You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:30 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:05:11 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01982
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common Name3,7-Dimethyluric acid
Description3,7-Dimethyluric acid is a methyl derivative of uric acid, found occasionally in human urine. 3,7-Dimethyluric is one of the purine components in urinary calculi. Methylated purines originate from the metabolism of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline and theobromine). Methyluric acids are indistinguishable from uric acid by simple methods routinely used in clinical laboratories, requiring the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Purine derivatives in urinary calculi could be considered markers of abnormal purine metabolism. The content of a purine derivative in stone depends on its average urinary excretion in the general population, similarity to the chemical structure of uric acid, and content of the latter in stone. This suggests that purines in stones represent a solid solution with uric acid as solvent. It is also plausible that methylxanthines, ubiquitous components of the diet and drugs, are involved in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis. Caffeine is metabolized via successive pathways mainly catalyzed by CYP1A2, xanthine oxidase or N-acetyltransferase-2 to give 14 different metabolites. CYP1A2 activity shows an inter-individual variability among the population. CYP1A2, an isoform of the CYP1A cytochrome P450 super-family, is involved in the metabolism of many drugs and plays a potentially important role in the induction of chemical carcinogenesis. (PMID: 11712316 , 15833286 , 3506820 , 15013152 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
37-Dimethyluric acidChEMBL
37-DimethylateGenerator
37-Dimethylic acidGenerator
3,7-DimethylateGenerator
3,7-Dimethylic acidGenerator
3,7-Dimethyl-2,6,8-trihydroxypurineHMDB
3,7-Dimethyl-7,9-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6,8(3H)-trioneHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H8N4O3
Average Molecular Weight196.1634
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight196.059640142
IUPAC Name3,7-dimethyl-2,3,6,7,8,9-hexahydro-1H-purine-2,6,8-trione
Traditional Name3,7-dimethyluric acid
CAS Registry Number13087-49-5
SMILES
CN1C(=O)NC2=C1C(=O)NC(=O)N2C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H8N4O3/c1-10-3-4(8-6(10)13)11(2)7(14)9-5(3)12/h1-2H3,(H,8,13)(H,9,12,14)
InChI KeyInChIKey=HMLZLHKHNBLLJD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkaloids and derivatives. These are naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and more rarely other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassNot Available
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAlkaloids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Xanthine
  • Purinone
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Urea
  • Lactam
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP-1.33GASPARI,F & BONATI,M (1987)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility9.62 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.61ALOGPS
logP-1.1ChemAxon
logS-1.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.13ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area81.75 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity55.42 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17.69 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0002-0900000000-5554059238ba6f5a4aa7View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-001l-9800000000-bcef3be559d5d3540d62View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014l-9000000000-7d225864dafe7484ef17View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Caffeine MetabolismSMP00028map00232
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableNormal
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00544
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022780
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID74994
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01982
Metagene LinkHMDB01982
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound83126
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID149724
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Morris GS, Simmonds HA, Davies PM: Use of biological fluids for the rapid diagnosis of potentially lethal inherited disorders of human purine and pyrimidine metabolism. Biomed Chromatogr. 1986 Jun;1(3):109-18. [3506820 ]
  2. Safranow K, Machoy Z: Simultaneous determination of 16 purine derivatives in urinary calculi by gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005 May 25;819(2):229-35. [15833286 ]
  3. Safranow K: [Identification and quantitation of purine derivatives in urinary calculi as markers of abnormal purine metabolism by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)]. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2000;46:35-49. [11712316 ]
  4. Caubet MS, Comte B, Brazier JL: Determination of urinary 13C-caffeine metabolites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: the use of metabolic ratios to assess CYP1A2 activity. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2004 Feb 4;34(2):379-89. [15013152 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular weight:
146422.99
Reactions
Theobromine + Water + Oxygen → 3,7-Dimethyluric acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails