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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:36 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:11:24 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB02111
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameWater
DescriptionWater is a chemical substance that is essential to all known forms of life. It appears colorless to the naked eye in small quantities, though it is actually slightly blue in color. It covers 71% of Earth's surface. Current estimates suggest that there are 1.4 billion cubic kilometers (330 million m3) of it available on Earth, and it exists in many forms. It appears mostly in the oceans (saltwater) and polar ice caps, but it is also present as clouds, rain water, rivers, freshwater aquifers, lakes, and sea ice. Water in these bodies perpetually moves through a cycle of evaporation, precipitation, and runoff to the sea. Clean water is essential to human life. In many parts of the world, it is in short supply. From a biological standpoint, water has many distinct properties that are critical for the proliferation of life that set it apart from other substances. It carries out this role by allowing organic compounds to react in ways that ultimately allow replication. All known forms of life depend on water. Water is vital both as a solvent in which many of the body's solutes dissolve and as an essential part of many metabolic processes within the body. Metabolism is the sum total of anabolism and catabolism. In anabolism, water is removed from molecules (through energy requiring enzymatic chemical reactions) in order to grow larger molecules (e.g. starches, triglycerides and proteins for storage of fuels and information). In catabolism, water is used to break bonds in order to generate smaller molecules (e.g. glucose, fatty acids and amino acids to be used for fuels for energy use or other purposes). Water is thus essential and central to these metabolic processes. Water is also central to photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthetic cells use the sun's energy to split off water's hydrogen from oxygen. Hydrogen is combined with CO2 (absorbed from air or water) to form glucose and release oxygen. All living cells use such fuels and oxidize the hydrogen and carbon to capture the sun's energy and reform water and CO2 in the process (cellular respiration). Water is also central to acid-base neutrality and enzyme function. An acid, a hydrogen ion (H+, that is, a proton) donor, can be neutralized by a base, a proton acceptor such as hydroxide ion (OH-) to form water. Water is considered to be neutral, with a pH (the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration) of 7. Acids have pH values less than 7 while bases have values greater than 7. Stomach acid (HCl) is useful to digestion. However, its corrosive effect on the esophagus during reflux can temporarily be neutralized by ingestion of a base such as aluminum hydroxide to produce the neutral molecules water and the salt aluminum chloride. Human biochemistry that involves enzymes usually performs optimally around a biologically neutral pH of 7.4. (Wikipedia).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Dihydrogen oxide
  2. Steam
Chemical FormulaH2O
Average Molecular Weight18.0153
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight18.010564686
IUPAC Namewater
Traditional Namewater
CAS Registry Number7732-18-5
SMILES
O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/H2O/h1H2
InChI KeyXLYOFNOQVPJJNP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Non-metal Compounds
ClassOther Non-metal Organides
Sub ClassOther Non-metal Oxides
Other Descriptors
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
  • inorganic hydroxy compound(ChEBI)
  • mononuclear parent hydride(ChEBI)
  • oxygen hydride(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentOther Non-metal Oxides
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Cosmetic
  • Drug
  • Endogenous
  • Food
  • Plant
Biofunction
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point0 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility55.5 mol/LNot Available
LogP-1.38HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.65ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area25.3ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity3.7ChemAxon
Polarizability1.51ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Amniotic Fluid
  • Aqueous Humour
  • Ascites Fluid
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Lymph
  • Saliva
  • Sweat
  • Tears
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Amino Sugar MetabolismSMP00045map00520
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009map00910
Arachidonic Acid MetabolismSMP00075map00590
Carnitine SynthesisSMP00465Not Available
Catecholamine BiosynthesisSMP00012map00350
Citric Acid CycleSMP00057map00020
D-Arginine and D-Ornithine MetabolismSMP00036map00472
Degradation of SuperoxidesSMP00468Not Available
Ethanol DegradationSMP00449Not Available
Folate MetabolismSMP00053map00670
GluconeogenesisSMP00128map00010
Glucose-Alanine CycleSMP00127Not Available
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
GlycolysisSMP00040map00010
Homocysteine DegradationSMP00455Not Available
Lactose DegradationSMP00457Not Available
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Long Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsSMP00482Not Available
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Medium Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsSMP00481Not Available
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Short Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsSMP00480Not Available
Mitochondrial Electron Transport ChainSMP00355map00190
Phenylalanine and Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00008map00360
Plasmalogen SynthesisSMP00479Not Available
Pterine BiosynthesisSMP00005map00790
Pyruvaldehyde DegradationSMP00459Not Available
Spermidine and Spermine BiosynthesisSMP00445Not Available
Transfer of Acetyl Groups into MitochondriaSMP00466Not Available
Trehalose DegradationSMP00467Not Available
Urea CycleSMP00059map00330
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Amniotic FluidDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Aqueous HumourDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Ascites FluidDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
LymphDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SweatDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
TearsDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB013390
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID937
KEGG Compound IDC00001
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID33474
Wikipedia LinkWater
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB02111
Metagene LinkHMDB02111
METLIN ID3194
PubChem Compound962
PDB IDHOH
ChEBI ID15377
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General ReferencesNot Available

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 1159 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6-dihydroxyindole to indole-5,6 quinone.
Gene Name:
TYR
Uniprot ID:
P14679
Molecular weight:
60392.69
Reactions
L-Dopa + Oxygen → Dopaquinone + Waterdetails
L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → Dopaquinone + Waterdetails
L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → L-Dopa + Waterdetails
L-Dopa + L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → Dopaquinone + L-Dopa + Waterdetails
Hydroquinone + Oxygen → Quinone + Waterdetails
Tyramine + Oxygen + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → Dopamine + NAD + Waterdetails
(S)-N-Methylcoclaurine + Oxygen + Reduced acceptor → (S)-3-Hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine + Water + Acceptordetails
5,6-Dihydroxyindole + Oxygen → Indole-5,6-quinone + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1B
Uniprot ID:
P00325
Molecular weight:
39835.17
Reactions
Chloral hydrate + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → 2,2,2-Trichloroethanol + NAD + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1C
Uniprot ID:
P00326
Molecular weight:
39867.27
Reactions
Chloral hydrate + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → 2,2,2-Trichloroethanol + NAD + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name:
ADH5
Uniprot ID:
P11766
Molecular weight:
39723.945
Reactions
Chloral hydrate + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → 2,2,2-Trichloroethanol + NAD + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans; hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate.
Gene Name:
UGDH
Uniprot ID:
O60701
Molecular weight:
47602.08
Reactions
Uridine diphosphate glucose + NAD + Water → Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid + NADHdetails
Uridine diphosphate glucose + Water + NAD → Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in 3-beta-hydroxy-delta5-steroid dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
NSDHL
Uniprot ID:
Q15738
Molecular weight:
41899.99
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Inosine 5'-phosphate + NAD(+) + H(2)O = xanthosine 5'-phosphate + NADH
Gene Name:
IMPDH1
Uniprot ID:
A4D0Z6
Molecular weight:
64319.3
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5'-phosphate (XMP), the first committed and rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides, and therefore plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth. Could also have a single-stranded nucleic acid-binding activity and could play a role in RNA and/or DNA metabolism. It may also have a role in the development of malignancy and the growth progression of some tumors.
Gene Name:
IMPDH2
Uniprot ID:
P12268
Molecular weight:
55804.495
Reactions
Inosinic acid + NAD + Water → Xanthylic acid + NADHdetails
Inosinic acid + NAD + Water → Xanthylic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
6-Thioinosine-5'-monophosphate + NAD + Water → 6-Thioxanthine 5'-monophosphate + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the reduction of the keto group on the C-3 of sterols.
Gene Name:
HSD17B7
Uniprot ID:
P56937
Molecular weight:
38205.77
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH2
Uniprot ID:
P05091
Molecular weight:
56380.93
Reactions
An aldehyde + NAD + Water → a carboxylate + NADHdetails
2,5-Dioxopentanoate + NADP + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Aldehyde + NAD + Water → Fatty acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glyceraldehyde + NAD + Water → Glyceric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NADP + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Indoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Indoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
2-Propyn-1-al + NAD + Water → Propynoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
D-Glucurono-6,3-lactone + NAD + Water → Glucaric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + NAD + Water → Methylmalonic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Imidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-al + NAD + Water → 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanate + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid + Hydrogen Ion + NADHdetails
N4-Acetylaminobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
trans-3-Chloroallyl aldehyde + Water → trans-3-Chloroacrylic acid + Hydrogen Iondetails
cis-3-Chloroallyl aldehyde + Water → cis-3-Chloroacrylic acid + Hydrogen Iondetails
Chloroacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Chloroacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Perillyl aldehyde + Water + NAD → Perillic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation.
Gene Name:
ALDH1B1
Uniprot ID:
P30837
Molecular weight:
57248.96
Reactions
An aldehyde + NAD + Water → a carboxylate + NADHdetails
2,5-Dioxopentanoate + NADP + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Aldehyde + NAD + Water → Fatty acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glyceraldehyde + NAD + Water → Glyceric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NADP + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Indoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Indoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
2-Propyn-1-al + NAD + Water → Propynoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
D-Glucurono-6,3-lactone + NAD + Water → Glucaric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + NAD + Water → Methylmalonic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Imidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-al + NAD + Water → 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanate + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid + Hydrogen Ion + NADHdetails
N4-Acetylaminobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
trans-3-Chloroallyl aldehyde + Water → trans-3-Chloroacrylic acid + Hydrogen Iondetails
cis-3-Chloroallyl aldehyde + Water → cis-3-Chloroacrylic acid + Hydrogen Iondetails
Chloroacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Chloroacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Perillyl aldehyde + Water + NAD → Perillic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Seems to be the key enzyme in the formation of an RA gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during the early eye development and also in the development of the olfactory system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A3
Uniprot ID:
P47895
Molecular weight:
56107.995
Reactions
An aldehyde + NAD(P)(+) + Water → a carboxylate + NAD(P)Hdetails
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Phenylacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Phenylacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Phenylacetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Phenylacetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NADP + Water → p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxybenzeneacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NADP + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxybenzeneacetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NAD + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NADP + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Homovanillin + NAD + Water → Homovanillic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Homovanillin + NADP + Water → Homovanillic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + NAD + Water → Vanillylmandelic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + NADP + Water → Vanillylmandelic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Methylimidazole acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Methylimidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Aldophosphamide + NAD + Water → Carboxyphosphamide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Aldophosphamide + NADP + Water → Carboxyphosphamide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Carbamoyl-2-phenylpropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → 3-Carbamoyl-2-phenylpropionic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Converts gamma-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde into gamma-butyrobetaine. Catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of a broad range of aldehydes to the corresponding acids in an NAD-dependent reaction.
Gene Name:
ALDH9A1
Uniprot ID:
P49189
Molecular weight:
56291.485
Reactions
4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADHdetails
An aldehyde + NAD + Water → a carboxylate + NADHdetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADHdetails
Aldehyde + NAD + Water → Fatty acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glyceraldehyde + NAD + Water → Glyceric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NADP + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Indoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Indoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
2-Propyn-1-al + NAD + Water → Propynoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
D-Glucurono-6,3-lactone + NAD + Water → Glucaric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + NAD + Water → Methylmalonic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Imidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-al + NAD + Water → 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanate + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid + Hydrogen Ion + NADHdetails
N4-Acetylaminobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to fatty acids. Active on a variety of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes between 6 and 24 carbons in length. Responsible for conversion of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) degradation product hexadecenal to hexadecenoic acid.
Gene Name:
ALDH3A2
Uniprot ID:
P51648
Molecular weight:
54847.36
Reactions
An aldehyde + NAD + Water → a carboxylate + NADHdetails
2,5-Dioxopentanoate + NADP + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Aldehyde + NAD + Water → Fatty acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glyceraldehyde + NAD + Water → Glyceric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NADP + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Indoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Indoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
2-Propyn-1-al + NAD + Water → Propynoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
D-Glucurono-6,3-lactone + NAD + Water → Glucaric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + NAD + Water → Methylmalonic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Imidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-al + NAD + Water → 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanate + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid + Hydrogen Ion + NADHdetails
N4-Acetylaminobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
trans-3-Chloroallyl aldehyde + Water → trans-3-Chloroacrylic acid + Hydrogen Iondetails
cis-3-Chloroallyl aldehyde + Water → cis-3-Chloroacrylic acid + Hydrogen Iondetails
Chloroacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Chloroacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Perillyl aldehyde + Water + NAD → Perillic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Multifunctional enzyme mediating important protective effects. Metabolizes betaine aldehyde to betaine, an important cellular osmolyte and methyl donor. Protects cells from oxidative stress by metabolizing a number of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes. Involved in lysine catabolism.
Gene Name:
ALDH7A1
Uniprot ID:
P49419
Molecular weight:
58486.74
Reactions
(S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NAD(P)(+) + Water → Aminoadipic acid + NAD(P)Hdetails
Betaine aldehyde + NAD + Water → Trimethylammonioacetate + NADHdetails
An aldehyde + NAD + Water → a carboxylate + NADHdetails
Aldehyde + NAD + Water → Fatty acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glyceraldehyde + NAD + Water → Glyceric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NADP + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Betaine aldehyde + NAD + Water → Trimethylammonioacetate + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Betaine aldehyde + NADP + Water → Trimethylammonioacetate + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Indoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Indoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
2-Propyn-1-al + NAD + Water → Propynoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
D-Glucurono-6,3-lactone + NAD + Water → Glucaric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NAD + Water → Aminoadipic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NADP + Water → Aminoadipic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + NAD + Water → Methylmalonic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Imidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-al + NAD + Water → 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanate + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid + Hydrogen Ion + NADHdetails
N4-Acetylaminobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH3B2
Uniprot ID:
P48448
Molecular weight:
42623.62
Reactions
An aldehyde + NAD(P)(+) + Water → a carboxylate + NAD(P)Hdetails
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Phenylacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Phenylacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Phenylacetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Phenylacetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NADP + Water → p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxybenzeneacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NADP + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxybenzeneacetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NAD + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NADP + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Homovanillin + NAD + Water → Homovanillic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Homovanillin + NADP + Water → Homovanillic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + NAD + Water → Vanillylmandelic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + NADP + Water → Vanillylmandelic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Methylimidazole acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Methylimidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Aldophosphamide + NAD + Water → Carboxyphosphamide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Aldophosphamide + NADP + Water → Carboxyphosphamide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Carbamoyl-2-phenylpropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → 3-Carbamoyl-2-phenylpropionic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes one step in the degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Gene Name:
ALDH5A1
Uniprot ID:
P51649
Molecular weight:
57214.23
Reactions
Succinic acid semialdehyde + NAD + Water → Succinic acid + NADHdetails
Succinic acid semialdehyde + NAD + Water → Succinic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in acyl carrier activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA synthases catalyze the initial reaction in fatty acid metabolism, by forming a thioester with CoA
Gene Name:
AASDH
Uniprot ID:
Q4L235
Molecular weight:
122596.1
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Binds free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Can convert/oxidize retinaldehyde to retinoic acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A1
Uniprot ID:
P00352
Molecular weight:
54861.44
Reactions
Retinal + NAD + Water → 13-cis-Retinoic acid + NADHdetails
Retinal + NAD + Water → All-trans-retinoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
9-cis-Retinal + NAD + Water → 9-cis-Retinoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Does metabolize octanal and decanal but does not metabolize citral, benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propanal efficiently (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A2
Uniprot ID:
O94788
Molecular weight:
54672.24
Reactions
Retinal + NAD + Water → 13-cis-Retinoic acid + NADHdetails
Retinal + NAD + Water → All-trans-retinoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
9-cis-Retinal + NAD + Water → 9-cis-Retinoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q06278
Molecular weight:
147916.735
Reactions
An aldehyde + Water + Oxygen → a carboxylate + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Pyridoxal + Oxygen + Water → 4-Pyridoxic acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Gentisic acid + Hydrogen peroxide → Gentisate aldehyde + Oxygen + Waterdetails
Methylmalonic acid + Hydrogen peroxide → (S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + Oxygen + Waterdetails
1-Methylnicotinamide + Oxygen + Water → N1-Methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen Iondetails
5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + Oxygen + Water → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Citalopram aldehyde + Water + Oxygen → Citalopram propionic acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
1-Methylnicotinamide + Oxygen + Water → N1-Methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the 6-electron oxidation of protoporphyrinogen-IX to form protoporphyrin-IX.
Gene Name:
PPOX
Uniprot ID:
P50336
Molecular weight:
50764.8
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
May be involved in learning and memory reactions by increasing the turnover of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GLUD1
Uniprot ID:
P00367
Molecular weight:
61397.315
Reactions
L-Glutamic acid + Water + NAD(P)(+) → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NAD(P)Hdetails
L-Glutamic acid + NAD + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
L-Glutamic acid + NADP + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Important for recycling the chief excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, during neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GLUD2
Uniprot ID:
P49448
Molecular weight:
61433.465
Reactions
L-Glutamic acid + Water + NAD(P)(+) → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NAD(P)Hdetails
L-Glutamic acid + NAD + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
L-Glutamic acid + NADP + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular weight:
59681.27
Reactions
RCH(2)NHR' + Water + Oxygen → RCHO + R'NH(2) + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Tryptamine + Water + Oxygen → Indoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Tyramine + Water + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen → Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Norepinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water → Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Serotonin + Water + Oxygen → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Epinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
N-Acetylputrescine + Water + Oxygen → N4-Acetylaminobutanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
1-Methylhistamine + Water + Oxygen → Methylimidazole acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
3-Methoxytyramine + Water + Oxygen → Homovanillin + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammoniadetails
Normetanephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Metanephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Hydrogen peroxide + Methylaminedetails
5-Hydroxykynurenamine + Water + Oxygen → 4,6-Dihydroxyquinoline + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide + Waterdetails
Citalopram + Oxygen + Water → Citalopram aldehyde + Dimethylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
N-Desmethylcitalopram + Oxygen + Water → Citalopram aldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Didemethylcitalopram + Water + Oxygen → Citalopram aldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in pyridoxamine-phosphate oxidase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of either pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP) or pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) into pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP).
Gene Name:
PNPO
Uniprot ID:
Q9NVS9
Molecular weight:
29987.79
Reactions
Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate + Water + Oxygen → Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Pyridoxamine + Water + Oxygen → Pyridoxal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Responsible for the post-translational oxidative deamination of peptidyl lysine residues in precursors to fibrous collagen and elastin. In addition to cross-linking of extracellular matrix proteins, may have a direct role in tumor suppression.
Gene Name:
LOX
Uniprot ID:
P28300
Molecular weight:
46943.67
Reactions
Peptidyl-L-lysyl-peptide + Oxygen + Water → peptidyl-allysyl-peptide + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Has a monoamine oxidase activity with substrate specificity for 2-phenylethylamine and tryptamine. May play a role in adipogenesis. May be a critical modulator of signal transmission in retina.
Gene Name:
AOC2
Uniprot ID:
O75106
Molecular weight:
80515.11
Reactions
RCH(2)NH(2) + Water + Oxygen → RCHO + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Tyramine + Water + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen → Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water → Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
1,3-Diaminopropane + Oxygen + Water → 3-Aminopropionaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Methylamine + Oxygen + Water → Formaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Cadaverine + Water + Oxygen → 5-Aminopentanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Cell adhesion protein that participates in lymphocyte recirculation by mediating the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node vascular endothelial cells in an L-selectin-independent fashion. Has a monoamine oxidase activity. May play a role in adipogenesis.
Gene Name:
AOC3
Uniprot ID:
Q16853
Molecular weight:
84621.27
Reactions
RCH(2)NH(2) + Water + Oxygen → RCHO + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Tyramine + Water + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen → Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water → Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
1,3-Diaminopropane + Oxygen + Water → 3-Aminopropionaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Methylamine + Oxygen + Water → Formaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Cadaverine + Water + Oxygen → 5-Aminopentanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the degradation of compounds such as putrescine, histamine, spermine, and spermidine, substances involved in allergic and immune responses, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation, tumor formation, and possibly apoptosis. Placental DAO is thought to play a role in the regulation of the female reproductive function.
Gene Name:
ABP1
Uniprot ID:
P19801
Molecular weight:
85377.1
Reactions
Histamine + Water + Oxygen → Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Putrescine + Oxygen + Water → 4-Aminobutyraldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Tryptamine + Water + Oxygen → Indoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH1L1
Uniprot ID:
O75891
Molecular weight:
99752.535
Reactions
10-Formyltetrahydrofolate + NADP + Water → Tetrahydrofolic acid + CO(2) + NADPHdetails
10-Formyltetrahydrofolate + NADP + Water → Tetrahydrofolic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AASS
Uniprot ID:
A4D0W4
Molecular weight:
102130.9
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Irreversible conversion of delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), derived either from proline or ornithine, to glutamate. This is a necessary step in the pathway interconnecting the urea and tricarboxylic acid cycles. The preferred substrate is glutamic gamma-semialdehyde, other substrates include succinic, glutaric and adipic semialdehydes.
Gene Name:
ALDH4A1
Uniprot ID:
P30038
Molecular weight:
55117.24
Reactions
1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NAD(P)(+) + Water → L-Glutamic acid + NAD(P)Hdetails
L-Glutamic gamma-semialdehyde + NAD + Water → L-Glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NAD + Water → L-Glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NADP + Water → L-Glutamic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Pyrroline hydroxycarboxylic acid + NAD + Water → 4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Pyrroline hydroxycarboxylic acid + NADP + Water → 4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → L-4-Hydroxyglutamate semialdehyde + NAD + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
DMGDH
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI17
Molecular weight:
96810.135
Reactions
Dimethylglycine + electron-transfer flavoprotein + Water → Sarcosine + Formaldehyde + reduced electron-transfer flavoproteindetails
Dimethylglycine + Electron-transferring flavoprotein + Water → Sarcosine + Formaldehyde + Reduced electron-transferring flavoproteindetails
General function:
Involved in proline dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Converts proline to delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate.
Gene Name:
PRODH
Uniprot ID:
O43272
Molecular weight:
56196.675
Reactions
4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → L-4-Hydroxyglutamate semialdehyde + NAD + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in heme binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SUOX
Uniprot ID:
P51687
Molecular weight:
60282.59
Reactions
Sulfurous acid + Oxygen + Water → Oat gum + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in thiol oxidase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of sulfhydryl groups in peptide and protein thiols to disulfides with the reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. May contribute to disulfide bond formation in a variety of secreted proteins. Also seems to play a role in regulating the sensitization of neuroblastoma cells for interferon-gamma-induced apoptosis.
Gene Name:
QSOX2
Uniprot ID:
Q6ZRP7
Molecular weight:
77527.975
General function:
Involved in thiol oxidase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of sulfhydryl groups in peptide and protein thiols to disulfides with the reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. May contribute to disulfide bond formation in a variety of secreted proteins. In fibroblasts, it may have tumor-suppressing capabilities being involved in growth regulation.
Gene Name:
QSOX1
Uniprot ID:
O00391
Molecular weight:
66860.075
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
Connects the two COX monomers into the physiological dimeric form
Gene Name:
COX6B2
Uniprot ID:
Q6YFQ2
Molecular weight:
10528.9
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX5B
Uniprot ID:
P10606
Molecular weight:
13695.6
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX6A1
Uniprot ID:
P12074
Molecular weight:
12154.8
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX6A2
Uniprot ID:
Q02221
Molecular weight:
10815.3
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
Connects the two COX monomers into the physiological dimeric form
Gene Name:
COX6B1
Uniprot ID:
P14854
Molecular weight:
10192.3
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX7A1
Uniprot ID:
P24310
Molecular weight:
9117.4
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX7A2
Uniprot ID:
P14406
Molecular weight:
9395.9
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX7C
Uniprot ID:
P15954
Molecular weight:
7245.4
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX8A
Uniprot ID:
P10176
Molecular weight:
7579.0
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX7B2
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF08
Molecular weight:
9077.4
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX8C
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z4L0
Molecular weight:
8128.6
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Cytochrome c oxidase is the component of the respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Subunits 1-3 form the functional core of the enzyme complex. CO I is the catalytic subunit of the enzyme. Electrons originating in cytochrome c are transferred via the copper A center of subunit 2 and heme A of subunit 1 to the bimetallic center formed by heme A3 and copper B.
Gene Name:
MT-CO1
Uniprot ID:
P00395
Molecular weight:
57040.91
Reactions
ferrocytochrome c + Oxygen + Hydrogen Ion → ferricytochrome c + Waterdetails

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Involved in the export of copper out of the cells, such as the efflux of hepatic copper into the bile.
Gene Name:
ATP7B
Uniprot ID:
P35670
Molecular weight:
157261.34
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May supply copper to copper-requiring proteins within the secretory pathway, when localized in the trans-Golgi network. Under conditions of elevated extracellular copper, it relocalized to the plasma membrane where it functions in the efflux of copper from cells.
Gene Name:
ATP7A
Uniprot ID:
Q04656
Molecular weight:
163372.275

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 1159 proteins in total.