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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:38 UTC
Update Date2013-05-17 21:58:10 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB02151
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDimethyl sulfoxide
DescriptionDimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a key dipolar aprotic solvent. It is less toxic than other members of this class: dimethylformamide, dimethylacetamide, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, HMPA. Dimethyl sulfoxide is the chemical compound (CH3)2SO. This colorless liquid is an important "dipolar aprotic solvent." It is readily miscible in a wide range of organic solvents as well as water. It has a distinctive property of penetrating the skin very readily, allowing the handler to taste it. Some describe it as an "oyster-like" taste, others claim it tastes like garlic. DMSO is also employed as a rinsing agent in the electronics industry and, in its deuterated form (DMSO-d6), is a useful solvent in NMR due to its ability to dissolve a wide range of chemical compounds and its minimal interference with the sample signals. In cryobiology DMSO has been used as a cryoprotectant and is still an important constituent of cryoprotectant vitrification mixtures used to preserve organs, tissues, and cell suspensions. It is particularly important in the freezing and long-term storage of embryonic stem cells and hematopoietic stem cell, which are often frozen in a mixture of 10% DMSO and 90% fetal calf serum. As part of an autologous bone marrow transplant the DMSO is re-infused along with the patient's own hematopoietic stem cell. Dimethyl sulfoxide is a by-product of wood pulping. One of the leading suppliers of DMSO is the Gaylord company in the USA. DMSO is frequently used as solvent in a number of chemical reactions. In particular it is an excellent reaction solvent for SN2 alkylations: it is possible to alkylate indoles with very high yields using potassium hydroxide as the base and a similar reaction also occurs with phenols. DMSO can be reacted with methyl iodide to form a sulfoxonium ion which can be reacted with sodium hydride to form a sulfur ylide. The methyl groups of DMSO are somewhat acidic in character (pKa=35) due to the stabilization of the resultant anions by the sulfoxide group.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. (methylsulfinyl)methane
  2. Dimethyl sulfoxide
  3. Dimethyl sulfoxixde
  4. Dimethyl sulfur oxide
  5. Dimethyl sulphoxide
  6. Dimethyl sulpoxide
  7. DMSO
Chemical FormulaC2H6OS
Average Molecular Weight78.133
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight78.013935504
IUPAC Namemethanesulfinylmethane
Traditional IUPAC Namedimethyl sulfoxide
CAS Registry Number67-68-5
SMILES
CS(C)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C2H6OS/c1-4(2)3/h1-2H3
InChI KeyIAZDPXIOMUYVGZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomOrganic Compounds
Super ClassAliphatic Acyclic Compounds
ClassSulfoxides
Sub ClassN/A
Other Descriptors
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
  • sulfoxide(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentSulfoxides
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Drug
Biofunction
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point18.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1000 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-1.35HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
water solubility65.7 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.1ALOGPS
logP-1.4ChemAxon
logS-0.08ALOGPS
pKa (strongest basic)-6.2ChemAxon
physiological charge0ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count1ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area17.07ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity20.73ChemAxon
polarizability7.91ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0 - 1.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01093
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB000764
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID659
KEGG Compound IDC11143
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDimethyl sulfoxide
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB02151
Metagene LinkHMDB02151
METLIN ID3985
PubChem Compound679
PDB IDDMS
ChEBI ID28262
References
Synthesis ReferenceGoeb, Andre. Dimethyl sulfoxide. Ger. Offen. (1976), 12 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Engelke UF, Tangerman A, Willemsen MA, Moskau D, Loss S, Mudd SH, Wevers RA: Dimethyl sulfone in human cerebrospinal fluid and blood plasma confirmed by one-dimensional (1)H and two-dimensional (1)H-(13)C NMR. NMR Biomed. 2005 Aug;18(5):331-6. Pubmed: 15996001

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. Epub 2009 Nov 24. Pubmed: 19934256