charcoal administered more than four hours after acetaminophen overdose. J Emerg Med. 2006 Jan;30(1):1-5. Pubmed: 16434328
  5. Ayotte P, Dewailly E, Lambert GH, Perkins SL, Poon R, Feeley M, Larochelle C, Pereg D: Biomarker measurements in a coastal fish-eating population environmentally exposed to organochlorines. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Oct;113(10):1318-24. Pubmed: 16203240
  6. Shah S, Budev M, Blazey H, Fairbanks K, Mehta A: Hepatic veno-occlusive disease due to tacrolimus in a single-lung transplant patient. Eur Respir J. 2006 May;27(5):1066-8. Pubmed: 16707401
  7. Larson AM, Polson J, Fontana RJ, Davern TJ, Lalani E, Hynan LS, Reisch JS, Schiodt FV, Ostapowicz G, Shakil AO, Lee WM: Acetaminophen-induced acute liver failure: results of a United States multicenter, prospective study. Hepatology. 2005 Dec;42(6):1364-72. Pubmed: 16317692
  8. Septer S, Thompson ES, Willemsen-Dunlap A: Anesthesia concerns for children with tuberous sclerosis. AANA J. 2006 Jun;74(3):219-25. Pubmed: 16786916
  9. Horrigan LA, Kelly JP, Connor TJ: Immunomodulatory effects of caffeine: friend or foe? Pharmacol Ther. 2006 Sep;111(3):877-92. Epub 2006 Mar 15. Pubmed: 16540173
  10. Rodrigues IM, Klein LC: Boiled or filtered coffee? Effects of coffee and caffeine on cholesterol, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein. Toxicol Rev. 2006;25(1):55-69. Pubmed: 16856769
  11. Lamarine RJ: Selected health and behavioral effects related to the use of caffeine. J Community Health. 1994 Dec;19(6):449-66. Pubmed: 7844249
  12. James JE: Critical review of dietary caffeine and blood pressure: a relationship that should be taken more seriously. Psychosom Med. 2004 Jan-Feb;66(1):63-71. Pubmed: 14747639
  13. Higdon JV, Frei B: Coffee and health: a review of recent human research. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2006;46(2):101-23. Pubmed: 16507475
  14. Nehlig A, Daval JL, Debry G: Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 1992 May-Aug;17(2):139-70. Pubmed: 1356551
  15. Benjamin LT Jr, Rogers AM, Rosenbaum A: Coca-Cola, caffeine, and mental deficiency: Harry Hollingworth and the Chattanooga trial of 1911. J Hist Behav Sci. 1991 Jan;27(1):42-55. Pubmed: 2010614
  16. Nathanson JA: Caffeine and related methylxanthines: possible naturally occurring pesticides. Science. 1984 Oct 12;226(4671):184-7. Pubmed: 6207592
  17. Smit HJ, Gaffan EA, Rogers PJ: Methylxanthines are the psycho-pharmacologically active constituents of chocolate. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2004 Nov;176(3-4):412-9. Epub 2004 May 5. Pubmed: 15549276
  18. Haskell CF, Kennedy DO, Wesnes KA, Milne AL, Scholey AB: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-dose evaluation of the acute behavioural effects of guarana in humans. J Psychopharmacol. 2007 Jan;21(1):65-70. Epub 2006 Mar 13. Pubmed: 16533867

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Brosen K: Drug interactions and the cytochrome P450 system. The role of cytochrome P450 1A2. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1995;29 Suppl 1:20-5. Pubmed: 8846619
  2. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed: 19515014
  3. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
  4. Hickman D, Wang JP, Wang Y, Unadkat JD: Evaluation of the selectivity of In vitro probes and suitability of organic solvents for the measurement of human cytochrome P450 monooxygenase activities. Drug Metab Dispos. 1998 Mar;26(3):207-15. Pubmed: 9492382
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
A0N0X8
Molecular weight:
58164.8
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Participates in the metabolism of an as-yet-unknown biologically active molecule that is a participant in eye development.
Gene Name:
CYP1B1
Uniprot ID:
Q16678
Molecular weight:
60845.33
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2A7
Uniprot ID:
P20853
Molecular weight:
56424.735
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Active in the metabolic activation of hexamethylphosphoramide, N,N-dimethylaniline, 2'-methoxyacetophenone, N-nitrosomethylphenylamine, and the tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. Possesses phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A13
Uniprot ID:
Q16696
Molecular weight:
56687.095
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular weight:
56277.81
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed: 19515014
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed: 19515014
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
Q6NWU0
Molecular weight:
55729.9
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed: 19515014
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
May be involved in the metabolism of various pneumotoxicants including naphthalene. Is able to dealkylate ethoxycoumarin, propoxycoumarin, and pentoxyresorufin but possesses no activity toward ethoxyresorufin and only trace dearylation activity toward benzyloxyresorufin. Bioactivates 3-methylindole (3MI) by dehydrogenation to the putative electrophile 3-methylene-indolenine.
Gene Name:
CYP2F1
Uniprot ID:
P24903
Molecular weight:
55500.64
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme metabolizes arachidonic acid predominantly via a NADPH-dependent olefin epoxidation to all four regioisomeric cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. One of the predominant enzymes responsible for the epoxidation of endogenous cardiac arachidonic acid pools.
Gene Name:
CYP2J2
Uniprot ID:
P51589
Molecular weight:
57610.165
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. Pubmed: 19515014
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP4B1
Uniprot ID:
P13584
Molecular weight:
58990.64
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of aromatic C18 estrogens from C19 androgens.
Gene Name:
CYP19A1
Uniprot ID:
P11511
Molecular weight:
57882.48
General function:
Secondary metabolites biosynthesis, transport and catabolism
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP4Z1
Uniprot ID:
Q86W10
Molecular weight:
59085.45
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has a potential importance for extrahepatic xenobiotic metabolism.
Gene Name:
CYP2S1
Uniprot ID:
Q96SQ9
Molecular weight:
55816.205
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May be involved in mediating central nervous system effects of therapeutic agents ranging from antidepressants to antiasthmatic and anti-inflammatory agents.
Gene Name:
PDE4B
Uniprot ID:
Q07343
Molecular weight:
64351.765
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
  3. Daly JW: Caffeine analogs: biomedical impact. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2153-69. Pubmed: 17514358
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which inhibit adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
ADORA1
Uniprot ID:
P30542
Molecular weight:
36511.3
References
  1. Gaytan SP, Saadani-Makki F, Bodineau L, Frugiere A, Larnicol N, Pasaro R: Effect of postnatal exposure to caffeine on the pattern of adenosine A1 receptor distribution in respiration-related nuclei of the rat brainstem. Auton Neurosci. 2006 Jun 30;126-127:339-46. Epub 2006 May 15. Pubmed: 16702031
  2. Wang SJ: Caffeine facilitation of glutamate release from rat cerebral cortex nerve terminals (synaptosomes) through activation protein kinase C pathway: an interaction with presynaptic adenosine A1 receptors. Synapse. 2007 Jun;61(6):401-11. Pubmed: 17372967
  3. Rieg T, Schnermann J, Vallon V: Adenosine A1 receptors determine effects of caffeine on total fluid intake but not caffeine appetite. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jan 26;555(2-3):174-7. Epub 2006 Oct 25. Pubmed: 17126319
  4. Mustafa S, Venkatesh P, Pasha K, Mullangi R, Srinivas NR: Altered intravenous pharmacokinetics of topotecan in rats with acute renal failure (ARF) induced by uranyl nitrate: do adenosine A1 antagonists (selective/non-selective) normalize the altered topotecan kinetics in ARF? Xenobiotica. 2006 Dec;36(12):1239-58. Pubmed: 17162470
  5. Listos J, Malec D, Fidecka S: Adenosine receptor antagonists intensify the benzodiazepine withdrawal signs in mice. Pharmacol Rep. 2006 Sep-Oct;58(5):643-51. Pubmed: 17085856
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed: 11752352
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for adenosine. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylyl cyclase
Gene Name:
ADORA2A
Uniprot ID:
P29274
Molecular weight:
44706.9
References
  1. Riksen NP, Franke B, van den Broek P, Smits P, Rongen GA: The 1976C>T polymorphism in the adenosine A2A receptor gene does not affect the vasodilator response to adenosine in humans in vivo. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2007 Jul;17(7):551-4. Pubmed: 17558310
  2. Zhao G, Messina E, Xu X, Ochoa M, Sun HL, Leung K, Shryock J, Belardinelli L, Hintze TH: Caffeine attenuates the duration of coronary vasodilation and changes in hemodynamics induced by regadenoson (CVT-3146), a novel adenosine A2A receptor agonist. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2007 Jun;49(6):369-75. Pubmed: 17577101
  3. Cornelis MC, El-Sohemy A, Campos H: Genetic polymorphism of the adenosine A2A receptor is associated with habitual caffeine consumption. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Jul;86(1):240-4. Pubmed: 17616786
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed: 11752352
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular weight:
56517.005
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP2C18
Uniprot ID:
P33260
Molecular weight:
55710.075
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A7
Uniprot ID:
P24462
Molecular weight:
57525.03
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP3A5
Uniprot ID:
P20815
Molecular weight:
57108.065
General function:
Involved in calcium channel activity
Specific function:
Communication between transverse-tubules and sarcoplasmic reticulum. Contraction of skeletal muscle is triggered by release of calcium ions from SR following depolarization of T-tubules
Gene Name:
RYR1
Uniprot ID:
P21817
Molecular weight:
565170.7
References
  1. Daly JW: Caffeine analogs: biomedical impact. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2007 Aug;64(16):2153-69. Pubmed: 17514358
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular weight:
58164.815
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CYP4X1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N118
Molecular weight:
58874.62
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits low testosterone 6-beta-hydroxylase activity.
Gene Name:
CYP3A43
Uniprot ID:
Q9HB55
Molecular weight:
57756.285

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Kim RB, Wandel C, Leake B, Cvetkovic M, Fromm MF, Dempsey PJ, Roden MM, Belas F, Chaudhary AK, Roden DM, Wood AJ, Wilkinson GR: Interrelationship between substrates and inhibitors of human CYP3A and P-glycoprotein. Pharm Res. 1999 Mar;16(3):408-14. Pubmed: 10213372
  2. Faassen F, Vogel G, Spanings H, Vromans H: Caco-2 permeability, P-glycoprotein transport ratios and brain penetration of heterocyclic drugs. Int J Pharm. 2003 Sep 16;263(1-2):113-22. Pubmed: 12954186