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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-03-08 12:54:47 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:10:57 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01892
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameMenadione
DescriptionMenadione is a synthetic naphthoquinone without the isoprenoid side chain and biological activity, but can be converted to active vitamin K2, menaquinone, after alkylation in vivo. -- Pubchem; Despite the fact that it can serve as a precursor to various types of vitamin K, menadione is generally not used as a nutritional supplement. Large doses of menadione have been reported to cause adverse outcomes including hemolytic anemia due to G6PD deficiency, neonatal brain or liver damage, or neonatal death in some cases. Moreover, menadione supplements have been banned by the FDA because of their high toxicity. It is sometimes called vitamin K3, although derivatives of naphthoquinone without the sidechain in the 3-position cannot exert all the functions of the K vitamins. Menadione is a vitamin precursor of K2 which utilizes alkylation in the liver to yield menaquinones (MK-n, n=1-13; K2 vitamers), and hence, is better classified as a provitamin. -- Wikipedia.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. 2-Methyl-1,4-naftochinon
  2. 2-Methyl-1,4-naphthalendione
  3. 2-Methyl-1,4-naphthalenedione
  4. 2-Methyl-1,4-naphthochinon
  5. 2-Methyl-1,4-naphthodione
  6. 2-Methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone
  7. 2-Methylnaphthoquinone
  8. 3-Methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone
  9. Aquakay
  10. Aquinone
  11. Hemodal
  12. Juva-K
  13. K-Thrombyl
  14. K-Vitan
  15. Kaergona
  16. Kanone
  17. Kappaxan
  18. Kappaxin
  19. Karcon
  20. Kareon
  21. Kativ-G
  22. Kayklot
  23. Kaykot
  24. Kaynone
  25. Kayquinone
  26. Kipca
  27. Kipca-Oil Soluble
  28. Klottone
  29. Koaxin
  30. Kolklot
  31. Menadion
  32. Menadione
  33. Menaphthene
  34. Menaphthon
  35. Menaphthone
  36. Menaphtone
  37. Menaquinone
  38. Menaquinone O
  39. Mitenon
  40. Mitenone
  41. MNQ
  42. Panosine
  43. Prokayvit
  44. Synkay
  45. Thyloquinone
  46. Vitamin K0
  47. Vitamin K2
  48. Vitamin K3
  49. Vitamin K3: 1,4-Dihydro-1,4-dioxo-2-methylnaphthalene
Chemical FormulaC11H8O2
Average Molecular Weight172.18
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight172.0524295
IUPAC Name2-methyl-1,4-dihydronaphthalene-1,4-dione
Traditional IUPAC Namemenadione
CAS Registry Number58-27-5
SMILES
CC1=CC(=O)C2=CC=CC=C2C1=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C11H8O2/c1-7-6-10(12)8-4-2-3-5-9(8)11(7)13/h2-6H,1H3
InChI KeyMJVAVZPDRWSRRC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAromatic Homomonocyclic Compounds
ClassAcenes
Sub ClassNaphthalenes
Other Descriptors
  • Aromatic Homomonocyclic Compounds
  • Aromatic Homopolycyclic Compounds
  • Fat-soluble vitamins(KEGG)
  • Vitamin K(KEGG)
  • a vitamin K(Cyc)
  • naphthoquinone(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • Benzoquinone
  • Ketone
Direct ParentNaphthoquinones
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Enzyme cofactor
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point107 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.160 mg/mL at 30 °CYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
LogP2.20HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility0.5 g/LALOGPS
logP1.91ALOGPS
logP1.89ChemAxon
logS-2.5ALOGPS
pKa (strongest acidic)12.94ChemAxon
pKa (strongest basic)-7.2ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count2ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area34.14ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity50.54ChemAxon
polarizability17.64ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraGC-MSMS/MS1D NMR2D NMR
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Fibroblasts
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot Available
Normal
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00108 (0.0003-0.025) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.000411(0.0001-0.0011) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00170
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000953
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID3915
KEGG Compound IDC05377
BioCyc IDCPD-3766
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMenadione
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01892
Metagene LinkHMDB01892
METLIN ID3910
PubChem Compound4055
PDB IDVK3
ChEBI ID28869
References
Synthesis ReferenceMinami, Ryohei; Nishizaki, Tadao; Kumagai, Yoshitoshi. Menadione. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (1986), 4 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Kwasnicka-Crawford DA, Vincent SR: Role of a novel dual flavin reductase (NR1) and an associated histidine triad protein (DCS-1) in menadione-induced cytotoxicity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Oct 21;336(2):565-71. Pubmed: 16140270
  2. Snider BJ, Moss JL, Revilla FJ, Lee CS, Wheeler VC, Macdonald ME, Choi DW: Neocortical neurons cultured from mice with expanded CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene: unaltered vulnerability to excitotoxins and other insults. Neuroscience. 2003;120(3):617-25. Pubmed: 12895502
  3. Robertson DG, Bailey DL, Martin RA: Species differences in response to photohemolytic agents. Photochem Photobiol. 1991 Apr;53(4):455-61. Pubmed: 1857739
  4. Chladek J, Martinkova J, Sispera L: An in vitro study on methotrexate hydroxylation in rat and human liver. Physiol Res. 1997;46(5):371-9. Pubmed: 9728483
  5. Habu D, Shiomi S, Tamori A, Takeda T, Tanaka T, Kubo S, Nishiguchi S: Role of vitamin K2 in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma in women with viral cirrhosis of the liver. JAMA. 2004 Jul 21;292(3):358-61. Pubmed: 15265851
  6. Lasalvia-Prisco E, Cucchi S, Vazquez J, Lasalvia-Galante E, Golomar W, Gordon W: Serum markers variation consistent with autoschizis induced by ascorbic acid-menadione in patients with prostate cancer. Med Oncol. 2003;20(1):45-52. Pubmed: 12665684
  7. Harrington DJ, Soper R, Edwards C, Savidge GF, Hodges SJ, Shearer MJ: Determination of the urinary aglycone metabolites of vitamin K by HPLC with redox-mode electrochemical detection. J Lipid Res. 2005 May;46(5):1053-60. Epub 2005 Feb 1. Pubmed: 15722567
  8. Usui Y, Tanimura H, Nishimura N, Kobayashi N, Okanoue T, Ozawa K: Vitamin K concentrations in the plasma and liver of surgical patients. Am J Clin Nutr. 1990 May;51(5):846-52. Pubmed: 2333843
  9. Ono M, Ohta H, Ohhira M, Sekiya C, Namiki M: Measurement of immunoreactive prothrombin, des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin, and vitamin K in human liver tissues: overproduction of immunoreactive prothrombin in hepatocellular carcinoma. Am J Gastroenterol. 1990 Sep;85(9):1149-54. Pubmed: 1697141
  10. Suzuki S, Iwata G, Sutor AH: Vitamin K deficiency during the perinatal and infantile period. Semin Thromb Hemost. 2001;27(2):93-8. Pubmed: 11372776
  11. Wermuth B, Platts KL, Seidel A, Oesch F: Carbonyl reductase provides the enzymatic basis of quinone detoxication in man. Biochem Pharmacol. 1986 Apr 15;35(8):1277-82. Pubmed: 3083821
  12. Price RJ, Mistry H, Wield PT, Renwick AB, Beamand JA, Lake BG: Comparison of the toxicity of allyl alcohol, coumarin and menadione in precision-cut rat, guinea-pig, cynomolgus monkey and human liver slices. Arch Toxicol. 1996;71(1-2):107-11. Pubmed: 9010592
  13. Thijssen HH, Drittij-Reijnders MJ: Vitamin K status in human tissues: tissue-specific accumulation of phylloquinone and menaquinone-4. Br J Nutr. 1996 Jan;75(1):121-7. Pubmed: 8785182
  14. Iioka H, Moriyama IS, Morimoto K, Akada S, Hisanaga H, Ishihara Y, Ichijo M: Pharmacokinetics of vitamin K in mothers and children in the perinatal period: transplacental transport of vitamin K2 (MK-4). Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynaecol. 1991 Mar;17(1):97-100. Pubmed: 2064595
  15. Strunnikova N, Hilmer S, Flippin J, Robinson M, Hoffman E, Csaky KG: Differences in gene expression profiles in dermal fibroblasts from control and patients with age-related macular degeneration elicited by oxidative injury. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005 Sep 15;39(6):781-96. Pubmed: 16109308

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Reduces all-trans-retinal and 9-cis retinal. Can also catalyze the oxidation of all-trans-retinol with NADP as co-factor, but with much lower efficiency. Reduces alkyl phenyl ketones and alpha-dicarbonyl compounds with aromatic rings, such as pyrimidine-4-aldehyde, 3-benzoylpyridine, 4-benzoylpyridine, menadione and 4-hexanoylpyridine. Has no activity towards aliphatic aldehydes and ketones (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DHRS4
Uniprot ID:
Q9BTZ2
Molecular weight:
29536.885
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q06278
Molecular weight:
147916.735
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. Pubmed: 11752352
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
The enzyme apparently serves as a quinone reductase in connection with conjugation reactions of hydroquinones involved in detoxification pathways as well as in biosynthetic processes such as the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation of glutamate residues in prothrombin synthesis.
Gene Name:
NQO2
Uniprot ID:
P16083
Molecular weight:
25918.4
References
  1. Long DJ 2nd, Iskander K, Gaikwad A, Arin M, Roop DR, Knox R, Barrios R, Jaiswal AK: Disruption of dihydronicotinamide riboside:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) leads to myeloid hyperplasia of bone marrow and decreased sensitivity to menadione toxicity. J Biol Chem. 2002 Nov 29;277(48):46131-9. Epub 2002 Sep 25. Pubmed: 12351651
  2. Kwiek JJ, Haystead TA, Rudolph J: Kinetic mechanism of quinone oxidoreductase 2 and its inhibition by the antimalarial quinolines. Biochemistry. 2004 Apr 20;43(15):4538-47. Pubmed: 15078100
  3. Foster CE, Bianchet MA, Talalay P, Zhao Q, Amzel LM: Crystal structure of human quinone reductase type 2, a metalloflavoprotein. Biochemistry. 1999 Aug 3;38(31):9881-6. Pubmed: 10433694
  4. Celli CM, Tran N, Knox R, Jaiswal AK: NRH:quinone oxidoreductase 2 (NQO2) catalyzes metabolic activation of quinones and anti-tumor drugs. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006 Jul 28;72(3):366-76. Epub 2006 May 4. Pubmed: 16765324
  5. Boutin JA, Chatelain-Egger F, Vella F, Delagrange P, Ferry G: Quinone reductase 2 substrate specificity and inhibition pharmacology. Chem Biol Interact. 2005 Feb 10;151(3):213-28. Pubmed: 15733542
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular weight:
146422.99
References
  1. Yee SB, Pritsos CA: Comparison of oxygen radical generation from the reductive activation of doxorubicin, streptonigrin, and menadione by xanthine oxidase and xanthine dehydrogenase. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1997 Nov 15;347(2):235-41. Pubmed: 9367530
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme is required for electron transfer from NADP to cytochrome P450 in microsomes. It can also provide electron transfer to heme oxygenase and cytochrome B5.
Gene Name:
POR
Uniprot ID:
P16435
Molecular weight:
77047.575
General function:
Involved in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (NADPH) activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate to 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, a co-substrate for homocysteine remethylation to methionine.
Gene Name:
MTHFR
Uniprot ID:
P42898
Molecular weight:
74595.895
References
  1. Vanoni MA, Ballou DP, Matthews RG: Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Steady state and rapid reaction studies on the NADPH-methylenetetrahydrofolate, NADPH-menadione, and methyltetrahydrofolate-menadione oxidoreductase activities of the enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1983 Oct 10;258(19):11510-4. Pubmed: 6352699
  2. Clark JE, Ljungdahl LG: Purification and properties of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, an iron-sulfur flavoprotein from Clostridium formicoaceticum. J Biol Chem. 1984 Sep 10;259(17):10845-9. Pubmed: 6381490
General function:
Involved in receptor signaling protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
On ligand binding, forms a receptor complex consisting of two type II and two type I transmembrane serine/threonine kinases. Type II receptors phosphorylate and activate type I receptors which autophosphorylate, then bind and activate SMAD transcriptional regulators. Receptor for activin. May be involved for left-right pattern formation during embryogenesis
Gene Name:
ACVR1
Uniprot ID:
Q04771
Molecular weight:
57152.4
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular weight:
58164.815
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular weight:
56517.005
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
The enzyme apparently serves as a quinone reductase in connection with conjugation reactions of hydroquinons involved in detoxification pathways as well as in biosynthetic processes such as the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation of glutamate residues in prothrombin synthesis.
Gene Name:
NQO1
Uniprot ID:
P15559
Molecular weight:
30867.405
References
  1. Munday R, Smith BL, Munday CM: Effect of butylated hydroxyanisole on the toxicity of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone to rats. Chem Biol Interact. 1999 Feb 12;117(3):241-56. Pubmed: 10190578
  2. Chiou TJ, Wang YT, Tzeng WF: DT-diaphorase protects against menadione-induced oxidative stress. Toxicology. 1999 Nov 29;139(1-2):103-10. Pubmed: 10614691
  3. Munday R, Smith BL, Munday CM: Effect of inducers of DT-diaphorase on the toxicity of 2-methyl- and 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone to rats. Chem Biol Interact. 1999 Dec 15;123(3):219-37. Pubmed: 10654840
  4. Ip SP, Yiu HY, Ko KM: Schisandrin B protects against menadione-induced hepatotoxicity by enhancing DT-diaphorase activity. Mol Cell Biochem. 2000 May;208(1-2):151-5. Pubmed: 10939639
  5. Kishi T, Takahashi T, Mizobuchi S, Mori K, Okamoto T: Effect of dicumarol, a Nad(P)h: quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (DT-diaphorase) inhibitor on ubiquinone redox cycling in cultured rat hepatocytes. Free Radic Res. 2002 Apr;36(4):413-9. Pubmed: 12069105
General function:
Involved in gamma-glutamyl carboxylase activity
Specific function:
Mediates the vitamin K-dependent carboxylation of glutamate residues to calcium-binding gamma-carboxyglutamate (Gla) residues with the concomitant conversion of the reduced hydroquinone form of vitamin K to vitamin K epoxide.
Gene Name:
GGCX
Uniprot ID:
P38435
Molecular weight:
87560.065
References
  1. Wang Z, Wang M, Finn F, Carr BI: The growth inhibitory effects of vitamins K and their actions on gene expression. Hepatology. 1995 Sep;22(3):876-82. Pubmed: 7657295
  2. Stafford DW: The vitamin K cycle. J Thromb Haemost. 2005 Aug;3(8):1873-8. Pubmed: 16102054
  3. Presnell SR, Stafford DW: The vitamin K-dependent carboxylase. Thromb Haemost. 2002 Jun;87(6):937-46. Pubmed: 12083499
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Factor IX is a vitamin K-dependent plasma protein that participates in the intrinsic pathway of blood coagulation by converting factor X to its active form in the presence of Ca(2+) ions, phospholipids, and factor VIIIa
Gene Name:
F9
Uniprot ID:
P00740
Molecular weight:
51778.1
References
  1. Berkessel A, Guixa M, Schmidt F, Neudorfl JM, Lex J: Highly enantioselective epoxidation of 2-methylnaphthoquinone (vitamin K3) mediated by new cinchona alkaloid phase-transfer catalysts. Chemistry. 2007;13(16):4483-98. Pubmed: 17348045
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Protein C is a vitamin K-dependent serine protease that regulates blood coagulation by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa in the presence of calcium ions and phospholipids
Gene Name:
PROC
Uniprot ID:
P04070
Molecular weight:
52070.8
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
  3. Milgrom E, Diab H, Middleton F, Kane PM: Loss of vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase activity in yeast results in chronic oxidative stress. J Biol Chem. 2007 Mar 9;282(10):7125-36. Epub 2007 Jan 10. Pubmed: 17215245
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Anticoagulant plasma protein; it is a cofactor to activated protein C in the degradation of coagulation factors Va and VIIIa. It helps to prevent coagulation and stimulating fibrinolysis
Gene Name:
PROS1
Uniprot ID:
P07225
Molecular weight:
75121.9
References
  1. Chai YC, Hendrich S, Thomas JA: Protein S-thiolation in hepatocytes stimulated by t-butyl hydroperoxide, menadione, and neutrophils. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1994 Apr;310(1):264-72. Pubmed: 8161215
  2. Mallis RJ, Hamann MJ, Zhao W, Zhang T, Hendrich S, Thomas JA: Irreversible thiol oxidation in carbonic anhydrase III: protection by S-glutathiolation and detection in aging rats. Biol Chem. 2002 Mar-Apr;383(3-4):649-62. Pubmed: 12033454
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Appears to assist hemostasis by binding thrombin and promoting its association with phospholipid vesicles
Gene Name:
PROZ
Uniprot ID:
P22891
Molecular weight:
44743.6
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
General function:
Involved in regulation of bone mineralization
Specific function:
Constitutes 1-2% of the total bone protein. It binds strongly to apatite and calcium
Gene Name:
BGLAP
Uniprot ID:
P02818
Molecular weight:
10962.4
References
  1. Price PA: Role of vitamin-K-dependent proteins in bone metabolism. Annu Rev Nutr. 1988;8:565-83. Pubmed: 3060178
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Factor Xa is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein that converts prothrombin to thrombin in the presence of factor Va, calcium and phospholipid during blood clotting
Gene Name:
F10
Uniprot ID:
P00742
Molecular weight:
54731.3
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Initiates the extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. Serine protease that circulates in the blood in a zymogen form. Factor VII is converted to factor VIIa by factor Xa, factor XIIa, factor IXa, or thrombin by minor proteolysis. In the presence of tissue factor and calcium ions, factor VIIa then converts factor X to factor Xa by limited proteolysis. Factor VIIa will also convert factor IX to factor IXa in the presence of tissue factor and calcium
Gene Name:
F7
Uniprot ID:
P08709
Molecular weight:
51593.5
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
General function:
Involved in vitamin-K-epoxide reductase (warfarin-sensi
Specific function:
Involved in vitamin K metabolism. Catalytic subunit of the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) complex which reduces inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
Gene Name:
VKORC1
Uniprot ID:
Q9BQB6
Molecular weight:
18234.3
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. Pubmed: 17139284
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. Pubmed: 17016423
  3. Oldenburg J, Bevans CG, Muller CR, Watzka M: Vitamin K epoxide reductase complex subunit 1 (VKORC1): the key protein of the vitamin K cycle. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2006 Mar-Apr;8(3-4):347-53. Pubmed: 16677080
  4. Stafford DW: The vitamin K cycle. J Thromb Haemost. 2005 Aug;3(8):1873-8. Pubmed: 16102054
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Oxidoreductase that catalyzes the NADP-dependent reduction of cytochrome c and one-electron acceptors, such as doxorubicin, potassium ferricyanide and menadione (in vitro)
Gene Name:
NDOR1
Uniprot ID:
Q9UHB4
Molecular weight:
66761.9
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
VKORC1L1
Uniprot ID:
Q8N0U8
Molecular weight:
19835.4
References
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