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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:36 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:05:21 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB02111
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameWater
DescriptionWater is a chemical substance that is essential to all known forms of life. It appears colorless to the naked eye in small quantities, though it is actually slightly blue in color. It covers 71% of Earth's surface. Current estimates suggest that there are 1.4 billion cubic kilometers (330 million m3) of it available on Earth, and it exists in many forms. It appears mostly in the oceans (saltwater) and polar ice caps, but it is also present as clouds, rain water, rivers, freshwater aquifers, lakes, and sea ice. Water in these bodies perpetually moves through a cycle of evaporation, precipitation, and runoff to the sea. Clean water is essential to human life. In many parts of the world, it is in short supply. From a biological standpoint, water has many distinct properties that are critical for the proliferation of life that set it apart from other substances. It carries out this role by allowing organic compounds to react in ways that ultimately allow replication. All known forms of life depend on water. Water is vital both as a solvent in which many of the body's solutes dissolve and as an essential part of many metabolic processes within the body. Metabolism is the sum total of anabolism and catabolism. In anabolism, water is removed from molecules (through energy requiring enzymatic chemical reactions) in order to grow larger molecules (e.g. starches, triglycerides and proteins for storage of fuels and information). In catabolism, water is used to break bonds in order to generate smaller molecules (e.g. glucose, fatty acids and amino acids to be used for fuels for energy use or other purposes). Water is thus essential and central to these metabolic processes. Water is also central to photosynthesis and respiration. Photosynthetic cells use the sun's energy to split off water's hydrogen from oxygen. Hydrogen is combined with CO2 (absorbed from air or water) to form glucose and release oxygen. All living cells use such fuels and oxidize the hydrogen and carbon to capture the sun's energy and reform water and CO2 in the process (cellular respiration). Water is also central to acid-base neutrality and enzyme function. An acid, a hydrogen ion (H+, that is, a proton) donor, can be neutralized by a base, a proton acceptor such as hydroxide ion (OH-) to form water. Water is considered to be neutral, with a pH (the negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration) of 7. Acids have pH values less than 7 while bases have values greater than 7. Stomach acid (HCl) is useful to digestion. However, its corrosive effect on the esophagus during reflux can temporarily be neutralized by ingestion of a base such as aluminum hydroxide to produce the neutral molecules water and the salt aluminum chloride. Human biochemistry that involves enzymes usually performs optimally around a biologically neutral pH of 7.4. (Wikipedia).
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Dihydrogen oxide
  2. Steam
Chemical FormulaH2O
Average Molecular Weight18.0153
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight18.010564686
IUPAC Namewater
Traditional Namewater
CAS Registry Number7732-18-5
SMILES
O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/H2O/h1H2
InChI KeyInChIKey=XLYOFNOQVPJJNP-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous other non-metal compounds. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds in which the largest atom belongs to the class of 'other nonmetals'.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous other non-metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous other non-metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous other non metal
  • Acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAcyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Cosmetic
  • Drug
  • Endogenous
  • Food
  • Plant
Biofunction
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point0 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility55.5 mol/LNot Available
LogP-1.38HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-0.65ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)15.7ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area25.3 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity3.7 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.51 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-z000000000-1a741e1ffb75284635fcView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-z000000000-1a741e1ffb75284635fcView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-z000000000-1a741e1ffb75284635fcView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-z000000000-a2a06393708ba68baab0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-z000000000-a2a06393708ba68baab0View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-z000000000-a2a06393708ba68baab0View in MoNA
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-z000000000-f7ee14225b4277f6218cView in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
  • Lysosome
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
  • Golgi apparatus
  • Peroxisome
Biofluid Locations
  • Amniotic Fluid
  • Aqueous Humour
  • Ascites Fluid
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Lymph
  • Saliva
  • Sweat
  • Tears
Tissue Location
  • All Tissues
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP11B1)SMP00575Not Available
17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP17)SMP00566Not Available
17-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase III DeficiencySMP00356Not Available
2-aminoadipic 2-oxoadipic aciduriaSMP00719Not Available
2-Hydroxyglutric Aciduria (D And L Form)SMP00136Not Available
2-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex deficiencySMP00549Not Available
2-Methyl-3-Hydroxybutryl CoA Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00137Not Available
21-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP21)SMP00576Not Available
27-Hydroxylase DeficiencySMP00720Not Available
3-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00718Not Available
3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-CoA Lyase DeficiencySMP00138Not Available
3-hydroxyisobutyric acid dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00521Not Available
3-hydroxyisobutyric aciduriaSMP00522Not Available
3-Methylcrotonyl Coa Carboxylase Deficiency Type ISMP00237Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type ISMP00139Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IIISMP00140Not Available
3-Methylglutaconic Aciduria Type IVSMP00141Not Available
3-Methylthiofentanyl Action PathwaySMP00679Not Available
3-Phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00721Not Available
4-Hydroxybutyric Aciduria/Succinic Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00243Not Available
5-oxoprolinase deficiencySMP00500Not Available
5-OxoprolinuriaSMP00143Not Available
Acebutolol PathwaySMP00296Not Available
Acetaminophen Action PathwaySMP00710Not Available
Acetaminophen Metabolism PathwaySMP00640Not Available
Acetylsalicylic Acid PathwaySMP00083Not Available
Acute Intermittent PorphyriaSMP00344Not Available
Adefovir Dipivoxil PathwaySMP00418Not Available
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)SMP00535Not Available
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencySMP00144Not Available
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencySMP00167Not Available
Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 3 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase DeficiencySMP00373Not Available
Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 5 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 17 Alpha-hydroxylase DeficiencySMP00372Not Available
AICA-RibosiduriaSMP00168Not Available
Alendronate pathwaySMP00095Not Available
Alfentanil PathwaySMP00413Not Available
AlkaptonuriaSMP00169Not Available
Alprenolol PathwaySMP00297Not Available
Alvimopan Action PathwaySMP00685Not Available
Amiloride PathwaySMP00133Not Available
Amino Sugar MetabolismSMP00045map00520
Amiodarone Action PathwaySMP00665Not Available
Amlodipine PathwaySMP00376Not Available
Ammonia RecyclingSMP00009map00910
Androgen and Estrogen MetabolismSMP00068map00150
Anileridine Action PathwaySMP00674Not Available
Antipyrine Action PathwaySMP00692Not Available
Antrafenine Action PathwaySMP00693Not Available
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndromeSMP00717Not Available
Arachidonic Acid MetabolismSMP00075map00590
Arbutamine Action PathwaySMP00664Not Available
Arginine and Proline MetabolismSMP00020map00330
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)SMP00362Not Available
ArgininemiaSMP00357Not Available
Argininosuccinic AciduriaSMP00003Not Available
Aromatase deficiencySMP00565Not Available
Aromatic L-Aminoacid Decarboxylase DeficiencySMP00170Not Available
Artemether Metabolism PathwaySMP00651Not Available
Aspartate MetabolismSMP00067map00250
Atenolol PathwaySMP00298Not Available
Atorvastatin PathwaySMP00131Not Available
Azathioprine PathwaySMP00427Not Available
Bendroflumethiazide PathwaySMP00090Not Available
Benzocaine PathwaySMP00392Not Available
Beta Ureidopropionase DeficiencySMP00172Not Available
Beta-Alanine MetabolismSMP00007map00410
Beta-Ketothiolase DeficiencySMP00173Not Available
Beta-mercaptolactate-cysteine disulfiduriaSMP00499Not Available
Betaine MetabolismSMP00123map00260
Betaxolol PathwaySMP00299Not Available
Betazole Action PathwaySMP00736Not Available
Bevantolol Action PathwaySMP00668Not Available
Bile Acid BiosynthesisSMP00035map00120
Biotin MetabolismSMP00066map00780
Biotinidase DeficiencySMP00174Not Available
Bisoprolol PathwaySMP00300Not Available
Blue diaper syndromeSMP00583Not Available
Bopindolol Action PathwaySMP00657Not Available
Bromfenac PathwaySMP00102Not Available
Bumetanide PathwaySMP00088Not Available
Bupivacaine PathwaySMP00393Not Available
Bupranolol Action PathwaySMP00670Not Available
Buprenorphine Action PathwaySMP00684Not Available
Butyrate MetabolismSMP00073map00650
Caffeine MetabolismSMP00028map00232
Canavan DiseaseSMP00175Not Available
Capecitabine Metabolism PathwaySMP00607Not Available
Capecitabine PathwaySMP00469Not Available
Carbamazepine Metabolism PathwaySMP00634Not Available
Carbamoyl Phosphate Synthetase DeficiencySMP00002Not Available
Carfentanil PathwaySMP00414Not Available
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (I)SMP00538Not Available
Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (II)SMP00541Not Available
Carnitine SynthesisSMP00465Not Available
Carnosinuria, carnosinemiaSMP00493Not Available
Carprofen Action PathwaySMP00694Not Available
Carteolol Action PathwaySMP00658Not Available
Carvedilol PathwaySMP00367Not Available
Catecholamine BiosynthesisSMP00012map00350
Celecoxib Metabolism PathwaySMP00644Not Available
Celecoxib PathwaySMP00096Not Available
Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX)SMP00315Not Available
Cerivastatin PathwaySMP00111Not Available
CHILD SyndromeSMP00387Not Available
Chloroprocaine PathwaySMP00394Not Available
Chlorothiazide PathwaySMP00078Not Available
Chlorthalidone PathwaySMP00122Not Available
Cholesteryl ester storage diseaseSMP00508Not Available
Chondrodysplasia Punctata II, X Linked Dominant (CDPX2)SMP00388Not Available
Cimetidine PathwaySMP00232Not Available
Citalopram Metabolism PathwaySMP00627Not Available
Citalopram PathwaySMP00424Not Available
Citric Acid CycleSMP00057map00020
Citrullinemia Type ISMP00001Not Available
Clomipramine Metabolism PathwaySMP00639Not Available
Clopidogrel Metabolism PathwaySMP00610Not Available
Clopidogrel PathwaySMP00260Not Available
Cocaine PathwaySMP00395Not Available
Codeine Metabolism PathwaySMP00621Not Available
Codeine PathwaySMP00405Not Available
Congenital Bile Acid Synthesis Defect Type IISMP00314Not Available
Congenital Bile Acid Synthesis Defect Type IIISMP00318Not Available
Congenital disorder of glycosylation CDG-IIdSMP00579Not Available
Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria (CEP) or Gunther DiseaseSMP00345Not Available
Congenital lactic acidosisSMP00546Not Available
Congenital Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia (CLAH) or Lipoid CAHSMP00371Not Available
Corticosterone methyl oxidase I deficiency (CMO I)SMP00577Not Available
Corticosterone methyl oxidase II deficiency - CMO IISMP00578Not Available
Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencySMP00504Not Available
Cyclophosphamide Metabolism PathwaySMP00604Not Available
Cyclophosphamide PathwaySMP00447Not Available
Cyclothiazide PathwaySMP00103Not Available
Cystathionine Beta-Synthase DeficiencySMP00177Not Available
Cysteine MetabolismSMP00013map00270
Cystinosis, ocular nonnephropathicSMP00722Not Available
CystinuriaSMP00723Not Available
D-Arginine and D-Ornithine MetabolismSMP00036map00472
D-glyceric aciduraSMP00529Not Available
Degradation of SuperoxidesSMP00468Not Available
Desipramine Metabolism PathwaySMP00626Not Available
Desipramine PathwaySMP00423Not Available
DesmosterolosisSMP00386Not Available
Dezocine Action PathwaySMP00676Not Available
Dibucaine PathwaySMP00396Not Available
Diclofenac PathwaySMP00093Not Available
Diflunisal PathwaySMP00289Not Available
Dihydromorphine Action PathwaySMP00689Not Available
Dihydropyrimidinase DeficiencySMP00178Not Available
Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (DHPD)SMP00179Not Available
Diltiazem PathwaySMP00359Not Available
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00242Not Available
Dimethylglycine Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00484Not Available
Dimethylthiambutene Action PathwaySMP00680Not Available
Diphenoxylate Action PathwaySMP00675Not Available
Disopyramide PathwaySMP00325Not Available
Disulfiram PathwaySMP00429Not Available
Dobutamine Action PathwaySMP00662Not Available
Docetaxel PathwaySMP00435Not Available
Dopa-responsive dystoniaSMP00486Not Available
Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiencySMP00498Not Available
Doxepin Metabolism PathwaySMP00641Not Available
Doxorubicin Metabolism PathwaySMP00650Not Available
Epinephrine Action PathwaySMP00661Not Available
Eplerenone PathwaySMP00135Not Available
Erlotinib PathwaySMP00472Not Available
Escitalopram PathwaySMP00425Not Available
Esmolol PathwaySMP00301Not Available
Esomeprazole PathwaySMP00225Not Available
Ethacrynic Acid pathwaySMP00097Not Available
Ethanol DegradationSMP00449Not Available
Ethylmalonic EncephalopathySMP00181Not Available
Ethylmorphine Action PathwaySMP00681Not Available
Etodolac PathwaySMP00084Not Available
Etoposide Metabolism PathwaySMP00601Not Available
Etoposide PathwaySMP00442Not Available
Etoricoxib Action PathwaySMP00695Not Available
Fabry diseaseSMP00525Not Available
Familial Hypercholanemia (FHCA)SMP00317Not Available
Familial lipoprotein lipase deficiencySMP00530Not Available
Famotidine PathwaySMP00231Not Available
Fanconi-bickel syndromeSMP00572Not Available
Fatty Acid Elongation In MitochondriaSMP00054map00062
Fatty acid MetabolismSMP00051map00071
Felbamate Metabolism PathwaySMP00633Not Available
Felodipine PathwaySMP00377Not Available
Fenoprofen Action PathwaySMP00696Not Available
Fentanyl PathwaySMP00415Not Available
Flecainide PathwaySMP00331Not Available
Fluoxetine Metabolism PathwaySMP00646Not Available
Fluoxetine PathwaySMP00426Not Available
Flurbiprofen Action PathwaySMP00697Not Available
Fluvastatin PathwaySMP00119Not Available
Folate malabsorption, hereditarySMP00724Not Available
Folate MetabolismSMP00053map00670
Fosphenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) PathwaySMP00326Not Available
Fructose and Mannose DegradationSMP00064map00051
Fructose intolerance, hereditarySMP00725Not Available
Fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiencySMP00562Not Available
FructosuriaSMP00561Not Available
Fumarase deficiencySMP00547Not Available
Furosemide PathwaySMP00115Not Available
G(M2)-Gangliosidosis: Variant B, Tay-sachs diseaseSMP00534Not Available
GABA-Transaminase DeficiencySMP00351Not Available
Galactose MetabolismSMP00043map00052
GalactosemiaSMP00182Not Available
Galactosemia II (GALK)SMP00495Not Available
Galactosemia IIISMP00496Not Available
Gamma-cystathionase deficiency (CTH)SMP00514Not Available
Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase deficiencySMP00501Not Available
Gamma-Glutamyltransferase DeficiencySMP00183Not Available
Gastric Acid ProductionSMP00589Not Available
Gaucher DiseaseSMP00349Not Available
Gemcitabine Metabolism PathwaySMP00603Not Available
Gemcitabine PathwaySMP00446Not Available
Globoid Cell LeukodystrophySMP00348Not Available
GluconeogenesisSMP00128map00010
Glucose Transporter Defect (SGLT2)SMP00184Not Available
Glucose Transporter Defect (SGLT2)SMP00245Not Available
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00518Not Available
Glucose-Alanine CycleSMP00127Not Available
GLUT-1 deficiency syndromeSMP00580Not Available
Glutamate MetabolismSMP00072map00250
Glutaminolysis and CancerSMP02298Not Available
Glutaric Aciduria Type ISMP00185Not Available
Glutaric Aciduria Type ISMP00186Not Available
Glutathione MetabolismSMP00015map00480
Glutathione Synthetase DeficiencySMP00337Not Available
Glycerol Kinase DeficiencySMP00187Not Available
Glycerolipid MetabolismSMP00039map00561
Glycine and Serine MetabolismSMP00004map00260
Glycine N-methyltransferase DeficiencySMP00222Not Available
Glycogen Storage Disease Type 1A (GSD1A) or Von Gierke DiseaseSMP00374Not Available
Glycogen synthetase deficiencySMP00552Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type IA. Von gierke diseaseSMP00581Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type IBSMP00573Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type ICSMP00574Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type III. Cori disease, Debrancher glycogenosisSMP00553Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type IV. Amylopectinosis, Anderson diseaseSMP00554Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type VI. Hers diseaseSMP00555Not Available
Glycogenosis, Type VII. Tarui diseaseSMP00531Not Available
GlycolysisSMP00040map00010
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeSMP00365Not Available
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)SMP00188Not Available
Hartnup DisorderSMP00189Not Available
HawkinsinuriaSMP00190Not Available
Hereditary Coproporphyria (HCP)SMP00342Not Available
Heroin Metabolism PathwaySMP00623Not Available
Heroin PathwaySMP00407Not Available
Histidine MetabolismSMP00044map00340
HistidinemiaSMP00191Not Available
HomocarnosinosisSMP00385Not Available
Homocysteine DegradationSMP00455Not Available
Homocystinuria, cystathionine beta-synthase deficiencySMP00515Not Available
Homocystinuria-megaloblastic anemia due to defect in cobalamin metabolism, cblG complementation typeSMP00570Not Available
Hydrochlorothiazide PathwaySMP00100Not Available
Hydrocodone PathwaySMP00411Not Available
Hydroflumethiazide PathwaySMP00108Not Available
Hydromorphone PathwaySMP00410Not Available
Hyper-IgD syndromeSMP00509Not Available
HypercholesterolemiaSMP00209Not Available
Hyperglycinemia, non-ketoticSMP00485Not Available
Hyperinsulinism-Hyperammonemia SyndromeSMP00339Not Available
Hyperlysinemia I, FamilialSMP00527Not Available
Hyperlysinemia II or SaccharopinuriaSMP00528Not Available
HypermethioninemiaSMP00341Not Available
Hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (HOGA)SMP00505Not Available
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]SMP00506Not Available
Hyperphenylalaniemia due to guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase deficiencySMP00487Not Available
Hyperphenylalaninemia due to 6-pyruvoyltetrahydropterin synthase deficiency (ptps)SMP00488Not Available
Hyperphenylalaninemia due to dhpr-deficiencySMP00489Not Available
Hyperprolinemia Type ISMP00361Not Available
Hyperprolinemia Type IISMP00360Not Available
HypoacetylaspartiaSMP00192Not Available
HypophosphatasiaSMP00503Not Available
Ibandronate PathwaySMP00079Not Available
Ibuprofen Metabolism PathwaySMP00590Not Available
Ibuprofen PathwaySMP00086Not Available
Ibutilide PathwaySMP00332Not Available
Ifosfamide Metabolism PathwaySMP00605Not Available
Ifosfamide PathwaySMP00448Not Available
IminoglycinuriaSMP00193Not Available
Imipramine Metabolism PathwaySMP00625Not Available
Imipramine PathwaySMP00422Not Available
Indapamide PathwaySMP00110Not Available
Indomethacin PathwaySMP00104Not Available
Inositol MetabolismSMP00011map00562
Inositol Phosphate MetabolismSMP00462map00562
Irinotecan Metabolism PathwaySMP00600Not Available
Irinotecan PathwaySMP00433Not Available
Isobutyryl-coa dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00523Not Available
Isoprenaline Action PathwaySMP00663Not Available
Isovaleric acidemiaSMP00524Not Available
Isovaleric AciduriaSMP00238Not Available
Isradipine PathwaySMP00378Not Available
Joubert syndromeSMP00582Not Available
Ketobemidone Action PathwaySMP00690Not Available
Ketone Body MetabolismSMP00071map00072
Ketoprofen PathwaySMP00085Not Available
Ketorolac PathwaySMP00098Not Available
Kidney FunctionSMP00483Not Available
Krabbe diseaseSMP00526Not Available
L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiencySMP00507Not Available
Labetalol PathwaySMP00368Not Available
Lactose DegradationSMP00457Not Available
Lactose IntoleranceSMP00458Not Available
Lactose SynthesisSMP00444Not Available
Lamivudine Metabolism PathwaySMP00649Not Available
Lansoprazole PathwaySMP00227Not Available
Leigh SyndromeSMP00196Not Available
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)SMP00364Not Available
Leukotriene C4 Synthesis DeficiencySMP00353Not Available
Levallorphan Action PathwaySMP00683Not Available
Levobunolol Action PathwaySMP00666Not Available
Levobupivacaine PathwaySMP00397Not Available
Levomethadyl Acetate Action Action PathwaySMP00677Not Available
Levomethadyl Acetate Metabolism PathwaySMP00638Not Available
Levorphanol Action PathwaySMP00673Not Available
Lidocaine (Antiarrhythmic) PathwaySMP00328Not Available
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) Metabolism PathwaySMP00620Not Available
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) PathwaySMP00398Not Available
Long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCAD)SMP00539Not Available
Long-chain-3-hydroxyacyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency (LCHAD)SMP00544Not Available
Lornoxicam Action PathwaySMP00700Not Available
Lovastatin PathwaySMP00099Not Available
Lumiracoxib Action PathwaySMP00699Not Available
Lysine DegradationSMP00037map00310
Lysinuric Protein IntoleranceSMP00197Not Available
Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI)SMP00585Not Available
Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency (Wolman Disease)SMP00319Not Available
Magnesium salicylate Action PathwaySMP00698Not Available
Malonic AciduriaSMP00198Not Available
Malonyl-coa decarboxylase deficiencySMP00502Not Available
Maple Syrup Urine DiseaseSMP00199Not Available
Medium chain acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD)SMP00542Not Available
Mefanamic Acid PathwaySMP00109Not Available
Meloxicam PathwaySMP00106Not Available
Mepivacaine PathwaySMP00399Not Available
Mercaptopurine Metabolism PathwaySMP00609Not Available
Mercaptopurine PathwaySMP00428Not Available
Metachromatic Leukodystrophy (MLD)SMP00347Not Available
Methadone Metabolism PathwaySMP00624Not Available
Methadone PathwaySMP00408Not Available
Methadyl Acetate Action PathwaySMP00678Not Available
Methionine Adenosyltransferase DeficiencySMP00221Not Available
Methionine MetabolismSMP00033map00270
Methotrexate PathwaySMP00432Not Available
Methyclothiazide PathwaySMP00081Not Available
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)SMP00543Not Available
Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Deficiency (MTHFRD)SMP00340Not Available
Methylmalonate Semialdehyde Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00384Not Available
Methylmalonic AciduriaSMP00200Not Available
Methylmalonic Aciduria Due to Cobalamin-Related DisordersSMP00201Not Available
Metiamide Action PathwaySMP00735Not Available
Metipranolol Action PathwaySMP00667Not Available
Metolazone PathwaySMP00105Not Available
Metoprolol PathwaySMP00302Not Available
Mevalonic aciduriaSMP00510Not Available
Mexiletine PathwaySMP00329Not Available
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Long Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsSMP00482Not Available
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Medium Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsSMP00481Not Available
Mitochondrial Beta-Oxidation of Short Chain Saturated Fatty AcidsSMP00480Not Available
Mitochondrial complex II deficiencySMP00548Not Available
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeSMP00536Not Available
Mitochondrial Electron Transport ChainSMP00355map00190
MNGIE (Mitochondrial Neurogastrointestinal Encephalopathy)SMP00202Not Available
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencySMP00203Not Available
Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)SMP00533Not Available
Morphine PathwaySMP00406Not Available
Mucopolysaccharidosis VI. Sly syndromeSMP00556Not Available
Multiple carboxylase deficiency, neonatal or early onset formSMP00564Not Available
Muscle/Heart ContractionSMP00588Not Available
Mycophenolic Acid Metabolism PathwaySMP00652Not Available
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencySMP00537Not Available
Nabumetone PathwaySMP00114Not Available
Nadolol PathwaySMP00303Not Available
Nalbuphine Action PathwaySMP00691Not Available
Naloxone Action PathwaySMP00688Not Available
Naltrexone Action PathwaySMP00687Not Available
Naproxen PathwaySMP00120Not Available
Nebivolol PathwaySMP00366Not Available
Nepafenac Action PathwaySMP00702Not Available
Nevirapine Metabolism PathwaySMP00642Not Available
Nicotinate and Nicotinamide MetabolismSMP00048map00760
Nicotine Metabolism PathwaySMP00628Not Available
Nicotine PathwaySMP00431Not Available
Nifedipine PathwaySMP00379Not Available
Nimodipine PathwaySMP00380Not Available
Nisoldipine PathwaySMP00381Not Available
Nitrendipine PathwaySMP00382Not Available
Nizatidine PathwaySMP00233Not Available
Non Ketotic HyperglycinemiaSMP00223Not Available
Nucleotide Sugars MetabolismSMP00010map00520
Omeprazole PathwaySMP00226Not Available
Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)SMP00363Not Available
Ornithine Transcarbamylase Deficiency (OTC Deficiency)SMP00205Not Available
Oxaprozin PathwaySMP00113Not Available
Oxprenolol PathwaySMP00304Not Available
Oxybuprocaine PathwaySMP00400Not Available
Oxycodone PathwaySMP00409Not Available
Oxymorphone PathwaySMP00412Not Available
Paclitaxel PathwaySMP00434Not Available
Pamidronate PathwaySMP00117Not Available
Pantoprazole PathwaySMP00228Not Available
Pantothenate and CoA BiosynthesisSMP00027map00770
Penbutolol PathwaySMP00305Not Available
Pentazocine Action PathwaySMP00686Not Available
Pentose Phosphate PathwaySMP00031map00030
Phenylalanine and Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00008map00360
Phenylbutazone Action PathwaySMP00701Not Available
PhenylketonuriaSMP00206Not Available
Phenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) PathwaySMP00327Not Available
Phosphatidylinositol Phosphate MetabolismSMP00463map00562
Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency 1 (PEPCK1)SMP00560Not Available
Phytanic Acid Peroxisomal OxidationSMP00450Not Available
Pindolol PathwaySMP00306Not Available
Pirenzepine PathwaySMP00246Not Available
Piroxicam PathwaySMP00077Not Available
Plasmalogen SynthesisSMP00479Not Available
Polythiazide PathwaySMP00080Not Available
Porphyria Variegata (PV)SMP00346Not Available
Porphyrin MetabolismSMP00024map00860
Practolol Action PathwaySMP00669Not Available
Pravastatin PathwaySMP00089Not Available
Prilocaine PathwaySMP00401Not Available
Primary hyperoxaluria II, PH2SMP00558Not Available
Procainamide (Antiarrhythmic) PathwaySMP00324Not Available
Procaine PathwaySMP00402Not Available
Prolidase Deficiency (PD)SMP00207Not Available
Prolinemia Type IISMP00208Not Available
Propanoate MetabolismSMP00016map00640
Proparacaine PathwaySMP00403Not Available
Propionic AcidemiaSMP00236Not Available
Propoxyphene Action PathwaySMP00672Not Available
Propranolol PathwaySMP00307Not Available
Pterine BiosynthesisSMP00005map00790
Purine MetabolismSMP00050map00230
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencySMP00210Not Available
Pyridoxine dependency with seizuresSMP00571Not Available
Pyrimidine MetabolismSMP00046map00240
Pyruvaldehyde DegradationSMP00459Not Available
Pyruvate Decarboxylase E1 Component Deficiency (PDHE1 Deficiency)SMP00334Not Available
Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex DeficiencySMP00212Not Available
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E2)SMP00551Not Available
Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency (E3)SMP00550Not Available
Pyruvate kinase deficiencySMP00559Not Available
Pyruvate MetabolismSMP00060map00620
Quinethazone PathwaySMP00091Not Available
Quinidine PathwaySMP00323Not Available
Rabeprazole PathwaySMP00229Not Available
Ranitidine PathwaySMP00230Not Available
Refsum DiseaseSMP00451Not Available
Remifentanil PathwaySMP00416Not Available
Retinol MetabolismSMP00074map00830
Riboflavin MetabolismSMP00070map00740
Ribose-5-phosphate isomerase deficiencySMP00519Not Available
Risedronate PathwaySMP00112Not Available
Rofecoxib PathwaySMP00087Not Available
Ropivacaine PathwaySMP00404Not Available
Rosiglitazone Metabolism PathwaySMP00653Not Available
Rosuvastatin PathwaySMP00092Not Available
Roxatidine acetate Action PathwaySMP00734Not Available
S-Adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) Hydrolase DeficiencySMP00214Not Available
Saccharopinuria/Hyperlysinemia IISMP00239Not Available
Salicylate-sodium Action PathwaySMP00708Not Available
Salicylic Acid Action PathwaySMP00709Not Available
Salla Disease/Infantile Sialic Acid Storage DiseaseSMP00240Not Available
Salsalate Action PathwaySMP00707Not Available
sarcosine oncometabolite pathway SMP02313Not Available
SarcosinemiaSMP00244Not Available
Segawa syndromeSMP00490Not Available
Selenoamino Acid MetabolismSMP00029map00450
Sepiapterin reductase deficiencySMP00491Not Available
Short Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (SCAD Deficiency)SMP00235Not Available
Short-chain 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (SCHAD)SMP00568Not Available
Sialuria or French Type SialuriaSMP00216Not Available
Sialuria or French Type SialuriaSMP00217Not Available
Simvastatin Action PathwaySMP00082Not Available
Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS)SMP00389Not Available
Sorafenib Metabolism PathwaySMP00648Not Available
Sotalol Action PathwaySMP00660Not Available
Spermidine and Spermine BiosynthesisSMP00445Not Available
Sphingolipid MetabolismSMP00034map00500
Spironolactone PathwaySMP00134Not Available
Starch and Sucrose MetabolismSMP00058map00500
Steroid BiosynthesisSMP00023map00100
SteroidogenesisSMP00130map00140
Succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiencySMP00567Not Available
Succinyl CoA: 3-ketoacid CoA transferase deficiencySMP00569Not Available
Sucrase-isomaltase deficiencySMP00557Not Available
Sufentanil PathwaySMP00417Not Available
Sulfate/Sulfite MetabolismSMP00041map00920
Sulfite oxidase deficiencySMP00532Not Available
Sulindac PathwaySMP00094Not Available
Suprofen PathwaySMP00101Not Available
Tamoxifen Metabolism PathwaySMP00606Not Available
Tamoxifen PathwaySMP00471Not Available
Tay-Sachs DiseaseSMP00390Not Available
Teniposide Metabolism PathwaySMP00602Not Available
Teniposide PathwaySMP00443Not Available
Tenofovir PathwaySMP00419Not Available
Tenoxicam Action PathwaySMP00706Not Available
The oncogenic action of 2-hydroxyglutarateSMP02291Not Available
The oncogenic action of D-2-hydroxyglutarate in Hydroxygluaricaciduria SMP02359Not Available
The oncogenic action of FumarateSMP02295Not Available
The oncogenic action of L-2-hydroxyglutarate in HydroxygluaricaciduriaSMP02358Not Available
The oncogenic action of SuccinateSMP02292Not Available
Thiamine MetabolismSMP00076map00730
Thioguanine PathwaySMP00430Not Available
Thyroid hormone synthesisSMP00716Not Available
Tiaprofenic Acid Action PathwaySMP00705Not Available
Timolol Action PathwaySMP00659Not Available
Tocainide PathwaySMP00330Not Available
Tolmetin Action PathwaySMP00704Not Available
Torsemide PathwaySMP00118Not Available
Tramadol Action Action PathwaySMP00671Not Available
Tramadol Metabolism PathwaySMP00637Not Available
Transaldolase deficiencySMP00520Not Available
Transfer of Acetyl Groups into MitochondriaSMP00466Not Available
Trehalose DegradationSMP00467Not Available
Triamterene PathwaySMP00132Not Available
Trichlormethiazide PathwaySMP00121Not Available
Trifunctional protein deficiencySMP00545Not Available
Triosephosphate isomeraseSMP00563Not Available
Trisalicylate-choline Action PathwaySMP00703Not Available
Tryptophan MetabolismSMP00063map00380
Tyrosine hydroxylase deficiencySMP00497Not Available
Tyrosine MetabolismSMP00006map00350
Tyrosinemia Type 2 (or Richner-Hanhart syndrome)SMP00369Not Available
Tyrosinemia Type 3 (TYRO3)SMP00370Not Available
Tyrosinemia Type ISMP00218Not Available
Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newbornSMP00494Not Available
Ubiquinone BiosynthesisSMP00065map00130
UMP Synthase Deiciency (Orotic Aciduria)SMP00219Not Available
Urea CycleSMP00059map00330
Ureidopropionase deficiencySMP00492Not Available
Valdecoxib PathwaySMP00116Not Available
Valine, Leucine and Isoleucine DegradationSMP00032map00280
Valproic Acid Metabolism PathwaySMP00635Not Available
Venlafaxine Metabolism PathwaySMP00636Not Available
Verapamil PathwaySMP00375Not Available
Very-long-chain acyl coa dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD)SMP00540Not Available
Vinblastine PathwaySMP00436Not Available
Vincristine PathwaySMP00437Not Available
Vindesine PathwaySMP00438Not Available
Vinorelbine PathwaySMP00439Not Available
Vitamin A DeficiencySMP00336Not Available
Vitamin B6 MetabolismSMP00017map00750
Vitamin K MetabolismSMP00464Not Available
Warburg EffectSMP00654Not Available
Wolman diseaseSMP00511Not Available
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)SMP00220Not Available
Xanthinuria type ISMP00512Not Available
Xanthinuria type IISMP00513Not Available
Zellweger SyndromeSMP00316Not Available
Zoledronate PathwaySMP00107Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Amniotic FluidDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Aqueous HumourDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Ascites FluidDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
LymphDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SweatDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
TearsDetected and Quantified55,000,000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB013390
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID937
KEGG Compound IDC00001
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG ID33474
Wikipedia LinkWater
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB02111
Metagene LinkHMDB02111
METLIN ID3194
PubChem Compound962
PDB IDHOH
ChEBI ID15377
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General ReferencesNot Available

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 1159 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
This is a copper-containing oxidase that functions in the formation of pigments such as melanins and other polyphenolic compounds. Catalyzes the rate-limiting conversions of tyrosine to DOPA, DOPA to DOPA-quinone and possibly 5,6-dihydroxyindole to indole-5,6 quinone.
Gene Name:
TYR
Uniprot ID:
P14679
Molecular weight:
60392.69
Reactions
L-Dopa + Oxygen → Dopaquinone + Waterdetails
L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → Dopaquinone + Waterdetails
L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → L-Dopa + Waterdetails
L-Dopa + L-Tyrosine + Oxygen → Dopaquinone + L-Dopa + Waterdetails
Hydroquinone + Oxygen → Quinone + Waterdetails
Tyramine + Oxygen + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → Dopamine + NAD + Waterdetails
(S)-N-Methylcoclaurine + Oxygen + Reduced acceptor → (S)-3-Hydroxy-N-methylcoclaurine + Water + Acceptordetails
5,6-Dihydroxyindole + Oxygen → Indole-5,6-quinone + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1B
Uniprot ID:
P00325
Molecular weight:
39835.17
Reactions
Chloral hydrate + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → 2,2,2-Trichloroethanol + NAD + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADH1C
Uniprot ID:
P00326
Molecular weight:
39867.27
Reactions
Chloral hydrate + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → 2,2,2-Trichloroethanol + NAD + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Class-III ADH is remarkably ineffective in oxidizing ethanol, but it readily catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain primary alcohols and the oxidation of S-(hydroxymethyl) glutathione.
Gene Name:
ADH5
Uniprot ID:
P11766
Molecular weight:
39723.945
Reactions
Chloral hydrate + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → 2,2,2-Trichloroethanol + NAD + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Involved in the biosynthesis of glycosaminoglycans; hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate, and heparan sulfate.
Gene Name:
UGDH
Uniprot ID:
O60701
Molecular weight:
47602.08
Reactions
Uridine diphosphate glucose + NAD + Water → Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid + NADHdetails
Uridine diphosphate glucose + Water + NAD → Uridine diphosphate glucuronic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in 3-beta-hydroxy-delta5-steroid dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
NSDHL
Uniprot ID:
Q15738
Molecular weight:
41899.99
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Inosine 5'-phosphate + NAD(+) + H(2)O = xanthosine 5'-phosphate + NADH
Gene Name:
IMPDH1
Uniprot ID:
A4D0Z6
Molecular weight:
64319.3
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of inosine 5'-phosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5'-phosphate (XMP), the first committed and rate-limiting step in the de novo synthesis of guanine nucleotides, and therefore plays an important role in the regulation of cell growth. Could also have a single-stranded nucleic acid-binding activity and could play a role in RNA and/or DNA metabolism. It may also have a role in the development of malignancy and the growth progression of some tumors.
Gene Name:
IMPDH2
Uniprot ID:
P12268
Molecular weight:
55804.495
Reactions
Inosinic acid + NAD + Water → Xanthylic acid + NADHdetails
Inosinic acid + NAD + Water → Xanthylic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
6-Thioinosine-5'-monophosphate + NAD + Water → 6-Thioxanthine 5'-monophosphate + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the reduction of the keto group on the C-3 of sterols.
Gene Name:
HSD17B7
Uniprot ID:
P56937
Molecular weight:
38205.77
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH2
Uniprot ID:
P05091
Molecular weight:
56380.93
Reactions
An aldehyde + NAD + Water → a carboxylate + NADHdetails
2,5-Dioxopentanoate + NADP + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Aldehyde + NAD + Water → Fatty acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glyceraldehyde + NAD + Water → Glyceric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NADP + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Indoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Indoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
2-Propyn-1-al + NAD + Water → Propynoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
D-Glucurono-6,3-lactone + NAD + Water → Glucaric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + NAD + Water → Methylmalonic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Imidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-al + NAD + Water → 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanate + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid + Hydrogen Ion + NADHdetails
N4-Acetylaminobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
trans-3-Chloroallyl aldehyde + Water → trans-3-Chloroacrylic acid + Hydrogen Iondetails
cis-3-Chloroallyl aldehyde + Water → cis-3-Chloroacrylic acid + Hydrogen Iondetails
Chloroacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Chloroacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Perillyl aldehyde + Water + NAD → Perillic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation.
Gene Name:
ALDH1B1
Uniprot ID:
P30837
Molecular weight:
57248.96
Reactions
An aldehyde + NAD + Water → a carboxylate + NADHdetails
2,5-Dioxopentanoate + NADP + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Aldehyde + NAD + Water → Fatty acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glyceraldehyde + NAD + Water → Glyceric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NADP + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Indoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Indoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
2-Propyn-1-al + NAD + Water → Propynoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
D-Glucurono-6,3-lactone + NAD + Water → Glucaric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + NAD + Water → Methylmalonic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Imidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-al + NAD + Water → 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanate + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid + Hydrogen Ion + NADHdetails
N4-Acetylaminobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
trans-3-Chloroallyl aldehyde + Water → trans-3-Chloroacrylic acid + Hydrogen Iondetails
cis-3-Chloroallyl aldehyde + Water → cis-3-Chloroacrylic acid + Hydrogen Iondetails
Chloroacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Chloroacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Perillyl aldehyde + Water + NAD → Perillic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Seems to be the key enzyme in the formation of an RA gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during the early eye development and also in the development of the olfactory system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A3
Uniprot ID:
P47895
Molecular weight:
56107.995
Reactions
An aldehyde + NAD(P)(+) + Water → a carboxylate + NAD(P)Hdetails
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Phenylacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Phenylacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Phenylacetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Phenylacetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NADP + Water → p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxybenzeneacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NADP + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxybenzeneacetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NAD + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NADP + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Homovanillin + NAD + Water → Homovanillic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Homovanillin + NADP + Water → Homovanillic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + NAD + Water → Vanillylmandelic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + NADP + Water → Vanillylmandelic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Methylimidazole acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Methylimidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Aldophosphamide + NAD + Water → Carboxyphosphamide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Aldophosphamide + NADP + Water → Carboxyphosphamide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Carbamoyl-2-phenylpropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → 3-Carbamoyl-2-phenylpropionic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Converts gamma-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde into gamma-butyrobetaine. Catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of a broad range of aldehydes to the corresponding acids in an NAD-dependent reaction.
Gene Name:
ALDH9A1
Uniprot ID:
P49189
Molecular weight:
56291.485
Reactions
4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADHdetails
An aldehyde + NAD + Water → a carboxylate + NADHdetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADHdetails
Aldehyde + NAD + Water → Fatty acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glyceraldehyde + NAD + Water → Glyceric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NADP + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Indoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Indoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
2-Propyn-1-al + NAD + Water → Propynoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
D-Glucurono-6,3-lactone + NAD + Water → Glucaric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + NAD + Water → Methylmalonic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Imidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-al + NAD + Water → 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanate + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid + Hydrogen Ion + NADHdetails
N4-Acetylaminobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to fatty acids. Active on a variety of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes between 6 and 24 carbons in length. Responsible for conversion of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) degradation product hexadecenal to hexadecenoic acid.
Gene Name:
ALDH3A2
Uniprot ID:
P51648
Molecular weight:
54847.36
Reactions
An aldehyde + NAD + Water → a carboxylate + NADHdetails
2,5-Dioxopentanoate + NADP + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Aldehyde + NAD + Water → Fatty acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glyceraldehyde + NAD + Water → Glyceric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NADP + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Indoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Indoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
2-Propyn-1-al + NAD + Water → Propynoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
D-Glucurono-6,3-lactone + NAD + Water → Glucaric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + NAD + Water → Methylmalonic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Imidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-al + NAD + Water → 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanate + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid + Hydrogen Ion + NADHdetails
N4-Acetylaminobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
trans-3-Chloroallyl aldehyde + Water → trans-3-Chloroacrylic acid + Hydrogen Iondetails
cis-3-Chloroallyl aldehyde + Water → cis-3-Chloroacrylic acid + Hydrogen Iondetails
Chloroacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Chloroacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Perillyl aldehyde + Water + NAD → Perillic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Multifunctional enzyme mediating important protective effects. Metabolizes betaine aldehyde to betaine, an important cellular osmolyte and methyl donor. Protects cells from oxidative stress by metabolizing a number of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes. Involved in lysine catabolism.
Gene Name:
ALDH7A1
Uniprot ID:
P49419
Molecular weight:
58486.74
Reactions
(S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NAD(P)(+) + Water → Aminoadipic acid + NAD(P)Hdetails
Betaine aldehyde + NAD + Water → Trimethylammonioacetate + NADHdetails
An aldehyde + NAD + Water → a carboxylate + NADHdetails
Aldehyde + NAD + Water → Fatty acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Acetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Glyceraldehyde + NAD + Water → Glyceric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NADP + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Aminobutyraldehyde + NAD + Water → Gamma-Aminobutyric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Betaine aldehyde + NAD + Water → Trimethylammonioacetate + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Betaine aldehyde + NADP + Water → Trimethylammonioacetate + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Indoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Indoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
2-Propyn-1-al + NAD + Water → Propynoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
D-Glucurono-6,3-lactone + NAD + Water → Glucaric acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NAD + Water → Aminoadipic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-2-amino-6-oxohexanoate + NADP + Water → Aminoadipic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Trimethylammoniobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Trimethylammoniobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
(S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + NAD + Water → Methylmalonic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Imidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestan-26-al + NAD + Water → 3a,7a-Dihydroxy-5b-cholestanate + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid + Hydrogen Ion + NADHdetails
N4-Acetylaminobutanal + NAD + Water → 4-Acetamidobutanoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH3B2
Uniprot ID:
P48448
Molecular weight:
42623.62
Reactions
An aldehyde + NAD(P)(+) + Water → a carboxylate + NAD(P)Hdetails
Acetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Acetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Aminopropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → Beta-Alanine + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Phenylacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Phenylacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Phenylacetaldehyde + NADP + Water → Phenylacetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NADP + Water → p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NAD + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxybenzeneacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + NADP + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxybenzeneacetic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NAD + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + NADP + Water → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Homovanillin + NAD + Water → Homovanillic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Homovanillin + NADP + Water → Homovanillic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + NAD + Water → Vanillylmandelic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + NADP + Water → Vanillylmandelic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Methylimidazole acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Methylimidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Aldophosphamide + NAD + Water → Carboxyphosphamide + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Aldophosphamide + NADP + Water → Carboxyphosphamide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
3-Carbamoyl-2-phenylpropionaldehyde + NAD + Water → 3-Carbamoyl-2-phenylpropionic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes one step in the degradation of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA).
Gene Name:
ALDH5A1
Uniprot ID:
P51649
Molecular weight:
57214.23
Reactions
Succinic acid semialdehyde + NAD + Water → Succinic acid + NADHdetails
Succinic acid semialdehyde + NAD + Water → Succinic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in acyl carrier activity
Specific function:
Acyl-CoA synthases catalyze the initial reaction in fatty acid metabolism, by forming a thioester with CoA
Gene Name:
AASDH
Uniprot ID:
Q4L235
Molecular weight:
122596.1
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Binds free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Can convert/oxidize retinaldehyde to retinoic acid (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A1
Uniprot ID:
P00352
Molecular weight:
54861.44
Reactions
Retinal + NAD + Water → 13-cis-Retinoic acid + NADHdetails
Retinal + NAD + Water → All-trans-retinoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
9-cis-Retinal + NAD + Water → 9-cis-Retinoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Does metabolize octanal and decanal but does not metabolize citral, benzaldehyde, acetaldehyde and propanal efficiently (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A2
Uniprot ID:
O94788
Molecular weight:
54672.24
Reactions
Retinal + NAD + Water → 13-cis-Retinoic acid + NADHdetails
Retinal + NAD + Water → All-trans-retinoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
9-cis-Retinal + NAD + Water → 9-cis-Retinoic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q06278
Molecular weight:
147916.735
Reactions
An aldehyde + Water + Oxygen → a carboxylate + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Pyridoxal + Oxygen + Water → 4-Pyridoxic acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Gentisic acid + Hydrogen peroxide → Gentisate aldehyde + Oxygen + Waterdetails
Methylmalonic acid + Hydrogen peroxide → (S)-Methylmalonic acid semialdehyde + Oxygen + Waterdetails
1-Methylnicotinamide + Oxygen + Water → N1-Methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen Iondetails
5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + Oxygen + Water → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Citalopram aldehyde + Water + Oxygen → Citalopram propionic acid + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
1-Methylnicotinamide + Oxygen + Water → N1-Methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the 6-electron oxidation of protoporphyrinogen-IX to form protoporphyrin-IX.
Gene Name:
PPOX
Uniprot ID:
P50336
Molecular weight:
50764.8
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
May be involved in learning and memory reactions by increasing the turnover of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GLUD1
Uniprot ID:
P00367
Molecular weight:
61397.315
Reactions
L-Glutamic acid + Water + NAD(P)(+) → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NAD(P)Hdetails
L-Glutamic acid + NAD + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
L-Glutamic acid + NADP + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Important for recycling the chief excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate, during neurotransmission.
Gene Name:
GLUD2
Uniprot ID:
P49448
Molecular weight:
61433.465
Reactions
L-Glutamic acid + Water + NAD(P)(+) → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NAD(P)Hdetails
L-Glutamic acid + NAD + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
L-Glutamic acid + NADP + Water → Oxoglutaric acid + Ammonia + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular weight:
59681.27
Reactions
RCH(2)NHR' + Water + Oxygen → RCHO + R'NH(2) + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Tryptamine + Water + Oxygen → Indoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Tyramine + Water + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen → Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Norepinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water → Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Serotonin + Water + Oxygen → 5-Hydroxyindoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Epinephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxymandelaldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
N-Acetylputrescine + Water + Oxygen → N4-Acetylaminobutanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
1-Methylhistamine + Water + Oxygen → Methylimidazole acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
3-Methoxytyramine + Water + Oxygen → Homovanillin + Hydrogen peroxide + Ammoniadetails
Normetanephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Metanephrine + Water + Oxygen → 3-Methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycolaldehyde + Hydrogen peroxide + Methylaminedetails
5-Hydroxykynurenamine + Water + Oxygen → 4,6-Dihydroxyquinoline + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxide + Waterdetails
Citalopram + Oxygen + Water → Citalopram aldehyde + Dimethylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
N-Desmethylcitalopram + Oxygen + Water → Citalopram aldehyde + Methylamine + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Didemethylcitalopram + Water + Oxygen → Citalopram aldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in pyridoxamine-phosphate oxidase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of either pyridoxine 5'-phosphate (PNP) or pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate (PMP) into pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP).
Gene Name:
PNPO
Uniprot ID:
Q9NVS9
Molecular weight:
29987.79
Reactions
Pyridoxamine 5'-phosphate + Water + Oxygen → Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Pyridoxamine + Water + Oxygen → Pyridoxal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Responsible for the post-translational oxidative deamination of peptidyl lysine residues in precursors to fibrous collagen and elastin. In addition to cross-linking of extracellular matrix proteins, may have a direct role in tumor suppression.
Gene Name:
LOX
Uniprot ID:
P28300
Molecular weight:
46943.67
Reactions
Peptidyl-L-lysyl-peptide + Oxygen + Water → peptidyl-allysyl-peptide + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Has a monoamine oxidase activity with substrate specificity for 2-phenylethylamine and tryptamine. May play a role in adipogenesis. May be a critical modulator of signal transmission in retina.
Gene Name:
AOC2
Uniprot ID:
O75106
Molecular weight:
80515.11
Reactions
RCH(2)NH(2) + Water + Oxygen → RCHO + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Tyramine + Water + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen → Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water → Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
1,3-Diaminopropane + Oxygen + Water → 3-Aminopropionaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Methylamine + Oxygen + Water → Formaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Cadaverine + Water + Oxygen → 5-Aminopentanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Cell adhesion protein that participates in lymphocyte recirculation by mediating the binding of lymphocytes to peripheral lymph node vascular endothelial cells in an L-selectin-independent fashion. Has a monoamine oxidase activity. May play a role in adipogenesis.
Gene Name:
AOC3
Uniprot ID:
Q16853
Molecular weight:
84621.27
Reactions
RCH(2)NH(2) + Water + Oxygen → RCHO + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Tyramine + Water + Oxygen → 4-Hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Aminoacetone + Water + Oxygen → Pyruvaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Phenylethylamine + Oxygen + Water → Phenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
1,3-Diaminopropane + Oxygen + Water → 3-Aminopropionaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Dopamine + Water + Oxygen → 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Methylamine + Oxygen + Water → Formaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Cadaverine + Water + Oxygen → 5-Aminopentanal + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in copper ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the degradation of compounds such as putrescine, histamine, spermine, and spermidine, substances involved in allergic and immune responses, cell proliferation, tissue differentiation, tumor formation, and possibly apoptosis. Placental DAO is thought to play a role in the regulation of the female reproductive function.
Gene Name:
ABP1
Uniprot ID:
P19801
Molecular weight:
85377.1
Reactions
Histamine + Water + Oxygen → Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Putrescine + Oxygen + Water → 4-Aminobutyraldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
Tryptamine + Water + Oxygen → Indoleacetaldehyde + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH1L1
Uniprot ID:
O75891
Molecular weight:
99752.535
Reactions
10-Formyltetrahydrofolate + NADP + Water → Tetrahydrofolic acid + CO(2) + NADPHdetails
10-Formyltetrahydrofolate + NADP + Water → Tetrahydrofolic acid + Carbon dioxide + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AASS
Uniprot ID:
A4D0W4
Molecular weight:
102130.9
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Irreversible conversion of delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (P5C), derived either from proline or ornithine, to glutamate. This is a necessary step in the pathway interconnecting the urea and tricarboxylic acid cycles. The preferred substrate is glutamic gamma-semialdehyde, other substrates include succinic, glutaric and adipic semialdehydes.
Gene Name:
ALDH4A1
Uniprot ID:
P30038
Molecular weight:
55117.24
Reactions
1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NAD(P)(+) + Water → L-Glutamic acid + NAD(P)Hdetails
L-Glutamic gamma-semialdehyde + NAD + Water → L-Glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NAD + Water → L-Glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
1-Pyrroline-5-carboxylic acid + NADP + Water → L-Glutamic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Pyrroline hydroxycarboxylic acid + NAD + Water → 4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
Pyrroline hydroxycarboxylic acid + NADP + Water → 4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → L-4-Hydroxyglutamate semialdehyde + NAD + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
DMGDH
Uniprot ID:
Q9UI17
Molecular weight:
96810.135
Reactions
Dimethylglycine + electron-transfer flavoprotein + Water → Sarcosine + Formaldehyde + reduced electron-transfer flavoproteindetails
Dimethylglycine + Electron-transferring flavoprotein + Water → Sarcosine + Formaldehyde + Reduced electron-transferring flavoproteindetails
General function:
Involved in proline dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Converts proline to delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate.
Gene Name:
PRODH
Uniprot ID:
O43272
Molecular weight:
56196.675
Reactions
4-Hydroxy-L-glutamic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Ion → L-4-Hydroxyglutamate semialdehyde + NAD + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in heme binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SUOX
Uniprot ID:
P51687
Molecular weight:
60282.59
Reactions
Sulfurous acid + Oxygen + Water → Oat gum + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in thiol oxidase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of sulfhydryl groups in peptide and protein thiols to disulfides with the reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. May contribute to disulfide bond formation in a variety of secreted proteins. Also seems to play a role in regulating the sensitization of neuroblastoma cells for interferon-gamma-induced apoptosis.
Gene Name:
QSOX2
Uniprot ID:
Q6ZRP7
Molecular weight:
77527.975
General function:
Involved in thiol oxidase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of sulfhydryl groups in peptide and protein thiols to disulfides with the reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. May contribute to disulfide bond formation in a variety of secreted proteins. In fibroblasts, it may have tumor-suppressing capabilities being involved in growth regulation.
Gene Name:
QSOX1
Uniprot ID:
O00391
Molecular weight:
66860.075
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
Connects the two COX monomers into the physiological dimeric form
Gene Name:
COX6B2
Uniprot ID:
Q6YFQ2
Molecular weight:
10528.9
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX5B
Uniprot ID:
P10606
Molecular weight:
13695.6
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX6A1
Uniprot ID:
P12074
Molecular weight:
12154.8
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX6A2
Uniprot ID:
Q02221
Molecular weight:
10815.3
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
Connects the two COX monomers into the physiological dimeric form
Gene Name:
COX6B1
Uniprot ID:
P14854
Molecular weight:
10192.3
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX7A1
Uniprot ID:
P24310
Molecular weight:
9117.4
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX7A2
Uniprot ID:
P14406
Molecular weight:
9395.9
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX7C
Uniprot ID:
P15954
Molecular weight:
7245.4
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX8A
Uniprot ID:
P10176
Molecular weight:
7579.0
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX7B2
Uniprot ID:
Q8TF08
Molecular weight:
9077.4
General function:
Involved in cytochrome-c oxidase activity
Specific function:
This protein is one of the nuclear-coded polypeptide chains of cytochrome c oxidase, the terminal oxidase in mitochondrial electron transport
Gene Name:
COX8C
Uniprot ID:
Q7Z4L0
Molecular weight:
8128.6
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Cytochrome c oxidase is the component of the respiratory chain that catalyzes the reduction of oxygen to water. Subunits 1-3 form the functional core of the enzyme complex. CO I is the catalytic subunit of the enzyme. Electrons originating in cytochrome c are transferred via the copper A center of subunit 2 and heme A of subunit 1 to the bimetallic center formed by heme A3 and copper B.
Gene Name:
MT-CO1
Uniprot ID:
P00395
Molecular weight:
57040.91
Reactions
ferrocytochrome c + Oxygen + Hydrogen Ion → ferricytochrome c + Waterdetails

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Involved in the export of copper out of the cells, such as the efflux of hepatic copper into the bile.
Gene Name:
ATP7B
Uniprot ID:
P35670
Molecular weight:
157261.34
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
May supply copper to copper-requiring proteins within the secretory pathway, when localized in the trans-Golgi network. Under conditions of elevated extracellular copper, it relocalized to the plasma membrane where it functions in the efflux of copper from cells.
Gene Name:
ATP7A
Uniprot ID:
Q04656
Molecular weight:
163372.275

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 1159 proteins in total.