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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:31 UTC
Update Date2017-10-23 19:03:55 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0002011
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB02011
Metabolite Identification
Common Name4-Hydroxyisovaleric acid
Description4-hydroxyisovaleric acid is a metabolite of isovaleric acid that has been reported to be found in the urine of patients with isovaleric acidemia. It seems to be an intermediate product in the formation of methylsuccinic acid from isovaleric acid by omega-. oxidation.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
4-HydroxyisopentanoateHMDB
4-Hydroxyisopentanoic acidHMDB
4-HydroxyisovalerateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H10O3
Average Molecular Weight118.1311
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight118.062994186
IUPAC Name4-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoic acid
Traditional Name4-hydroxyisopentanoate
CAS Registry Number77220-86-1
SMILES
CC(CO)CC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H10O3/c1-4(3-6)2-5(7)8/h4,6H,2-3H2,1H3,(H,7,8)
InChI KeyZGYGEPZZMAXSKH-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of chemical entities known as hydroxy fatty acids. These are fatty acids in which the chain bears a hydroxyl group.
KingdomChemical entities
Super ClassOrganic compounds
ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
Sub ClassFatty Acyls
Direct ParentHydroxy fatty acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Methyl-branched fatty acid
  • Short-chain hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Branched fatty acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological Location:

  Subcellular:

  Biofluid and excreta:

Source:

  Biological:

    Animal:

Route of exposure:

  Enteral:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

  Biological process:

    Cellular process:

    Chemical reaction:

    Biochemical process:

    Biochemical pathway:

Role

Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility276 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.09ALOGPS
logP-0.15ChemAxon
logS0.37ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.59ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity28.27 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.91 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0536-9100000000-3fc712efcbb9fc4f3064View in MoNA
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-9710000000-7889823db89ae94de7b4View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0uxr-5900000000-44f5a19c4f52d431d4e0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4l-9100000000-6535308e2dd234ab5aebView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-dde3270c1cbccc8b3013View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-9800000000-d1842134a343234223a8View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-06dj-9300000000-3e6079f4c1d5f243bf2eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-9000000000-123016e0357d669baeceView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
NameSMPDB/PathwhizKEGG
No entries found
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot Available
Normal
    details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    UrineDetected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableIsovaleric acidemia details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease ReferencesNone
    Associated OMIM IDsNone
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDFDB022793
    KNApSAcK IDNot Available
    Chemspider ID116413
    KEGG Compound IDNot Available
    BioCyc IDNot Available
    BiGG IDNot Available
    Wikipedia LinkNot Available
    METLIN ID6434
    PubChem Compound131760
    PDB IDNot Available
    ChEBI ID384411
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
    General References
    1. Truscott RJ, Malegan D, McCairns E, Burke D, Hick L, Sims P, Halpern B, Tanaka K, Sweetman L, Nyhan WL, Hammond J, Bumack C, Haan EA, Danks DM: New metabolites in isovaleric acidemia. Clin Chim Acta. 1981 Mar 5;110(2-3):187-203. [PubMed:6452974 ]

    Enzymes

    General function:
    Involved in sulfotransferase activity
    Specific function:
    Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of many hormones, neurotransmitters, drugs and xenobiotic compounds. Sulfonation increases the water solubility of most compounds, and therefore their renal excretion, but it can also result in bioactivation to form active metabolites. Sulfates hydroxysteroids like DHEA. Isoform 1 preferentially sulfonates cholesterol, and isoform 2 avidly sulfonates pregnenolone but not cholesterol.
    Gene Name:
    SULT2B1
    Uniprot ID:
    O00204
    Molecular weight:
    39598.595
    Reactions
    4-Hydroxyisovaleric acid → 3-methyl-4-(sulfooxy)butanoic aciddetails
    General function:
    Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
    Specific function:
    UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
    Gene Name:
    UGT1A1
    Uniprot ID:
    P22309
    Molecular weight:
    59590.91
    Reactions
    4-Hydroxyisovaleric acid → 6-(3-carboxy-2-methylpropoxy)-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
    4-Hydroxyisovaleric acid → 3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-[(4-hydroxy-3-methylbutanoyl)oxy]oxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails