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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-02-24 13:00:45 UTC
Update Date2014-09-23 05:28:22 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01879
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAspirin
DescriptionAspirin is only found in individuals who have consumed this drug. Aspirin or acetylsalicylic acid (acetosal) is a drug in the family of salicylates, often used as an analgesic (against minor pains and aches), antipyretic (against fever), and anti-inflammatory. It has also an anticoagulant effect and is used in long-term low-doses to prevent heart attacks and cancer. It was isolated from meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria, formerly classified as Spiraea ulmaria) by German researchers in 1839. While their extract was somewhat effective, it also caused digestive problems such as irritated stomach and diarrhoea, and even death when consumed in high doses. In 1853, a French chemist named Charles Frederic Gerhardt neutralized salicylic acid by buffering it with sodium (sodium salicylate) and acetyl chloride, creating acetosalicylic anhydride. Gerhardt's product worked, but he had no desire to market it and abandoned his discovery. In 1897, researcher Arthur Eichengrun and Felix Hoffmann, a research assistant at Friedrich Bayer & Co. in Germany, derivatized one of the hydroxyl functional groups in salicylic acid with an acetyl group (forming the acetyl ester), which greatly reduced the negative effects. This was the first synthetic drug, not a copy of something that existed in nature, and the start of the pharmaceuticals industry. The name 'aspirin' is composed of a- (from the acetyl group) -spir- (from the plant genus Spiraea) and -in (a common ending for drugs at the time). It has also been stated that the name originated by another means. As referring to AcetylSalicylic and 'pir' in reference to one of the scientists who was able to isolate it in crystalline form, Raffaele Piria. Finally 'in' due to the same reasons as stated above. Salicylic acid (which is a naturally occurring substance found in many plants) can be acetylated using acetic anhydride, yielding aspirin and acetic acid as a byproduct. It is a common experiment performed in organic chemistry labs, and generally tends to produce low yields due to the relative difficulty of its extraction from an aqueous state. The trick to getting the reaction to work is to acidify with phosphoric acid and heat the reagents under reflux with a boiling water bath for between 40 minutes and an hour. Aspirin acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Aspirin also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 2-(Acetyloxy)benzoate
  2. 2-(Acetyloxy)benzoic acid
  3. 2-Acetoxybenzenecarboxylic acid
  4. 2-Acetoxybenzoate
  5. 2-Acetoxybenzoic acid
  6. 2-Carboxyphenyl acetate
  7. Acenterine
  8. Acetard
  9. Aceticyl
  10. Acetol
  11. Acetonyl
  12. Acetophen
  13. Acetosal
  14. Acetosalin
  15. Acetylin
  16. Acetylsalicylate
  17. Acetylsalicylic acid
  18. Acetyonyl
  19. Acetysal
  20. Acetysalicylic acid
  21. Acylpyrin
  22. Asatard
  23. Aspergum
  24. Aspirdrops
  25. Aspirin
  26. Benaspir
  27. Bialpirinia
  28. Bufferin
  29. Caprin
  30. Cardioaspirina
  31. Easprin
  32. Ecolen
  33. Ecotrin
  34. Empirin
  35. Endosprin
  36. Endydol
  37. O-(Acetyloxy)benzoate
  38. O-(Acetyloxy)benzoic acid
  39. O-Acetoxybenzoate
  40. O-Acetoxybenzoic acid
  41. O-Acetylsalicylic acid
  42. O-Carboxyphenyl acetate
  43. Persistin
  44. Pharmacin
  45. Polopiryna
  46. Premaspin
  47. Rheumintabletten
  48. Rhodine
  49. Salcetogen
  50. Saletin
  51. Salicylic acid acetate
  52. Salospir
  53. Solprin
  54. Solprin acid
  55. Solpyron
  56. Tasprin
  57. Temperal
  58. Toldex
  59. Triaminicin
Chemical FormulaC9H8O4
Average Molecular Weight180.1574
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.042258744
IUPAC Name2-(acetyloxy)benzoic acid
Traditional Nameaspirin
CAS Registry Number50-78-2
SMILES
CC(=O)OC1=CC=CC=C1C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H8O4/c1-6(10)13-8-5-3-2-4-7(8)9(11)12/h2-5H,1H3,(H,11,12)
InChI KeyBSYNRYMUTXBXSQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAromatic Homomonocyclic Compounds
ClassBenzoic Acid and Derivatives
Sub ClassHydroxybenzoic Acid Derivatives
Other Descriptors
  • Organic Compounds
  • Phenylacetic Acid Derivatives
  • acetate ester(ChEBI)
  • benzoic acids(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Benzoyl
  • Carboxylic Acid
  • Carboxylic Acid Ester
  • Dicarboxylic Acid Derivative
Direct ParentSalicylic Acid and Derivatives
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
BiofunctionNot Available
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point135 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP1.19HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.46 g/LALOGPS
logP1.43ALOGPS
logP1.24ChemAxon
logS-2.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.41ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.6ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity44.45ChemAxon
Polarizability16.8ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Location
  • Platelet
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Acetylsalicylic Acid PathwaySMP00083Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified26.5 +/- 1.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiofluidValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0-3 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00945
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000894
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2157
KEGG Compound IDC01405
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID45400
Wikipedia LinkAspirin
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01879
Metagene LinkHMDB01879
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound2244
PDB IDAIN
ChEBI ID15365
References
Synthesis ReferenceChen, Hong; Long, Xiang; Huang, Siqing. Synthesis of aspirin with vitamin C as catalyst. Huaxue Shijie (2004), 45(12), 642-643.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Markuszewski L, Rosiak M, Golanski J, Rysz J, Spychalska M, Watala C: Reduced blood platelet sensitivity to aspirin in coronary artery disease: are dyslipidaemia and inflammatory states possible factors predisposing to sub-optimal platelet response to aspirin? Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006 May;98(5):503-9. Pubmed: 16635110
  2. Frelinger AL 3rd, Furman MI, Linden MD, Li Y, Fox ML, Barnard MR, Michelson AD: Residual arachidonic acid-induced platelet activation via an adenosine diphosphate-dependent but cyclooxygenase-1- and cyclooxygenase-2-independent pathway: a 700-patient study of aspirin resistance. Circulation. 2006 Jun 27;113(25):2888-96. Epub 2006 Jun 19. Pubmed: 16785341
  3. Eikelboom JW, Hankey GJ, Thom J, Claxton A, Yi Q, Gilmore G, Staton J, Barden A, Norman PE: Enhanced antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel in patients whose platelets are least inhibited by aspirin: a randomized crossover trial. J Thromb Haemost. 2005 Dec;3(12):2649-55. Pubmed: 16359503
  4. Eikelboom J, Feldman M, Mehta SR, Michelson AD, Oates JA, Topol E: Aspirin resistance and its implications in clinical practice. MedGenMed. 2005 Jul 11;7(3):76. Pubmed: 16369302
  5. Konrad CJ, Schuepfer GK, Gerber H, Rukwied R, Schmelz M, Schley M: Duration of effects of aspirin on platelet function in healthy volunteers: an analysis using the PFA-100. J Clin Anesth. 2006 Feb;18(1):12-7. Pubmed: 16517326
  6. Faraday N, Becker DM, Yanek LR, Herrera-Galeano JE, Segal JB, Moy TF, Bray PF, Becker LC: Relation between atherosclerosis risk factors and aspirin resistance in a primary prevention population. Am J Cardiol. 2006 Sep 15;98(6):774-9. Epub 2006 Jul 28. Pubmed: 16950183
  7. Lee SH, Rhim T, Choi YS, Min JW, Kim SH, Cho SY, Paik YK, Park CS: Complement C3a and C4a increased in plasma of patients with aspirin-induced asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2006 Feb 15;173(4):370-8. Epub 2005 Nov 17. Pubmed: 16293803
  8. Perneby C, Wallen NH, Rooney C, Fitzgerald D, Hjemdahl P: Dose- and time-dependent antiplatelet effects of aspirin. Thromb Haemost. 2006 Apr;95(4):652-8. Pubmed: 16601836
  9. Maree AO, Curtin RJ, Chubb A, Dolan C, Cox D, O'Brien J, Crean P, Shields DC, Fitzgerald DJ: Cyclooxygenase-1 haplotype modulates platelet response to aspirin. J Thromb Haemost. 2005 Oct;3(10):2340-5. Epub 2005 Sep 9. Pubmed: 16150050
  10. Satoh K, Ozaki Y: [Attempts for aspirin monitoring with a new assay system, Ultegra Rapid Platelet Function Assay (RPFA), based on turbidimetric platelet agglutination of whole blood samples] Rinsho Byori. 2006 Jun;54(6):576-82. Pubmed: 16872006
  11. Cornelissen J, Kirtland S, Lim E, Goddard M, Bellm S, Sheridan K, Large S, Vuylsteke A: Biological efficacy of low against medium dose aspirin regimen after coronary surgery: analysis of platelet function. Thromb Haemost. 2006 Mar;95(3):476-82. Pubmed: 16525576
  12. Eliasson B, Cederholm J, Nilsson P, Gudbjornsdottir S: The gap between guidelines and reality: Type 2 diabetes in a National Diabetes Register 1996-2003. Diabet Med. 2005 Oct;22(10):1420-6. Pubmed: 16176206
  13. Zailaie MZ: Aspirin reduces serum anti-melanocyte antibodies and soluble interleukin-2 receptors in vitiligo patients. Saudi Med J. 2005 Jul;26(7):1085-91. Pubmed: 16047057
  14. Aktas B, Pozgajova M, Bergmeier W, Sunnarborg S, Offermanns S, Lee D, Wagner DD, Nieswandt B: Aspirin induces platelet receptor shedding via ADAM17 (TACE). J Biol Chem. 2005 Dec 2;280(48):39716-22. Epub 2005 Sep 22. Pubmed: 16179345
  15. Maree AO, Curtin RJ, Dooley M, Conroy RM, Crean P, Cox D, Fitzgerald DJ: Platelet response to low-dose enteric-coated aspirin in patients with stable cardiovascular disease. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Oct 4;46(7):1258-63. Pubmed: 16198840
  16. Lev EI, Patel RT, Maresh KJ, Guthikonda S, Granada J, DeLao T, Bray PF, Kleiman NS: Aspirin and clopidogrel drug response in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: the role of dual drug resistance. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Jan 3;47(1):27-33. Epub 2005 Dec 9. Pubmed: 16386660
  17. Sun W, Gerhardinger C, Dagher Z, Hoehn T, Lorenzi M: Aspirin at low-intermediate concentrations protects retinal vessels in experimental diabetic retinopathy through non-platelet-mediated effects. Diabetes. 2005 Dec;54(12):3418-26. Pubmed: 16306357
  18. Tantry US, Bliden KP, Gurbel PA: Overestimation of platelet aspirin resistance detection by thrombelastograph platelet mapping and validation by conventional aggregometry using arachidonic acid stimulation. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Nov 1;46(9):1705-9. Epub 2005 Oct 10. Pubmed: 16256872
  19. Hermida RC, Ayala DE, Calvo C, Lopez JE, Mojon A, Rodriguez M, Fernandez JR: Differing administration time-dependent effects of aspirin on blood pressure in dipper and non-dipper hypertensives. Hypertension. 2005 Oct;46(4):1060-8. Epub 2005 Aug 8. Pubmed: 16087788
  20. Savion N, Varon D: Impact--the cone and plate(let) analyzer: testing platelet function and anti-platelet drug response. Pathophysiol Haemost Thromb. 2006;35(1-2):83-8. Pubmed: 16855351
  21. Randomised trial of intravenous streptokinase, oral aspirin, both, or neither among 17,187 cases of suspected acute myocardial infarction: ISIS-2. ISIS-2 (Second International Study of Infarct Survival) Collaborative Group. Lancet. 1988 Aug 13;2(8607):349-60. Pubmed: 2899772
  22. Sneader W: The discovery of aspirin: a reappraisal. BMJ. 2000 Dec 23-30;321(7276):1591-4. Pubmed: 11124191
  23. Macdonald S: Aspirin use to be banned in under 16 year olds. BMJ. 2002 Nov 2;325(7371):988. Pubmed: 12411346
  24. Aukerman G, Knutson D, Miser WF: Management of the acute migraine headache. Am Fam Physician. 2002 Dec 1;66(11):2123-30. Pubmed: 12484694
  25. Dorsch MP, Lee JS, Lynch DR, Dunn SP, Rodgers JE, Schwartz T, Colby E, Montague D, Smyth SS: Aspirin resistance in patients with stable coronary artery disease with and without a history of myocardial infarction. Ann Pharmacother. 2007 May;41(5):737-41. Epub 2007 Apr 24. Pubmed: 17456544

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Converts progesterone to its inactive form, 20-alpha-dihydroxyprogesterone (20-alpha-OHP). In the liver and intestine, may have a role in the transport of bile. May have a role in monitoring the intrahepatic bile acid concentration. Has a low bile-binding ability. May play a role in myelin formation.
Gene Name:
AKR1C1
Uniprot ID:
Q04828
Molecular weight:
36788.02
References
  1. Dhagat U, Carbone V, Chung RP, Matsunaga T, Endo S, Hara A, El-Kabbani O: A salicylic acid-based analogue discovered from virtual screening as a potent inhibitor of human 20alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Med Chem. 2007 Nov;3(6):546-50. Pubmed: 18045204
General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Mediates the formation of prostaglandins from arachidonate. May have a role as a major mediator of inflammation and/or a role for prostanoid signaling in activity-dependent plasticity.
Gene Name:
PTGS2
Uniprot ID:
P35354
Molecular weight:
68995.625
References
  1. Brzozowski T, Konturek PC, Sliwowski Z, Kwiecien S, Drozdowicz D, Pawlik M, Mach K, Konturek SJ, Pawlik WW: Interaction of nonsteroidal anti - inflammatory drugs (NSAID) with Helicobacter pylori in the stomach of humans and experimental animals. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Sep;57 Suppl 3:67-79. Pubmed: 17033106
  2. Wang HJ, Liu XJ, Yang KX, Luo FM, Lou JY, Peng ZL: [Effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug celecoxib on expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in ovarian carcinoma cell]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2006 Sep;37(5):757-60. Pubmed: 17037745
  3. Shen J, Gammon MD, Terry MB, Teitelbaum SL, Neugut AI, Santella RM: Genetic polymorphisms in the cyclooxygenase-2 gene, use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and breast cancer risk. Breast Cancer Res. 2006;8(6):R71. Pubmed: 17181859
  4. Nakano M, Denda N, Matsumoto M, Kawamura M, Kawakubo Y, Hatanaka K, Hiramoto Y, Sato Y, Noshiro M, Harada Y: Interaction between cyclooxygenase (COX)-1- and COX-2-products modulates COX-2 expression in the late phase of acute inflammation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Mar 22;559(2-3):210-8. Epub 2006 Dec 16. Pubmed: 17258197
  5. Hall MN, Campos H, Li H, Sesso HD, Stampfer MJ, Willett WC, Ma J: Blood levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, aspirin, and the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Feb;16(2):314-21. Pubmed: 17301265
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed: 11752352
General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
May play an important role in regulating or promoting cell proliferation in some normal and neoplastically transformed cells.
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular weight:
68685.82
References
  1. Stevenson DD, Szczeklik A: Clinical and pathologic perspectives on aspirin sensitivity and asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2006 Oct;118(4):773-86; quiz 787-8. Epub 2006 Sep 1. Pubmed: 17030227
  2. Flipo RM: [Are the NSAIDs able to compromising the cardio-preventive efficacy of aspirin?]. Presse Med. 2006 Sep;35(9 Spec No 1):1S53-60. Pubmed: 17078596
  3. Schwartz KA: Aspirin resistance: a review of diagnostic methodology, mechanisms, and clinical utility. Adv Clin Chem. 2006;42:81-110. Pubmed: 17131625
  4. Birnbaum Y, Ye Y, Lin Y, Freeberg SY, Huang MH, Perez-Polo JR, Uretsky BF: Aspirin augments 15-epi-lipoxin A4 production by lipopolysaccharide, but blocks the pioglitazone and atorvastatin induction of 15-epi-lipoxin A4 in the rat heart. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2007 Feb;83(1-2):89-98. Epub 2006 Nov 7. Pubmed: 17259075
  5. Guthikonda S, Lev EI, Patel R, DeLao T, Bergeron AL, Dong JF, Kleiman NS: Reticulated platelets and uninhibited COX-1 and COX-2 decrease the antiplatelet effects of aspirin. J Thromb Haemost. 2007 Mar;5(3):490-6. Pubmed: 17319904
  6. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed: 11752352
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Faassen F, Vogel G, Spanings H, Vromans H: Caco-2 permeability, P-glycoprotein transport ratios and brain penetration of heterocyclic drugs. Int J Pharm. 2003 Sep 16;263(1-2):113-22. Pubmed: 12954186
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Involved in the renal elimination of endogenous and exogenous organic anions. Functions as organic anion exchanger when the uptake of one molecule of organic anion is coupled with an efflux of one molecule of endogenous dicarboxylic acid (glutarate, ketoglutarate, etc). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS). Mediates the sodium-independent uptake of p- aminohippurate (PAH), ochratoxin (OTA), acyclovir (ACV), 3'-azido- 3-'deoxythymidine (AZT), cimetidine (CMD), 2,4-dichloro- phenoxyacetate (2,4-D), hippurate (HA), indoleacetate (IA), indoxyl sulfate (IS) and 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2- furanpropionate (CMPF), cidofovir, adefovir, 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) guanine (PMEG), 9-(2- phosphonylmethoxyethyl) diaminopurine (PMEDAP) and edaravone sulfate. PAH uptake is inhibited by p- chloromercuribenzenesulphonate (PCMBS), diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC), sulindac, diclofenac, carprofen, glutarate and okadaic acid. PAH uptake is inhibited by benzothiazolylcysteine (BTC), S-chlorotrifluoroethylcysteine (CTFC), cysteine S-conjugates S-dichlorovinylcysteine (DCVC), furosemide, steviol, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), calcium ionophore A23187, benzylpenicillin, furosemide, indomethacin, bumetamide, losartan, probenecid, phenol red, urate, and alpha-ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A6
Uniprot ID:
Q4U2R8
Molecular weight:
61815.8
References
  1. Apiwattanakul N, Sekine T, Chairoungdua A, Kanai Y, Nakajima N, Sophasan S, Endou H: Transport properties of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs by organic anion transporter 1 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 May;55(5):847-54. Pubmed: 10220563
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates sodium-independent multispecific organic anion transport. Transport of prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2, tetracycline, bumetanide, estrone sulfate, glutarate, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, allopurinol, 5-fluorouracil, paclitaxel, L-ascorbic acid, salicylate, ethotrexate, and alpha- ketoglutarate
Gene Name:
SLC22A7
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y694
Molecular weight:
60025.0
References
  1. Sekine T, Cha SH, Tsuda M, Apiwattanakul N, Nakajima N, Kanai Y, Endou H: Identification of multispecific organic anion transporter 2 expressed predominantly in the liver. FEBS Lett. 1998 Jun 12;429(2):179-82. Pubmed: 9650585