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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-03-08 13:03:03 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:05:04 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01893
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAlpha-Tocopherol
DescriptionAlpha-tocopherol is traditionally recognized as the most active form of vitamin E in humans, and is a powerful biological antioxidant. The measurement of "vitamin E" activity in international units (IU) was based on fertility enhancement by the prevention of spontaneous abortions in pregnant rats relative to alpha tocopherol. Natural vitamin E exists in eight different forms or isomers, four tocopherols and four tocotrienols. In foods, the most abundant sources of vitamin E are vegetable oils such as palm oil, sunflower, corn, soybean and olive oil. Nuts, sunflower seeds, and wheat germ are also good sources. --Wikipedia.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2R,4'r,8'r)-alpha-TocopherolChEBI
(R,R,R)-alpha-TocopherolChEBI
5,7,8-TrimethyltocolChEBI
D-alpha-TocopherolChEBI
Vitamin eChEBI
(2R,4'r,8'r)-a-TocopherolGenerator
(2R,4'r,8'r)-α-tocopherolGenerator
a-TocopherolGenerator
α-tocopherolGenerator
(R,R,R)-a-TocopherolGenerator
(R,R,R)-α-tocopherolGenerator
D-a-TocopherolGenerator
D-α-tocopherolGenerator
(+)-a-TocopherolHMDB
(+)-alpha-TocopherolHMDB
(2R)-3,4-dihydro-2,5,7,8-Tetramethyl-2-[(4R,8R)-4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl]-2H-1-benzopyran-6-olHMDB
a-D-TocopherolHMDB
alpha-delta-TocopherolHMDB
delta-alpha-TocopherolHMDB
DenamoneHMDB
EprolinHMDB
PhytogerminHMDB
PhytogermineHMDB
RRR-alpha-TocopherolHMDB
RRR-alpha-TocopherylHMDB
Vitamin eaHMDB
Chemical FormulaC29H50O2
Average Molecular Weight430.7061
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight430.381080844
IUPAC Name(2R)-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2-[(4R,8R)-4,8,12-trimethyltridecyl]-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol
Traditional NameVitaE
CAS Registry Number59-02-9
SMILES
CC(C)CCC[C@@H](C)CCC[C@@H](C)CCC[C@]1(C)CCC2=C(O1)C(C)=C(C)C(O)=C2C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C29H50O2/c1-20(2)12-9-13-21(3)14-10-15-22(4)16-11-18-29(8)19-17-26-25(7)27(30)23(5)24(6)28(26)31-29/h20-22,30H,9-19H2,1-8H3/t21-,22-,29-/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=GVJHHUAWPYXKBD-IEOSBIPESA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as tocopherols. These are vitamin E derivatives containing a saturated trimethyltridecyl chain attached to the carbon C6 atom of a benzopyran ring system. The differ from tocotrienols that contain an unsaturated trimethyltrideca-3,7,11-trien-1-yl chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassQuinone and hydroquinone lipids
Direct ParentTocopherols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Tocopherol
  • Diterpenoid
  • 1-benzopyran
  • Benzopyran
  • Chromane
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Benzenoid
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Food
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Hormones, Membrane component
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point3 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.04e-06 mg/mLALOGPS
logP8.84ALOGPS
logP10.51ChemAxon
logS-7.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)10.8ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area29.46 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count12ChemAxon
Refractivity135.37 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability55.29 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-000i-1390000000-fc8c4f9b9405598ede7fView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (1 TMS)splash10-00dr-9150010000-c4abc0e689e9b2476b9dView in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0f79-1190040000-663296a69129a59be1a6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-9600100000-aaf885290800a10d3fb2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-01wr-9300000000-f0c814976a58a9d837caView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0f79-1494700000-6b5f8f817c5a5429ed70View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-EBEB (JMS-HX/HX 110A, JEOL) , Positivesplash10-00lr-4910600000-1eda05dacf9642d7cea0View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0159-2900500000-03e8a824731610752eb3View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
Tissue Location
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Bladder
  • Erythrocyte
  • Eye Lens
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Liver
  • Lymphocyte
  • Muscle
  • Nerve Cells
  • Nervous Tissues
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Skin
  • Spleen
  • Stratum Corneum
  • Testes
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified21.3 (12.0 - 80.8) uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified21.0 (7.0-35.0) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified24.6 +/- 5.8 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified24.1 +/- 6.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified29.0 (18.0-43.7) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified4.64-48.76 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified13.93-32.51 uMChildren (1 - <19 years old)Both
Normal
    • CALIPER Paediatri...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified30.9 (17.6-53.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified14.6 +/- 0.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified48.6 +/- 23.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified48.3 +/- 22.5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified14.2 +/- 0.4 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified1.5685229 +/- 0.8530929 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0099 +/- 0.0041 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0097 +/- 0.0032 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.082 +/- 0.048 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified30.0 (20.6-33.9) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleCancer details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.11 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedParkinson's Disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0067 +/- 0.0039 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Oral cancer
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0062 +/- 0.0041 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Oral cancer
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Thyroid cancer
  1. Jeong NH, Song ES, Lee JM, Lee KB, Kim MK, Yun YM, Lee JK, Son SK, Lee JP, Kim JH, Hur SY, Kwon YI: Preoperative levels of plasma micronutrients are related to endometrial cancer risk. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88(4):434-9. [19235557 ]
Parkinson's disease
  1. Pappert EJ, Tangney CC, Goetz CG, Ling ZD, Lipton JW, Stebbins GT, Carvey PM: Alpha-tocopherol in the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson's disease patients: dose-response study and correlations with plasma levels. Neurology. 1996 Oct;47(4):1037-42. [8857741 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB00163
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000565
KNApSAcK IDC00007366
Chemspider ID14265
KEGG Compound IDC02477
BioCyc IDCPD-1125
BiGG ID2296507
Wikipedia LinkVitamin E
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01893
Metagene LinkHMDB01893
METLIN ID6376
PubChem Compound14985
PDB IDVIV
ChEBI ID18145
References
Synthesis ReferenceMatsui, Makoto. Synthesis of a-tocopherol for the next century. Nihon Yukagakkaishi (1996), 45(9), 821-831.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. [19212411 ]
  2. Hino K, Murakami Y, Nagai A, Kitase A, Hara Y, Furutani T, Ren F, Yamaguchi Y, Yutoku K, Yamashita S, Okuda M, Okita M, Okita K: Alpha-tocopherol [corrected] and ascorbic acid attenuates the ribavirin [corrected] induced decrease of eicosapentaenoic acid in erythrocyte membrane in chronic hepatitis C patients. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2006 Aug;21(8):1269-75. [16872308 ]
  3. Ble-Castillo JL, Carmona-Diaz E, Mendez JD, Larios-Medina FJ, Medina-Santillan R, Cleva-Villanueva G, Diaz-Zagoya JC: Effect of alpha-tocopherol on the metabolic control and oxidative stress in female type 2 diabetics. Biomed Pharmacother. 2005 Jul;59(6):290-5. [15932790 ]
  4. Jeanes YM, Hall WL, Proteggente AR, Lodge JK: Cigarette smokers have decreased lymphocyte and platelet alpha-tocopherol levels and increased excretion of the gamma-tocopherol metabolite gamma-carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman (gamma-CEHC). Free Radic Res. 2004 Aug;38(8):861-8. [15493460 ]
  5. Jeanes YM, Hall WL, Lodge JK: Comparative (2)H-labelled alpha-tocopherol biokinetics in plasma, lipoproteins, erythrocytes, platelets and lymphocytes in normolipidaemic males. Br J Nutr. 2005 Jul;94(1):92-9. [16115338 ]
  6. de Souza Junior O, Treitinger A, Baggio GL, Michelon C, Verdi JC, Cunha J, Ferreira SI, Spada C: alpha-Tocopherol as an antiretroviral therapy supplement for HIV-1-infected patients for increased lymphocyte viability. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005;43(4):376-82. [15899652 ]
  7. Palan PR, Woodall AL, Anderson PS, Mikhail MS: Alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocopheryl quinone levels in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and cervical cancer. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004 May;190(5):1407-10. [15167851 ]
  8. Traber MG, Siddens LK, Leonard SW, Schock B, Gohil K, Krueger SK, Cross CE, Williams DE: Alpha-tocopherol modulates Cyp3a expression, increases gamma-CEHC production, and limits tissue gamma-tocopherol accumulation in mice fed high gamma-tocopherol diets. Free Radic Biol Med. 2005 Mar 15;38(6):773-85. [15721988 ]
  9. Mardla V, Kobzar G, Samel N: Potentiation of antiaggregating effect of prostaglandins by alpha-tocopherol and quercetin. Platelets. 2004 Aug;15(5):319-24. [15370103 ]
  10. Pappert EJ, Tangney CC, Goetz CG, Ling ZD, Lipton JW, Stebbins GT, Carvey PM: Alpha-tocopherol in the ventricular cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson's disease patients: dose-response study and correlations with plasma levels. Neurology. 1996 Oct;47(4):1037-42. [8857741 ]
  11. Rota C, Barella L, Minihane AM, Stocklin E, Rimbach G: Dietary alpha-tocopherol affects differential gene expression in rat testes. IUBMB Life. 2004 May;56(5):277-80. [15370891 ]
  12. Ekanayake-Mudiyanselage S, Tavakkol A, Polefka TG, Nabi Z, Elsner P, Thiele JJ: Vitamin E delivery to human skin by a rinse-off product: penetration of alpha-tocopherol versus wash-out effects of skin surface lipids. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2005 Jan-Feb;18(1):20-6. [15608499 ]
  13. Liu ZQ: The "unexpected role" of vitamin E in free radical-induced hemolysis of human erythrocytes: alpha-tocopherol-mediated peroxidation. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2006;44(2):233-9. [16456225 ]
  14. Kang MJ, Lin YC, Yeh WH, Pan WH: Vitamin E status and its dietary determinants in Taiwanese--results of the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan 1993-1996. Eur J Nutr. 2004 Apr;43(2):86-92. Epub 2004 Jan 6. [15083315 ]
  15. Hozyasz K, Chelchowska M: [Vitamin E status in mothers of children with cleft lip] Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2004 Jul;17(97):25-7. [15559605 ]
  16. Rose AT, McFadden DW: Alpha-tocopherol succinate inhibits growth of gastric cancer cells in vitro. J Surg Res. 2001 Jan;95(1):19-22. [11120630 ]
  17. Murohara T, Ikeda H, Otsuka Y, Aoki M, Haramaki N, Katoh A, Takajo Y, Imaizumi T: Inhibition of platelet adherence to mononuclear cells by alpha-tocopherol: role of P-selectin. Circulation. 2004 Jul 13;110(2):141-8. Epub 2004 Jun 14. [15197142 ]
  18. Hozyasz KK, Chelchowska M, Laskowska-Klita T, Ruszkowska L, Milanowski A: [Low concentration of alpha-tocopherol in erythrocytes of atopic dermatitis patients] Med Wieku Rozwoj. 2004 Oct-Dec;8(4 Pt 1):963-9. [15951615 ]
  19. Horwitt MK, Elliott WH, Kanjananggulpan P, Fitch CD: Serum concentrations of alpha-tocopherol after ingestion of various vitamin E preparations. Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Aug;40(2):240-5. [6465056 ]
  20. Iuliano L, Micheletta F, Maranghi M, Frati G, Diczfalusy U, Violi F: Bioavailability of vitamin E as function of food intake in healthy subjects: effects on plasma peroxide-scavenging activity and cholesterol-oxidation products. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2001 Oct;21(10):E34-7. [11597949 ]
  21. Miller ER 3rd, Pastor-Barriuso R, Dalal D, Riemersma RA, Appel LJ, Guallar E: Meta-analysis: high-dosage vitamin E supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Ann Intern Med. 2005 Jan 4;142(1):37-46. Epub 2004 Nov 10. [15537682 ]
  22. Poston L, Briley AL, Seed PT, Kelly FJ, Shennan AH: Vitamin C and vitamin E in pregnant women at risk for pre-eclampsia (VIP trial): randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2006 Apr 8;367(9517):1145-54. [16616557 ]
  23. Rumbold AR, Crowther CA, Haslam RR, Dekker GA, Robinson JS: Vitamins C and E and the risks of preeclampsia and perinatal complications. N Engl J Med. 2006 Apr 27;354(17):1796-806. [16641396 ]
  24. Linus Pauling Institute [Link]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in heme oxygenase (decyclizing) activity
Specific function:
Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring at the alpha methene bridge to form biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Under physiological conditions, the activity of heme oxygenase is highest in the spleen, where senescent erythrocytes are sequestrated and destroyed.
Gene Name:
HMOX1
Uniprot ID:
P09601
Molecular weight:
32818.345
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [20153624 ]
General function:
Involved in diacylglycerol kinase activity
Specific function:
Upon cell stimulation converts the second messenger diacylglycerol into phosphatidate, initiating the resynthesis of phosphatidylinositols and attenuating protein kinase C activity
Gene Name:
DGKA
Uniprot ID:
P23743
Molecular weight:
82629.5
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in glutamate-cysteine ligase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GCLC
Uniprot ID:
P48506
Molecular weight:
68629.42
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [20153624 ]
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. May govern uptake and detoxification of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics at the testis and brain blood barriers.
Gene Name:
GSTM3
Uniprot ID:
P21266
Molecular weight:
26559.32
References
  1. Mustacich DJ, Gohil K, Bruno RS, Yan M, Leonard SW, Ho E, Cross CE, Traber MG: Alpha-tocopherol modulates genes involved in hepatic xenobiotic pathways in mice. J Nutr Biochem. 2009 Jun;20(6):469-76. Epub 2008 Sep 11. [18789671 ]
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits glutathione-dependent thiol transferase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities. Has S-(phenacyl)glutathione reductase activity. Has also glutathione S-transferase activity. Participates in the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic and reduces monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsonic acid.
Gene Name:
GSTO1
Uniprot ID:
P78417
Molecular weight:
27565.6
References
  1. Sampayo-Reyes A, Zakharyan RA: Tocopherol esters inhibit human glutathione S-transferase omega. Acta Biochim Pol. 2006;53(3):547-52. Epub 2006 Oct 1. [17019444 ]
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTA2
Uniprot ID:
P09210
Molecular weight:
25663.675
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [20153624 ]
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name:
GSTP1
Uniprot ID:
P09211
Molecular weight:
23355.625
References
  1. Ralat LA, Colman RF: Identification of tyrosine 79 in the tocopherol binding site of glutathione S-transferase pi. Biochemistry. 2006 Oct 17;45(41):12491-9. [17029404 ]
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT). The heterodimer formed with SPTLC2 or SPTLC3 constitutes the catalytic core. The composition of the serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) complex determines the substrate preference. The SPTLC1-SPTLC2-SPTSSA complex shows a strong preference for C16-CoA substrate, while the SPTLC1-SPTLC3-SPTSSA isozyme uses both C14-CoA and C16-CoA as substrates, with a slight preference for C14-CoA. The SPTLC1-SPTLC2-SPTSSB complex shows a strong preference for C18-CoA substrate, while the SPTLC1-SPTLC3-SPTSSB isozyme displays an ability to use a broader range of acyl-CoAs, without apparent preference.
Gene Name:
SPTLC1
Uniprot ID:
O15269
Molecular weight:
52743.41
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first step in leukotriene biosynthesis, and thereby plays a role in inflammatory processes.
Gene Name:
ALOX5
Uniprot ID:
P09917
Molecular weight:
77982.595
References
  1. Taccone-Gallucci M, Manca-di-Villahermosa S, Battistini L, Stuffler RG, Tedesco M, Maccarrone M: N-3 PUFAs reduce oxidative stress in ESRD patients on maintenance HD by inhibiting 5-lipoxygenase activity. Kidney Int. 2006 Apr;69(8):1450-4. [16531984 ]
General function:
Involved in protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
PKC is activated by diacylglycerol which in turn phosphorylates a range of cellular proteins. PKC also serves as the receptor for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters
Gene Name:
PRKCA
Uniprot ID:
P17252
Molecular weight:
76763.5
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Azzi A, Boscoboinik D, Clement S, Marilley D, Ozer NK, Ricciarelli R, Tasinato A: Alpha-tocopherol as a modulator of smooth muscle cell proliferation. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997 Oct;57(4-5):507-14. [9430404 ]
  4. Sylvester PW, McIntyre BS, Gapor A, Briski KP: Vitamin E inhibition of normal mammary epithelial cell growth is associated with a reduction in protein kinase C(alpha) activation. Cell Prolif. 2001 Dec;34(6):347-57. [11736999 ]
  5. Huang Y, Ishizuka T, Miura A, Kajita K, Ishizawa M, Kimura M, Yamamoto Y, Kawai Y, Morita H, Uno Y, Yasuda K: Effect of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and vitamin E on insulin-induced glucose uptake in rat adipocytes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002 Mar;55(3):175-83. [11850093 ]
General function:
Involved in protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
Calcium-activated and phospholipid-dependent serine/threonine-protein kinase involved in various processes such as regulation of the B-cell receptor (BCR) signalosome, apoptosis and transcription regulation. Plays a key role in B-cell activation and function by regulating BCR-induced NF-kappa-B activation and B-cell suvival. Required for recruitment and activation of the IKK kinase to lipid rafts and mediates phosphorylation of CARD11/CARMA1 at 'Ser-559', 'Ser-644' and 'Ser- 652', leading to activate the NF-kappa-B signaling. Involved in apoptosis following oxidative damage:in case of oxidative conditions, specifically phosphorylates 'Ser-36' of isoform p66Shc of SHC1, leading to mitochondrial accumulation of p66Shc, where p66Shc acts as a reactive oxygen species producer. Acts as a coactivator of androgen receptor (ANDR)-dependent transcription, by being recruited to ANDR target genes and specifically mediating phosphorylation of 'Thr-6' of histone H3 (H3T6ph), a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation that prevents demethylation of histone H3 'Lys-4' (H3K4me) by LSD1/KDM1A. Also involved in triglyceride homeostasis. Serves as the receptor for phorbol esters, a class of tumor promoters
Gene Name:
PRKCB
Uniprot ID:
P05771
Molecular weight:
76868.4
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Wigg SJ, Tare M, Forbes J, Cooper ME, Thomas MC, Coleman HA, Parkington HC, O'Brien RC: Early vitamin E supplementation attenuates diabetes-associated vascular dysfunction and the rise in protein kinase C-beta in mesenteric artery and ameliorates wall stiffness in femoral artery of Wistar rats. Diabetologia. 2004 Jun;47(6):1038-46. Epub 2004 Jun 8. [15184978 ]
  4. Huang Y, Ishizuka T, Miura A, Kajita K, Ishizawa M, Kimura M, Yamamoto Y, Kawai Y, Morita H, Uno Y, Yasuda K: Effect of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and vitamin E on insulin-induced glucose uptake in rat adipocytes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2002 Mar;55(3):175-83. [11850093 ]
  5. Ganz MB, Seftel A: Glucose-induced changes in protein kinase C and nitric oxide are prevented by vitamin E. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2000 Jan;278(1):E146-52. [10644549 ]
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
The enzyme apparently serves as a quinone reductase in connection with conjugation reactions of hydroquinons involved in detoxification pathways as well as in biosynthetic processes such as the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation of glutamate residues in prothrombin synthesis.
Gene Name:
NQO1
Uniprot ID:
P15559
Molecular weight:
30867.405
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [20153624 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Binds alpha-tocopherol and enhances its transfer between separate membranes
Gene Name:
TTPA
Uniprot ID:
P49638
Molecular weight:
31749.3
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear receptor that binds and is activated by variety of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. Transcription factor that activates the transcription of multiple genes involved in the metabolism and secretion of potentially harmful xenobiotics, drugs and endogenous compounds. Activated by the antibiotic rifampicin and various plant metabolites, such as hyperforin, guggulipid, colupulone, and isoflavones. Response to specific ligands is species-specific. Activated by naturally occurring steroids, such as pregnenolone and progesterone. Binds to a response element in the promoters of the CYP3A4 and ABCB1/MDR1 genes
Gene Name:
NR1I2
Uniprot ID:
O75469
Molecular weight:
49761.2
References
  1. Rabovsky A, Cuomo J, Eich N: Measurement of plasma antioxidant reserve after supplementation with various antioxidants in healthy subjects. Clin Chim Acta. 2006 Sep;371(1-2):55-60. Epub 2006 Mar 6. [16603143 ]
  2. Meijerman I, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH: Herb-drug interactions in oncology: focus on mechanisms of induction. Oncologist. 2006 Jul-Aug;11(7):742-52. [16880233 ]
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Destroys radicals which are normally produced within the cells and which are toxic to biological systems.
Gene Name:
SOD1
Uniprot ID:
P00441
Molecular weight:
15935.685
References
  1. Feng Z, Liu Z, Li X, Jia H, Sun L, Tian C, Jia L, Liu J: alpha-Tocopherol is an effective Phase II enzyme inducer: protective effects on acrolein-induced oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2010 Dec;21(12):1222-31. Epub 2010 Feb 12. [20153624 ]
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
PP2A is the major phosphatase for microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs). PP2A can modulate the activity of phosphorylase B kinase casein kinase 2, mitogen-stimulated S6 kinase, and MAP-2 kinase. Cooperates with SGOL2 to protect centromeric cohesin from separase-mediated cleavage in oocytes specifically during meiosis I (By similarity). Can dephosphorylate SV40 large T antigen and p53/TP53. Activates RAF1 by dephosphorylating it at 'Ser-259'.
Gene Name:
PPP2CA
Uniprot ID:
P67775
Molecular weight:
35593.93
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
PP2A can modulate the activity of phosphorylase B kinase casein kinase 2, mitogen-stimulated S6 kinase, and MAP-2 kinase.
Gene Name:
PPP2CB
Uniprot ID:
P62714
Molecular weight:
35574.85
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Probable hydrophobic ligand-binding protein; may play a role in the transport of hydrophobic ligands like tocopherol, squalene and phospholipids
Gene Name:
SEC14L3
Uniprot ID:
Q9UDX4
Molecular weight:
46047.8
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]
  3. Ye X, Ji C, Yin G, Tang R, Zeng L, Gu S, Ying K, Xie Y, Zhao RC, Mao Y: Characterization of a human Sec14-like protein cDNA SEC14L3 highly homologous to human SPF/TAP. Mol Biol Rep. 2004 Mar;31(1):59-63. [15040456 ]
General function:
Involved in transporter activity
Specific function:
Probable hydrophobic ligand-binding protein; may play a role in the transport of hydrophobic ligands like tocopherol, squalene and phospholipids
Gene Name:
SEC14L4
Uniprot ID:
Q9UDX3
Molecular weight:
46643.4
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [17016423 ]