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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-18 08:53:59 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:05:07 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01934
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01001
  • HMDB05069
  • HMDB13119
  • HMDB13120
  • HMDB13135
  • HMDB13323
  • HMDB13644
  • HMDB13661
  • HMDB13666
  • HMDB13673
  • HMDB13697
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL(-)-Nicotine pestanal
DescriptionNicotine is an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants (Solanaceae), predominantly in tobacco, and in lower quantities in tomato, potato, eggplant (aubergine), and green pepper. Nicotine alkaloids are also found in the leaves of the coca plant. Nicotine constitutes 0.3 to 5% of the tobacco plant by dry weight, with biosynthesis taking place in the roots, and accumulates in the leaves. It is a potent neurotoxin with particular specificity to insects; therefore nicotine was widely used as an insecticide in the past, and currently nicotine derivatives such as imidacloprid continue to be widely used. It has been noted that the majority of people diagnosed with schizophrenia smoke tobacco. Estimates for the number of schizophrenics that smoke range from 75% to 90%. It was recently argued that the increased level of smoking in schizophrenia may be due to a desire to self-medicate with nicotine. More recent research has found the reverse, that it is a risk factor without long-term benefit, used only for its short term effects. However, research on nicotine as administered through a patch or gum is ongoing; Pharmacokinetics: As nicotine enters the body, it is distributed quickly through the bloodstream and can cross the blood-brain barrier. On average it takes about seven seconds for the substance to reach the brain. The half life of nicotine in the body is around 2 hours. The amount of nicotine inhaled with tobacco smoke is a fraction of the amount contained in the tobacco leaves (most of the substance is destroyed by the heat). The amount of nicotine absorbed by the body from smoking depends on many factors, including the type of tobacco, whether the smoke is inhaled, and whether a filter is used. For chewing tobacco, often called dip, snuff, or sinus, which is held in the mouth between the lip and gum, the amount released into the body tends to be much greater than smoked tobacco; The currently available literature indicates that nicotine, on its own, does not promote the development of cancer in healthy tissue and has no mutagenic properties. Its teratogenic properties have not yet been adequately researched, and while the likelihood of birth defects caused by nicotine is believed to be very small or nonexistent, nicotine replacement product manufacturers recommend consultation with a physician before using a nicotine patch or nicotine gum while pregnant or nursing. However, nicotine and the increased acetylcholinic activity it causes have been shown to impede apoptosis, which is one of the methods by which the body destroys unwanted cells (programmed cell death). Since apoptosis helps to remove mutated or damaged cells that may eventually become cancerous, the inhibitory actions of nicotine creates a more favorable environment for cancer to develop. Thus nicotine plays an indirect role in carcinogenesis. It is also important to note that its addictive properties are often the primary motivating factor for tobacco smoking, contributing to the proliferation of cancer; Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke; Nicotine is a hygroscopic, oily liquid that is miscible with water in its base form. As a nitrogenous base, nicotine forms salts with acids that are usually solid and water soluble. Nicotine easily penetrates the skin. As shown by the physical data, free base nicotine will burn at a temperature below its boiling point, and its vapors will combust at 95 degree centigrade in air despite a low vapor pressure. Because of this, most nicotine is burned when a cigarette is smoked; however, enough is inhaled to provide the desired effects; Nicotine acts on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In small concentrations it increases the activity of these receptors, among other things leading to an increased flow of adrenaline, a stimulating hormone[citation needed]. The release of adrenaline causes an increase in heart rate, blood pressure and respiration, as well as higher glucose levels in the blood[citation needed]. Cotinine is a byproduct of the metabolism of nicotine which remains in the blood for up to 48 hours and can be used as an indicator of a person's exposure to smoke. In high doses, nicotine will cause a blocking of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which is the reason for its toxicity and its effectiveness as an insecticide[citation needed]; In lower concentrations, the substance acts as a stimulant in mammals and is one of the main factors responsible for the dependence-forming and energy boost properties of tobacco smoking.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
(-)-NicotineChEBI
(S)-(-)-NicotineChEBI
(S)-3-(1-Methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)pyridineChEBI
(S)-3-(N-Methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)pyridineChEBI
3-(2-(N-Methylpyrrolidinyl))pyridineChEBI
3-(N-methylpyrollidino)PyridineChEBI
L(-)-NicotineChEBI
NicotineChEBI
(+)-NicotineHMDB
(-)-3-(1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidyl)pyridineHMDB
(-)-3-(N-methylpyrrolidino)PyridineHMDB
(R)-3-(1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)pyridineHMDB
(R,S)-NicotineHMDB
1-Methyl-2-(3-pyridal)-pyrrolideneHMDB
1-Methyl-2-(3-pyridal)-pyrrolidineHMDB
1-Methyl-2-(3-pyridiyl)pyrrolidineHMDB
1-Methyl-2-(3-pyridyl)pyrrolidineHMDB
2'-beta-H-NicotineHMDB
3-(1-Methyl-2-pyrollidinyl)pyridineHMDB
3-(1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)-pyridineHMDB
3-(1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)pyridineHMDB
3-(1-Methylpyrrolidin-2-yl)pyridineHMDB
3-(N-methylpyrrolidino)PyridineHMDB
3-N-MethylpyrrolidineHMDB
a -N-MethylpyrrolidineHMDB
a-N-MethylpyrrolidineHMDB
alpha-N-MethylpyrrolidineHMDB
beta-Pyridyl-alpha-N-methylpyrrolidineHMDB
D-NicotineHMDB
delta-NicotineHMDB
DestruxolHMDB
DL-TetrahydronicotyrineHMDB
fumeto BacHMDB
HabitrolHMDB
L-3-(1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidyl)pyridineHMDB
L-NicotineHMDB
Methyl-2-pyrrolidinyl)pyridineHMDB
NicodermHMDB
Nicotine polacrilexHMDB
R)-(+)-NicotineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC10H14N2
Average Molecular Weight162.2316
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight162.115698458
IUPAC Name3-[(2S)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-yl]pyridine
Traditional Namenicoderm CQ
CAS Registry Number54-11-5
SMILES
CN1CCC[C@H]1C1=CN=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H14N2/c1-12-7-3-5-10(12)9-4-2-6-11-8-9/h2,4,6,8,10H,3,5,7H2,1H3/t10-/m0/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=SNICXCGAKADSCV-JTQLQIEISA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkaloids and derivatives. These are naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and more rarely other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassNot Available
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAlkaloids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Nicotine
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Pyrrolidinylpyridine
  • Aralkylamine
  • N-alkylpyrrolidine
  • Pyridine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
  • Drug metabolite
Biofunction
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-79 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000 mg/mLNot Available
LogP1.17HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility93.3 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.87ALOGPS
logP1.16ChemAxon
logS-0.24ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)8.86ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area16.13 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity49.66 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability18.59 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MSsplash10-001i-9500000000-f2d4835c504301f9410eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00di-0900000000-3e7377f36ca2547f4885View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001i-2900000000-a505fff3a4028a6f0d52View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-00lr-7900000000-b91a12a16d7688e8679dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-01q9-7900000000-10d401d7ffa1c2cdbd9fView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0900000000-440798524836a27b78b4View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-01q9-0900000000-926940dd7f4851dbd73bView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-00lr-0900000000-6bccc06d40ab273cf972View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0159-2900000000-f7512c405bb662e040a6View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-014i-7900000000-f1781566be5aee88f6efView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-001i-0900000000-09e9b29571abf3a52e44View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-001i-9400000000-47a036aa305825218fa2View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,1H] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Brain
  • Hair
  • Kidney
  • Liver
  • Skin
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Nicotine PathwaySMP00431Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified1.35 +/- 0.3 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.14 +/- 0.04 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.0364 +/- 0.0271 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2.80 +/- 4.52 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.26 +/- 0.23 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothSmoking details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.23 (0.18-0.30) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothActive tobacco user details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.2 (0.41-2.03) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothActive tobacco user details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Smoking
  1. Zuccaro P, Altieri I, Rosa M, Passa AR, Pichini S, Ricciarello G, Pacifici R: Determination of nicotine and four metabolites in the serum of smokers by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. J Chromatogr. 1993 Nov 24;621(2):257-61. [8294547 ]
  2. Moyer TP, Charlson JR, Enger RJ, Dale LC, Ebbert JO, Schroeder DR, Hurt RD: Simultaneous analysis of nicotine, nicotine metabolites, and tobacco alkaloids in serum or urine by tandem mass spectrometry, with clinically relevant metabolic profiles. Clin Chem. 2002 Sep;48(9):1460-71. [12194923 ]
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00184
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00539
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB003968
KNApSAcK IDC00002057
Chemspider ID80863
KEGG Compound IDC00745
BioCyc IDNICOTINE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkHabitrol
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01934
Metagene LinkHMDB01934
METLIN ID1526
PubChem Compound89594
PDB IDNCT
ChEBI ID17688
References
Synthesis ReferenceBreuer E; Melumad D A one-step synthesis of nicotine from cyclopropyl 3-pyridyl ketone. Tetrahedron letters (1969), 41 3595-6.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Hayslett RL, Tizabi Y: Effects of donepezil, nicotine and haloperidol on the central serotonergic system in mice: implications for Tourette's syndrome. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005 Aug;81(4):879-86. [16045972 ]
  2. Henningfield JE, Radzius A, Cooper TM, Clayton RR: Drinking coffee and carbonated beverages blocks absorption of nicotine from nicotine polacrilex gum. JAMA. 1990 Sep 26;264(12):1560-4. [2395197 ]
  3. Hrnciar J, Katreniakova M, Lepej J, Okapcova J: [The effects of nicotine on leptin levels in patients with android obesity] Vnitr Lek. 1997 Sep;43(9):562-5. [9750463 ]
  4. LeSage MG, Keyler DE, Pentel PR: Current status of immunologic approaches to treating tobacco dependence: vaccines and nicotine-specific antibodies. AAPS J. 2006 Feb 24;8(1):E65-75. [16584135 ]
  5. Terry AV Jr, Hernandez CM, Hohnadel EJ, Bouchard KP, Buccafusco JJ: Cotinine, a neuroactive metabolite of nicotine: potential for treating disorders of impaired cognition. CNS Drug Rev. 2005 Autumn;11(3):229-52. [16389292 ]
  6. Marchei E, Durgbanshi A, Rossi S, Garcia-Algar O, Zuccaro P, Pichini S: Determination of arecoline (areca nut alkaloid) and nicotine in hair by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray quadrupole mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2005;19(22):3416-8. [16259042 ]
  7. Maurer P, Jennings GT, Willers J, Rohner F, Lindman Y, Roubicek K, Renner WA, Muller P, Bachmann MF: A therapeutic vaccine for nicotine dependence: preclinical efficacy, and Phase I safety and immunogenicity. Eur J Immunol. 2005 Jul;35(7):2031-40. [15971275 ]
  8. Warner DO, Joyner MJ, Charkoudian N: Nicotine increases initial blood flow responses to local heating of human non-glabrous skin. J Physiol. 2004 Sep 15;559(Pt 3):975-84. Epub 2004 Jul 22. [15272048 ]
  9. Guthrie SK, Ni L, Zubieta JK, Teter CJ, Domino EF: Changes in craving for a cigarette and arterial nicotine plasma concentrations in abstinent smokers. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Jul;28(4):617-23. [15276686 ]
  10. Cerny T: Anti-nicotine vaccination: where are we? Recent Results Cancer Res. 2005;166:167-75. [15648190 ]
  11. Nakazawa A, Shigeta M, Ozasa K: Smoking cigarettes of low nicotine yield does not reduce nicotine intake as expected: a study of nicotine dependency in Japanese males. BMC Public Health. 2004 Jul 20;4:28. [15265231 ]
  12. Groner JA, Hoshaw-Woodard S, Koren G, Klein J, Castile R: Screening for children's exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in a pediatric primary care setting. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005 May;159(5):450-5. [15867119 ]
  13. Stepans MB, Wilhelm SL, Dolence K: Smoking hygiene: reducing infant exposure to tobacco. Biol Res Nurs. 2006 Oct;8(2):104-14. [17003250 ]
  14. Moriya F, Hashimoto Y: Nicotine and cotinine levels in blood and urine from forensic autopsy cases. Leg Med (Tokyo). 2004 Jul;6(3):164-9. [15231285 ]
  15. Chetiyanukornkul T, Toriba A, Kizu R, Kimura K, Hayakawa K: Hair analysis of nicotine and cotinine for evaluating tobacco smoke exposure by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Biomed Chromatogr. 2004 Nov;18(9):655-61. [15386502 ]
  16. Klein J, Blanchette P, Koren G: Assessing nicotine metabolism in pregnancy--a novel approach using hair analysis. Forensic Sci Int. 2004 Oct 29;145(2-3):191-4. [15451092 ]
  17. Ingram JR, Routledge P, Rhodes J, Marshall RW, Buss DC, Evans BK, Feyerabend C, Thomas GA: Nicotine enemas for treatment of ulcerative colitis: a study of the pharmacokinetics and adverse events associated with three doses of nicotine. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Oct 15;20(8):859-65. [15479357 ]
  18. Fallon JH, Keator DB, Mbogori J, Taylor D, Potkin SG: Gender: a major determinant of brain response to nicotine. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2005 Mar;8(1):17-26. Epub 2004 Dec 6. [15579215 ]
  19. Metz-Favre C, Donnay C, de Blay F: [Markers of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure] Rev Mal Respir. 2005 Feb;22(1 Pt 1):81-92. [15968761 ]
  20. Fontaine B: [Smoking and breastfeeding: how can we help mothers stop smoking?] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris). 2005 Apr;34 Spec No 1:3S209-12. [15980790 ]
  21. Dempsey D, Tutka P, Jacob P 3rd, Allen F, Schoedel K, Tyndale RF, Benowitz NL: Nicotine metabolite ratio as an index of cytochrome P450 2A6 metabolic activity. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Jul;76(1):64-72. [15229465 ]
  22. Miksys S, Tyndale RF: Nicotine induces brain CYP enzymes: relevance to Parkinson's disease. J Neural Transm Suppl. 2006;(70):177-80. [17017527 ]
  23. Katsura M, Ohkuma S: Functional proteins involved in regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) for drug development: chronic nicotine treatment upregulates L-type high voltage-gated calcium channels. J Pharmacol Sci. 2005 Mar;97(3):344-7. Epub 2005 Mar 12. [15764844 ]
  24. Ziegler UE, Kauczok J, Dietz UA, Reith HB, Schmidt K: Clinical correlation between the consumption of nicotine and cotinine concentrations in urine and serum by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pharmacology. 2004 Dec;72(4):254-9. [15539886 ]
  25. Tanaka H, Tanabe N, Shoji M, Suzuki N, Katono T, Sato S, Motohashi M, Maeno M: Nicotine and lipopolysaccharide stimulate the formation of osteoclast-like cells by increasing macrophage colony-stimulating factor and prostaglandin E2 production by osteoblasts. Life Sci. 2006 Mar 6;78(15):1733-40. Epub 2005 Nov 2. [16266722 ]
  26. Gutala R, Wang J, Hwang YY, Haq R, Li MD: Nicotine modulates expression of amyloid precursor protein and amyloid precursor-like protein 2 in mouse brain and in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Brain Res. 2006 Jun 6;1093(1):12-9. Epub 2006 May 16. [16707114 ]
  27. Tanabe J, Tregellas JR, Martin LF, Freedman R: Effects of nicotine on hippocampal and cingulate activity during smooth pursuit eye movement in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2006 Apr 15;59(8):754-61. Epub 2005 Nov 2. [16259965 ]
  28. de Leon J, Dadvand M, Canuso C, White AO, Stanilla JK, Simpson GM: Schizophrenia and smoking: an epidemiological survey in a state hospital. Am J Psychiatry. 1995 Mar;152(3):453-5. [7864277 ]
  29. de Leon J, Tracy J, McCann E, McGrory A, Diaz FJ: Schizophrenia and tobacco smoking: a replication study in another US psychiatric hospital. Schizophr Res. 2002 Jul 1;56(1-2):55-65. [12084420 ]
  30. Aguilar MC, Gurpegui M, Diaz FJ, de Leon J: Nicotine dependence and symptoms in schizophrenia: naturalistic study of complex interactions. Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Mar;186:215-21. [15738502 ]
  31. Nolley EP, Kelley BM: Adolescent reward system perseveration due to nicotine: studies with methylphenidate. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2007 Jan-Feb;29(1):47-56. Epub 2006 Oct 4. [17129706 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOB preferentially degrades benzylamine and phenylethylamine.
Gene Name:
MAOB
Uniprot ID:
P27338
Molecular weight:
58762.475
References
  1. Lewis AJ, Truman P, Hosking MR, Miller JH: Monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity in tobacco smoke varies with tobacco type. Tob Control. 2012 Jan;21(1):39-43. Epub 2011 Jun 2. [21636610 ]
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular weight:
59681.27
References
  1. Lewis AJ, Truman P, Hosking MR, Miller JH: Monoamine oxidase inhibitory activity in tobacco smoke varies with tobacco type. Tob Control. 2012 Jan;21(1):39-43. Epub 2011 Jun 2. [21636610 ]
  2. Leroy C, Bragulat V, Berlin I, Gregoire MC, Bottlaender M, Roumenov D, Dolle F, Bourgeois S, Penttila J, Artiges E, Martinot JL, Trichard C: Cerebral monoamine oxidase A inhibition in tobacco smokers confirmed with PET and [11C]befloxatone. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2009 Feb;29(1):86-8. [19142115 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Metabolizes several precarcinogens, drugs, and solvents to reactive metabolites. Inactivates a number of drugs and xenobiotics and also bioactivates many xenobiotic substrates to their hepatotoxic or carcinogenic forms.
Gene Name:
CYP2E1
Uniprot ID:
P05181
Molecular weight:
56848.42
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular weight:
56277.81
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP1A1
Uniprot ID:
P04798
Molecular weight:
58164.815
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Active in the metabolic activation of hexamethylphosphoramide, N,N-dimethylaniline, 2'-methoxyacetophenone, N-nitrosomethylphenylamine, and the tobacco-specific carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone. Possesses phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A13
Uniprot ID:
Q16696
Molecular weight:
56687.095
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. In the epoxidation of arachidonic acid it generates only 14,15- and 11,12-cis-epoxyeicosatrienoic acids. It is the principal enzyme responsible for the metabolism the anti-cancer drug paclitaxel (taxol).
Gene Name:
CYP2C8
Uniprot ID:
P10632
Molecular weight:
55824.275
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits a high coumarin 7-hydroxylase activity. Can act in the hydroxylation of the anti-cancer drugs cyclophosphamide and ifosphamide. Competent in the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1. Constitutes the major nicotine C-oxidase. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. Possesses low phenacetin O-deethylation activity.
Gene Name:
CYP2A6
Uniprot ID:
P11509
Molecular weight:
56517.005
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma
Gene Name:
CHRNA10
Uniprot ID:
Q9GZZ6
Molecular weight:
49704.3
References
  1. Mansvelder HD, Mertz M, Role LW: Nicotinic modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity in cortico-limbic circuits. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009 Jun;20(4):432-40. Epub 2009 Jan 22. [19560048 ]
  2. Narahashi T, Fenster CP, Quick MW, Lester RA, Marszalec W, Aistrup GL, Sattelle DB, Martin BR, Levin ED: Symposium overview: mechanism of action of nicotine on neuronal acetylcholine receptors, from molecule to behavior. Toxicol Sci. 2000 Oct;57(2):193-202. [11006350 ]
  3. Jackson KJ, Marks MJ, Vann RE, Chen X, Gamage TF, Warner JA, Damaj MI: Role of alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in pharmacological and behavioral effects of nicotine in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Jul;334(1):137-46. Epub 2010 Apr 16. [20400469 ]
  4. Zaniewska M, Przegalinski E, Filip M: Nicotine dependence - human and animal studies, current pharmacotherapies and future perspectives. Pharmacol Rep. 2009 Nov-Dec;61(6):957-65. [20081230 ]
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific function:
Ionotropic receptor with a probable role in the modulation of auditory stimuli. Agonist binding may induce an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane. The channel is permeable to a range of divalent cations including calcium, the influx of which may activate a potassium current which hyperpolarizes the cell membrane. In the ear, this may lead to a reduction in basilar membrane motion, altering the activity of auditory nerve fibers and reducing the range of dynamic hearing. This may protect against acoustic trauma. May also regulate keratinocyte adhesion
Gene Name:
CHRNA9
Uniprot ID:
Q9UGM1
Molecular weight:
54806.6
References
  1. Mansvelder HD, Mertz M, Role LW: Nicotinic modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity in cortico-limbic circuits. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009 Jun;20(4):432-40. Epub 2009 Jan 22. [19560048 ]
  2. Narahashi T, Fenster CP, Quick MW, Lester RA, Marszalec W, Aistrup GL, Sattelle DB, Martin BR, Levin ED: Symposium overview: mechanism of action of nicotine on neuronal acetylcholine receptors, from molecule to behavior. Toxicol Sci. 2000 Oct;57(2):193-202. [11006350 ]
  3. Jackson KJ, Marks MJ, Vann RE, Chen X, Gamage TF, Warner JA, Damaj MI: Role of alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in pharmacological and behavioral effects of nicotine in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Jul;334(1):137-46. Epub 2010 Apr 16. [20400469 ]
  4. Zaniewska M, Przegalinski E, Filip M: Nicotine dependence - human and animal studies, current pharmacotherapies and future perspectives. Pharmacol Rep. 2009 Nov-Dec;61(6):957-65. [20081230 ]
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane
Gene Name:
CHRNA2
Uniprot ID:
Q15822
Molecular weight:
59764.8
References
  1. Mansvelder HD, Mertz M, Role LW: Nicotinic modulation of synaptic transmission and plasticity in cortico-limbic circuits. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2009 Jun;20(4):432-40. Epub 2009 Jan 22. [19560048 ]
  2. Narahashi T, Fenster CP, Quick MW, Lester RA, Marszalec W, Aistrup GL, Sattelle DB, Martin BR, Levin ED: Symposium overview: mechanism of action of nicotine on neuronal acetylcholine receptors, from molecule to behavior. Toxicol Sci. 2000 Oct;57(2):193-202. [11006350 ]
  3. Jackson KJ, Marks MJ, Vann RE, Chen X, Gamage TF, Warner JA, Damaj MI: Role of alpha5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in pharmacological and behavioral effects of nicotine in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Jul;334(1):137-46. Epub 2010 Apr 16. [20400469 ]
  4. Zaniewska M, Przegalinski E, Filip M: Nicotine dependence - human and animal studies, current pharmacotherapies and future perspectives. Pharmacol Rep. 2009 Nov-Dec;61(6):957-65. [20081230 ]
  5. Sullivan PF, Neale BM, van den Oord E, Miles MF, Neale MC, Bulik CM, Joyce PR, Straub RE, Kendler KS: Candidate genes for nicotine dependence via linkage, epistasis, and bioinformatics. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2004 Apr 1;126B(1):23-36. [15048644 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, high affinity carnitine transporter. Involved in the active cellular uptake of carnitine. Transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Also relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 11.3
Gene Name:
SLC22A5
Uniprot ID:
O76082
Molecular weight:
62751.1
References
  1. Wu X, Prasad PD, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: cDNA sequence, transport function, and genomic organization of human OCTN2, a new member of the organic cation transporter family. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998 May 29;246(3):589-95. [9618255 ]
  2. Ohashi R, Tamai I, Yabuuchi H, Nezu JI, Oku A, Sai Y, Shimane M, Tsuji A: Na(+)-dependent carnitine transport by organic cation transporter (OCTN2): its pharmacological and toxicological relevance. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Nov;291(2):778-84. [10525100 ]
  3. Wu X, Huang W, Prasad PD, Seth P, Rajan DP, Leibach FH, Chen J, Conway SJ, Ganapathy V: Functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), an organic cation/carnitine transporter. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 Sep;290(3):1482-92. [10454528 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Sodium-ion dependent, low affinity carnitine transporter. Probably transports one sodium ion with one molecule of carnitine. Also transports organic cations such as tetraethylammonium (TEA) without the involvement of sodium. Relative uptake activity ratio of carnitine to TEA is 1.78. A key substrate of this transporter seems to be ergothioneine (ET)
Gene Name:
SLC22A4
Uniprot ID:
Q9H015
Molecular weight:
62154.5
References
  1. Yabuuchi H, Tamai I, Nezu J, Sakamoto K, Oku A, Shimane M, Sai Y, Tsuji A: Novel membrane transporter OCTN1 mediates multispecific, bidirectional, and pH-dependent transport of organic cations. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999 May;289(2):768-73. [10215651 ]
  2. Wu X, George RL, Huang W, Wang H, Conway SJ, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Structural and functional characteristics and tissue distribution pattern of rat OCTN1, an organic cation transporter, cloned from placenta. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Jun 1;1466(1-2):315-27. [10825452 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Translocates a broad array of organic cations with various structures and molecular weights including the model compounds 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), tetraethylammonium (TEA), N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), 4-(4-(dimethylamino)styryl)- N-methylpyridinium (ASP), the endogenous compounds choline, guanidine, histamine, epinephrine, adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine, and the drugs quinine, and metformin. The transport of organic cations is inhibited by a broad array of compounds like tetramethylammonium (TMA), cocaine, lidocaine, NMDA receptor antagonists, atropine, prazosin, cimetidine, TEA and NMN, guanidine, cimetidine, choline, procainamide, quinine, tetrabutylammonium, and tetrapentylammonium. Translocates organic cations in an electrogenic and pH-independent manner. Translocates organic cations across the plasma membrane in both directions. Transports the polyamines spermine and spermidine. Transports pramipexole across the basolateral membrane of the proximal tubular epithelial cells. The choline transport is activated by MMTS. Regulated by various intracellular signaling pathways including inhibition by protein kinase A activation, and endogenously activation by the calmodulin complex, the calmodulin- dependent kinase II and LCK tyrosine kinase
Gene Name:
SLC22A1
Uniprot ID:
O15245
Molecular weight:
61187.4
References
  1. Bednarczyk D, Ekins S, Wikel JH, Wright SH: Influence of molecular structure on substrate binding to the human organic cation transporter, hOCT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Mar;63(3):489-98. [12606755 ]
  2. Zhang L, Schaner ME, Giacomini KM: Functional characterization of an organic cation transporter (hOCT1) in a transiently transfected human cell line (HeLa). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jul;286(1):354-61. [9655880 ]
  3. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Saito H, Inui KI: Functional characteristics and membrane localization of rat multispecific organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, mediating tubular secretion of cationic drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Nov;287(2):800-5. [9808712 ]
General function:
Involved in ion transmembrane transporter activity
Specific function:
Mediates tubular uptake of organic compounds from circulation. Mediates the influx of agmatine, dopamine, noradrenaline (norepinephrine), serotonin, choline, famotidine, ranitidine, histamin, creatinine, amantadine, memantine, acriflavine, 4-[4-(dimethylamino)-styryl]-N-methylpyridinium ASP, amiloride, metformin, N-1-methylnicotinamide (NMN), tetraethylammonium (TEA), 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP), cimetidine, cisplatin and oxaliplatin. Cisplatin may develop a nephrotoxic action. Transport of creatinine is inhibited by fluoroquinolones such as DX-619 and LVFX. This transporter is a major determinant of the anticancer activity of oxaliplatin and may contribute to antitumor specificity
Gene Name:
SLC22A2
Uniprot ID:
O15244
Molecular weight:
62564.0
References
  1. Urakami Y, Akazawa M, Saito H, Okuda M, Inui K: cDNA cloning, functional characterization, and tissue distribution of an alternatively spliced variant of organic cation transporter hOCT2 predominantly expressed in the human kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2002 Jul;13(7):1703-10. [12089365 ]
  2. Urakami Y, Okuda M, Masuda S, Saito H, Inui KI: Functional characteristics and membrane localization of rat multispecific organic cation transporters, OCT1 and OCT2, mediating tubular secretion of cationic drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Nov;287(2):800-5. [9808712 ]
  3. Okuda M, Urakami Y, Saito H, Inui K: Molecular mechanisms of organic cation transport in OCT2-expressing Xenopus oocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999 Mar 4;1417(2):224-31. [10082798 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Mediates potential-dependent transport of a variety of organic cations. May play a significant role in the disposition of cationic neurotoxins and neurotransmitters in the brain
Gene Name:
SLC22A3
Uniprot ID:
O75751
Molecular weight:
61279.5
References
  1. Kekuda R, Prasad PD, Wu X, Wang H, Fei YJ, Leibach FH, Ganapathy V: Cloning and functional characterization of a potential-sensitive, polyspecific organic cation transporter (OCT3) most abundantly expressed in placenta. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jun 26;273(26):15971-9. [9632645 ]