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Record Information
Creation Date2006-02-22 10:05:38 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:05:02 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common Name1,3-Dimethyluric acid
Description1,3-Dimethyluric acid is a product of theophylline metabolism in man. 1,3-Dimethyluric acid is one of the purine components in urinary calculi. Methylated purines originate from the metabolism of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline and theobromine). Methyluric acids are indistinguishable from uric acid by simple methods routinely used in clinical laboratories, requiring the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Purine derivatives in urinary calculi could be considered markers of abnormal purine metabolism. The content of a purine derivative in stone depends on its average urinary excretion in the general population, similarity to the chemical structure of uric acid, and content of the latter in stone. This suggests that purines in stones represent a solid solution with uric acid as solvent. It is also plausible that methylxanthines, ubiquitous components of the diet and drugs, are involved in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis. Caffeine is metabolized via successive pathways mainly catalyzed by CYP1A2, xanthine oxidase or N-acetyltransferase-2 to give 14 different metabolites. CYP1A2 activity shows an inter-individual variability among the population. CYP1A2, an isoform of the CYP1A cytochrome P450 super-family, is involved in the metabolism of many drugs and plays a potentially important role in the induction of chemical carcinogenesis. (PMID: 11712316 , 15833286 , 3506820 , 15013152 , 4039734 ).
Chemical FormulaC7H8N4O3
Average Molecular Weight196.1634
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight196.059640142
IUPAC Name1,3-dimethyl-2,3,6,7,8,9-hexahydro-1H-purine-2,6,8-trione
Traditional Name1,3-dimethyluric acid
CAS Registry Number944-73-0
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkaloids and derivatives. These are naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and more rarely other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassNot Available
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAlkaloids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Xanthine
  • Purinone
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Urea
  • Lactam
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
StatusDetected and Quantified
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point408 - 410 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.52 mg/mL at 18 °CNot Available
LogP-0.52GASPARI,F & BONATI,M (1987)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility8.69 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.74ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area81.75 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity55.42 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17.74 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-01ot-1900000000-bbb1123e337bff47c690View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-02mr-7900000000-fad7e7de9dee95b2d94bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-047i-6900000000-b985a0b78d94b88e5577View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableNormal
  • Not Applicable
UrineDetected and Quantified4.758 +/- 2.472 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.63 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
UrineDetected and Quantified1.5 (1.34-2.34) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.1 (1.3-6.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Abnormal Concentrations
UrineDetected and Quantified9.167 +/- 9.245 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
UrineDetected and Quantified33.0 (21.8-52.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
  1. Zydron M, Baranowski J, Baranowska I: Separation, pre-concentration, and HPLC analysis of methylxanthines in urine samples. J Sep Sci. 2004 Oct;27(14):1166-72. [15537072 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00326
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022712
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID63527
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01857
Metagene LinkHMDB01857
PubChem Compound70346
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID149714
Synthesis ReferenceTaylor, Edward C.; Sowinski, Frank. Reaction of 6-amino- and 6-hydrazinopyrimidines with diethyl azodicarboxylate. New method for C-5 functionalization of pyrimidines. Journal of Organic Chemistry (1974), 39(7), 907-10.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Orlando R, Padrini R, Perazzi M, De Martin S, Piccoli P, Palatini P: Liver dysfunction markedly decreases the inhibition of cytochrome P450 1A2-mediated theophylline metabolism by fluvoxamine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 May;79(5):489-99. [16678550 ]
  2. Knoppert DC, Spino M, Beck R, Thiessen JJ, MacLeod SM: Cystic fibrosis: enhanced theophylline metabolism may be linked to the disease. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1988 Sep;44(3):254-64. [3046811 ]
  3. Miller M, Opheim KE, Raisys VA, Motulsky AG: Theophylline metabolism: variation and genetics. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1984 Feb;35(2):170-82. [6362955 ]
  4. Morris GS, Simmonds HA, Davies PM: Use of biological fluids for the rapid diagnosis of potentially lethal inherited disorders of human purine and pyrimidine metabolism. Biomed Chromatogr. 1986 Jun;1(3):109-18. [3506820 ]
  5. Safranow K, Machoy Z: Simultaneous determination of 16 purine derivatives in urinary calculi by gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005 May 25;819(2):229-35. [15833286 ]
  6. Safranow K: [Identification and quantitation of purine derivatives in urinary calculi as markers of abnormal purine metabolism by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)]. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2000;46:35-49. [11712316 ]
  7. Caubet MS, Comte B, Brazier JL: Determination of urinary 13C-caffeine metabolites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: the use of metabolic ratios to assess CYP1A2 activity. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2004 Feb 4;34(2):379-89. [15013152 ]
  8. Miller CA, Slusher LB, Vesell ES: Polymorphism of theophylline metabolism in man. J Clin Invest. 1985 May;75(5):1415-25. [4039734 ]