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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:30 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:05:12 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB01991
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common Name7-Methylxanthine
Description7-Methylxanthine is a methyl derivative of xanthine, found occasionally in human urine. 7-Methylxanthine is one of the purine components in urinary calculi. Methylated purines originate from the metabolism of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline and theobromine). Caffeine is metabolized via successive pathways mainly catalyzed by CYP1A2, xanthine oxidase or N-acetyltransferase-2 to give 14 different metabolites, including 7-methylxanthine. CYP1A2 activity shows an inter-individual variability among the population. CYP1A2, an isoform of the CYP1A cytochrome P450 super-family, is involved in the metabolism of many drugs and plays a potentially important role in the induction of chemical carcinogenesis. Purine derivatives in urinary calculi could be considered markers of abnormal purine metabolism. The content of a purine derivative in stone depends on its average urinary excretion in the general population, similarity to the chemical structure of uric acid, and content of the latter in stone. This suggests that purines in stones represent a solid solution with uric acid as solvent. It is also plausible that methylxanthines, ubiquitous components of the diet and drugs, are involved in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis. (PMID: 11712316 , 15833286 , 3506820 , 15013152 ).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3,7-dihydro-7-Methyl-1H-purine-2,6-dioneChEBI
7-MethylxanthinChEBI
HeteroxanthinChEBI
HeteroxanthineChEBI
2,6-Dihydroxy-7-methylpurineHMDB
7-Methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dioneHMDB
7-Methyl-7H-purine-2,6-diolHMDB
MethylxanthineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H6N4O2
Average Molecular Weight166.1374
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight166.049075456
IUPAC Name7-methyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
Traditional Name7-methylxanthine
CAS Registry Number552-62-5
SMILES
CN1C=NC2=C1C(=O)NC(=O)N2
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H6N4O2/c1-10-2-7-4-3(10)5(11)9-6(12)8-4/h2H,1H3,(H2,8,9,11,12)
InChI KeyInChIKey=PFWLFWPASULGAN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkaloids and derivatives. These are naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and more rarely other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassNot Available
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAlkaloids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Xanthine
  • Purinone
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Urea
  • Lactam
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point> 300 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP-0.89GASPARI,F & BONATI,M (1987)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility7.0 mg/mLALOGPS
logP-0.59ALOGPS
logP0.017ChemAxon
logS-1.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.31ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.85ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area76.02 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity41.82 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability14.77 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-014i-0900000000-30f6b1fe21e6924b4408View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-00xr-6900000000-f5c1b1369f226330b60eView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-014i-9000000000-3b1edad37f3a300fd3b7View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Caffeine MetabolismSMP00028map00232
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot Available
Normal
  • Not Applicable
details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.0 (6.7-14.6) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.0(3.9-16.1) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected and Quantified10.0 (2.7-17.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Asthma
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Asthma
  1. Zydron M, Baranowski J, Baranowska I: Separation, pre-concentration, and HPLC analysis of methylxanthines in urine samples. J Sep Sci. 2004 Oct;27(14):1166-72. [15537072 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00545
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB001978
KNApSAcK IDC00007326
Chemspider ID61660
KEGG Compound IDC16353
BioCyc ID7-METHYLXANTHINE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMethylxanthine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB01991
Metagene LinkHMDB01991
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound68374
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID48991
References
Synthesis ReferenceHutzenlaub, Wolfgang; Pfleiderer, Wolfgang. Purines. XIII. Simplified syntheses of 7-methyl- and 1,7-dimethylxanthines and -uric acids. Liebigs Annalen der Chemie (1979), (11), 1847-54.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Morris GS, Simmonds HA, Davies PM: Use of biological fluids for the rapid diagnosis of potentially lethal inherited disorders of human purine and pyrimidine metabolism. Biomed Chromatogr. 1986 Jun;1(3):109-18. [3506820 ]
  2. Safranow K, Machoy Z: Simultaneous determination of 16 purine derivatives in urinary calculi by gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005 May 25;819(2):229-35. [15833286 ]
  3. Safranow K: [Identification and quantitation of purine derivatives in urinary calculi as markers of abnormal purine metabolism by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)]. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2000;46:35-49. [11712316 ]
  4. Caubet MS, Comte B, Brazier JL: Determination of urinary 13C-caffeine metabolites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: the use of metabolic ratios to assess CYP1A2 activity. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2004 Feb 4;34(2):379-89. [15013152 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in purine degradation. Catalyzes the oxidation of hypoxanthine to xanthine. Catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid. Contributes to the generation of reactive oxygen species. Has also low oxidase activity towards aldehydes (in vitro).
Gene Name:
XDH
Uniprot ID:
P47989
Molecular weight:
146422.99
Reactions
7-Methylxanthine + Oxygen + Water → 7-Methyluric acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails