You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:32 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:05:13 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common Name1,9-Dimethyluric acid
Description1,9-Dimethyluric acid is a methyl derivative of uric acid, found occasionally in human urine. 1,9-Methyluracil is one of the purine components in urinary calculi. Methylated purines originate from the metabolism of methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline and theobromine). Methyluric acids are indistinguishable from uric acid by simple methods routinely used in clinical laboratories, requiring the use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Purine derivatives in urinary calculi could be considered markers of abnormal purine metabolism. The content of a purine derivative in stone depends on its average urinary excretion in the general population, similarity to the chemical structure of uric acid, and content of the latter in stone. This suggests that purines in stones represent a solid solution with uric acid as solvent. It is also plausible that methylxanthines, ubiquitous components of the diet and drugs, are involved in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis. Caffeine is metabolized via successive pathways mainly catalyzed by CYP1A2, xanthine oxidase or N-acetyltransferase-2 to give 14 different metabolites. CYP1A2 activity shows an inter-individual variability among the population. CYP1A2, an isoform of the CYP1A cytochrome P450 super-family, is involved in the metabolism of many drugs and plays a potentially important role in the induction of chemical carcinogenesis. (PMID: 11712316 , 15833286 , 3506820 , 15013152 ).
Chemical FormulaC7H8N4O3
Average Molecular Weight196.1634
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight196.059640142
IUPAC Name1,9-dimethyl-2,3,6,7,8,9-hexahydro-1H-purine-2,6,8-trione
Traditional Name1,9-dimethyl-3,7-dihydropurine-2,6,8-trione
CAS Registry Number55441-62-8
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkaloids and derivatives. These are naturally occurring chemical compounds that contain mostly basic nitrogen atoms. This group also includes some related compounds with neutral and even weakly acidic properties. Also some synthetic compounds of similar structure are attributed to alkaloids. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen, alkaloids may also contain oxygen, sulfur and more rarely other elements such as chlorine, bromine, and phosphorus.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassNot Available
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentAlkaloids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Xanthine
  • Purinone
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Purine
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Pyrimidone
  • Pyrimidine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Urea
  • Lactam
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
StatusExpected but not Quantified
  • Drug metabolite
  • Endogenous
  • Waste products
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility8.4 mg/mLALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.69ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area81.75 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity55.42 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability17.82 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0002-0900000000-48b45495c7756aeca036View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-9000000000-6ac1f12cc1d0799b789dView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A (Annotated)splash10-052f-8900000000-76267ac79488a5196b75View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Kidney
  • Liver
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableNormal
  • Not Applicable
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableNot AvailableNot AvailableNormal
  • Not Applicable
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDDBMET00547
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB022804
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID97753
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB02026
Metagene LinkHMDB02026
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound108712
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceBiltz, Heinrich; Pardon, Heinz. Action of chlorine upon methylated and acetylated uric acids. Ann. (1935), 515 201-52.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Morris GS, Simmonds HA, Davies PM: Use of biological fluids for the rapid diagnosis of potentially lethal inherited disorders of human purine and pyrimidine metabolism. Biomed Chromatogr. 1986 Jun;1(3):109-18. [3506820 ]
  2. Safranow K, Machoy Z: Simultaneous determination of 16 purine derivatives in urinary calculi by gradient reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2005 May 25;819(2):229-35. [15833286 ]
  3. Safranow K: [Identification and quantitation of purine derivatives in urinary calculi as markers of abnormal purine metabolism by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)]. Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2000;46:35-49. [11712316 ]
  4. Caubet MS, Comte B, Brazier JL: Determination of urinary 13C-caffeine metabolites by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry: the use of metabolic ratios to assess CYP1A2 activity. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2004 Feb 4;34(2):379-89. [15013152 ]