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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-02-22 10:50:16 UTC
Update Date2016-08-17 21:42:13 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01858
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB13762
Metabolite Identification
Common Namep-Cresol
Descriptionp-Cresol (4-methylphenol), a 108.1 Da volatile low-molecular-weight compound, is a phenol. It is a partially lipophilic moiety which strongly binds to plasma protein (close to 100%) under normal conditions. p-Cresol is metabolized through conjugation, mainly sulphation and glucuronization, but removal of the unconjugated p-cresol is, at least in part, via the urine. Therefore it is not surprising that this compound, together with several other phenoles, is retained when the kidneys fail. P-Cresol is an end-product of protein breakdown, and an increase of the nutritional protein load in healthy individuals results in enhanced generation and urinary excretion. The serum p-cresol concentration in uremic patients can be decreased by changing to a low-protein diet. p-Cresol is one of the metabolites of the amino acid tyrosine, and to a certain extent also of phenylalanine, which are converted to 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid by intestinal bacteria, before being decarboxylated to p-cresol (putrefaction). The main contributing bacteria are aerobes (mainly enterobacteria), but to a certain extent also anaerobes play a role (mainly Clostridium perfringens). In uremia, modifications in the intestinal flora result in the specific overgrowth of bacteria that are specific p-cresol producers. The administration of antibiotics reduces urinary excretion of p-cresol, as a result of the liquidation of the producing bacteria. Environmental factors might also contribute. The liver cytochrome P450 metabolizes toluene to benzyl alcohol, but also to o-cresol and p-cresol. Toluene is not only used industrially, but it is also the most widely abusively inhaled solvent. Furthermore, p-cresol is a metabolite of menthofuran, one of the metabolites of R-(+)-pulegone, which is found in extracts from the plants Mentha pulegium and Hedeoma pulegioides, commonly known as pennyroyal oil and pennyroyal tea. These extracts are popular as unconventional herbal therapeutic agents and are applied as abortiva, diaphoretics, emmenagogues, and psychedelic drugs. Pennyroyal oil is extensively used for its pleasant mint-like smell in the flavoring industry. The toxicity of pennyroyal oil and menthofuran is well known. Another compound used in traditional medicine, especially in Japan, which is a precursor of p-cresol is wood tar creosote. p-Cresol has been reported to affect several biochemical, biological and physiological functions: (i) it diminishes the oxygen uptake of rat cerebral cortex slices; (ii) it increases the free active drug concentration of warfarin and diazepam; (iii) it has been related to growth retardation in the weanling pig; (iv) it alters cell membrane permeability, at least in bacteria; (v) it induces LDH leakage from rat liver slices; (vi) it induces susceptibility to auditive epileptic crises; and (vii) it blocks cell K+ channels. (PMID: 10570076 ). p-Cresol is a uremic toxin that is at least partially removed by peritoneal dialysis in haemodialysis patients, and has been involved in the progression of renal failure. (MID: 11169029). At concentrations encountered during uremia, p-cresol inhibits phagocyte function and decreases leukocyte adhesion to cytokine-stimulated endothelial cells. (PMID: 14681860 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
4-HydroxytolueneKegg
4-MethylphenolKegg
1-Hydroxy-4-methylbenzeneHMDB
1-Methyl-4-hydroxybenzeneHMDB
4-(Pentafluorosulfanyl)phenolHMDB
4-CresolHMDB
4-Methyl phenolHMDB
4-Methyl-phenolHMDB
P-CresylateHMDB
P-Cresylic acidHMDB
P-HydroxytolueneHMDB
P-KresolHMDB
P-Methyl phenolHMDB
P-MethylhydroxybenzeneHMDB
P-OxytolueneHMDB
P-ToluolHMDB
P-Tolyl alcoholHMDB
ParacresolHMDB
Paramethyl phenolHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H8O
Average Molecular Weight108.1378
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight108.057514878
IUPAC Name4-methylphenol
Traditional NameP-cresol
CAS Registry Number106-44-5
SMILES
CC1=CC=C(O)C=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H8O/c1-6-2-4-7(8)5-3-6/h2-5,8H,1H3
InChI KeyInChIKey=IWDCLRJOBJJRNH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as para cresols. These are compounds containing a para cresol moiety, which consists of a benzene ring bearing one hydroxyl group at ring positions 1 and 4.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassPhenols and derivatives
Direct ParentPara cresols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • P-cresol
  • Toluene
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
  • Microbial
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point35.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility21.5 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP1.94HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility23.1 mg/mLALOGPS
logP1.95ALOGPS
logP2.18ChemAxon
logS-0.67ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.36ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity33.08 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability11.93 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSNot Available
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-5900000000-ab55ada5cae0538f383eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-385a7a99e0409c7f060dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-02tl-9000000000-205f4e5245868e9debccView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (VARIAN MAT-44) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-5900000000-fd438231ac0ed75fdf09View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI RMU-7M) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-5900000000-b76093f53701327ab25fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (JEOL JMS-D-3000) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-4900000000-7d25deb1e39c6ef4866fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80B) , Positivesplash10-0a4i-7900000000-0cdab17a1a95f3e65f45View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, NegativeNot Available
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, NegativeNot Available
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-6900000000-729e6f5bdb0da3ed9dedView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Fibroblasts
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot Available
Normal
  • Not Applicable
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified233.74 - 993.94 ppmChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified136.585 +/- 69.263 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified95.249 +/- 98.948 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified17.6 (17.6-17.6) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified24.7 (1.2-110.7) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified46.0 (1.2-118.9) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified23.0 (11.4-114.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.13 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified52.6 (38.8-71.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.933 +/- 2.099 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified9.9 +/- 5.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHemodialysis details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Campylobacter jejuni infection
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Clostridium difficile infection
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0 - 977.15 ppmChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Treated celiac disease
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Irritable bowel syndrome
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Treated celiac disease
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Diarrhea-predominant IBS
details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.14 +/- 2.998 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Hemodialysis
  1. De Smet R, Van Kaer J, Liebich H, Lesaffer G, Verstraete A, Dhondt A, Duym P, Lameire N, Vanholder R: Heparin-induced release of protein-bound solutes during hemodialysis is an in vitro artifact. Clin Chem. 2001 May;47(5):901-9. [11325895 ]
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01688
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB008789
KNApSAcK IDC00002645
Chemspider ID13839082
KEGG Compound IDC01468
BioCyc IDCPD-108
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia Linkp-Cresol
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01858
Metagene LinkHMDB01858
METLIN ID4236
PubChem Compound2879
PDB IDPCR
ChEBI ID17847
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Geyer H, Scheunert I, Korte F: Bioconcentration potential of organic environmental chemicals in humans. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol. 1986 Dec;6(4):313-47. [3101145 ]
  2. Buhlmann P, Hayakawa M, Ohshiro T, Amemiya S, Umezawa Y: Influence of natural, electrically neutral lipids on the potentiometric responses of cation-selective polymeric membrane electrodes. Anal Chem. 2001 Jul 15;73(14):3199-205. [11476216 ]
  3. Ogata N, Shibata T: Binding of alkyl- and alkoxy-substituted simple phenolic compounds to human serum proteins. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol. 2000;107(1-2):167-73. [11334365 ]
  4. Cork A, Park KC: Identification of electrophysiologically-active compounds for the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, in human sweat extracts. Med Vet Entomol. 1996 Jul;10(3):269-76. [8887339 ]
  5. Bone E, Tamm A, Hill M: The production of urinary phenols by gut bacteria and their possible role in the causation of large bowel cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 1976 Dec;29(12):1448-54. [826152 ]
  6. Akasaka K, Ohrui H, Meguro H, Tamura M: Determination of triacylglycerol and cholesterol ester hydroperoxides in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric postcolumn detection. J Chromatogr. 1993 Aug 11;617(2):205-11. [8408385 ]
  7. Gostner A, Blaut M, Schaffer V, Kozianowski G, Theis S, Klingeberg M, Dombrowski Y, Martin D, Ehrhardt S, Taras D, Schwiertz A, Kleessen B, Luhrs H, Schauber J, Dorbath D, Menzel T, Scheppach W: Effect of isomalt consumption on faecal microflora and colonic metabolism in healthy volunteers. Br J Nutr. 2006 Jan;95(1):40-50. [16441915 ]
  8. Letelier ME, Rodriguez E, Wallace A, Lorca M, Repetto Y, Morello A, Aldunate J: Trypanosoma cruzi: a possible control of transfusion-induced Chagas' disease by phenolic antioxidants. Exp Parasitol. 1990 Nov;71(4):357-63. [2121515 ]
  9. Nishiyama T, Ohnishi J, Hashiguchi Y: Fused heterocyclic antioxidants: antioxidative activities of hydrocoumarins in a homogeneous solution. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 May;65(5):1127-33. [11440127 ]
  10. Dills RL, Bellamy GM, Kalman DA: Quantitation of o-, m- and p-cresol and deuterated analogs in human urine by gas chromatography with electron capture detection. J Chromatogr B Biomed Sci Appl. 1997 Dec 5;703(1-2):105-13. [9448067 ]
  11. Bammens B, Verbeke K, Vanrenterghem Y, Evenepoel P: Evidence for impaired assimilation of protein in chronic renal failure. Kidney Int. 2003 Dec;64(6):2196-203. [14633143 ]
  12. Brunet P, Dou L, Cerini C, Berland Y: Protein-bound uremic retention solutes. Adv Ren Replace Ther. 2003 Oct;10(4):310-20. [14681860 ]
  13. Vanholder R, De Smet R, Lesaffer G: p-cresol: a toxin revealing many neglected but relevant aspects of uraemic toxicity. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 1999 Dec;14(12):2813-5. [10570076 ]