Human Metabolome Database Version 3.5

Showing metabocard for Bismuth (HMDB02196)

Record Information
Version 3.5
Creation Date 2006-05-22 08:17:41 -0600
Update Date 2013-02-08 11:22:04 -0700
Secondary Accession Numbers None
Metabolite Identification
Common Name Bismuth
Description Bismuth is a brittle metal with a white, silver-pink hue. Of all the metals, it is the most naturally diamagnetic, and only mercury has a lower thermal conductivity. It is generally considered to be the last naturally occurring stable, non-radioactive element on the periodic table, although it is actually slightly radioactive, with an extremely long half-life. Bismuth compounds are used in cosmetics, medicines (as antacids), and in medical procedures. As a result trace levels of bismuth are found in almost all humans. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. The normal concentration of bismuth in blood is between 1 and 15 ug/L, but absorption from oral preparations produces a significant rise. Distribution of bismuth in the organs is largely independent of the compound administered or the route of administration: the concentration in kidney is always highest and the substance is also retained there for a long time. It is bound to a bismuth-metal binding protein in the kidney, the synthesis of which can be induced by the metal itself. Elimination from the body takes place by the urinary and faecal routes, but the exact proportion contributed by each route is still unknown. Elimination from blood displays multicompartment pharmacokinetics, the shortest half life described in humans being 3.5 minutes, and the longest 17 to 22 years. A number of toxic effects have been attributed to bismuth compounds in humans: nephropathy, encephalopathy, osteoarthropathy, gingivitis, stomatitis and colitis. Whether hepatitis is a side effect, however, is open to dispute. Each of these adverse effects is associated with certain bismuth compounds. Bismuth encephalopathy occurred in France as an epidemic of toxicity and was associated with the intake of inorganic salts including bismuth subnitrate, subcarbonate and subgallate. In the prodromal phase patients developed problems in walking, standing or writing, deterioration of memory, changes in behaviour, insomnia and muscle cramps, together with several psychiatric symptoms.
Structure Thumb
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  1. Bi
  2. Bismuth-209
Chemical Formula Bi
Average Molecular Weight 208.9804
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight 208.980383241
IUPAC Name bismuth(3+) ion
Traditional IUPAC Name bismuth(3+) ion
CAS Registry Number 7440-69-9
InChI Identifier InChI=1S/Bi/q+3
Chemical Taxonomy
Kingdom Inorganic Compounds
Super Class Homogeneous Metal Compounds
Class Homogeneous Post-transition Metal Compounds
Sub Class N/A
Other Descriptors
  • N/A
  • N/A
Direct Parent Homogeneous Post-transition Metal Compounds
Status Detected and Quantified
  • Cosmetic
  • Drug
  • Essential minerals
Application Not Available
Cellular locations Not Available
Physical Properties
State Solid
Experimental Properties
Property Value Reference
Melting Point 271 °C Not Available
Boiling Point Not Available Not Available
Water Solubility Not Available Not Available
LogP Not Available Not Available
Predicted Properties
Property Value Source
LogP 0.15 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count 0 ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count 0 ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area 0 A2 ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count 0 ChemAxon
Refractivity 0 ChemAxon
Polarizability 1.78 ChemAxon
Formal Charge 3 ChemAxon
Physiological Charge 3 ChemAxon
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations Not Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
Tissue Location Not Available
Pathways Not Available
Normal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified
0.000096 +/- 0.000048 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Normal
Abnormal Concentrations
Biofluid Status Value Age Sex Condition Reference
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.00019 +/- 0.0001 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Multiple sclerosis
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.0000957 +/- 0.0000479 uM Adult (>18 years old) Both Parkinson's disease
Blood Detected and Quantified 0.000096 +/- 0.000048 uM Elderly (>65 years old) Both Alzheimer's disease
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  • Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. Pubmed: 16244393 Link_out
      Multiple sclerosis
      • Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. Pubmed: 16244395 Link_out
          Parkinson's disease
          • Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. Pubmed: 16244392 Link_out
              Associated OMIM IDs
              DrugBank ID Not Available
              DrugBank Metabolite ID Not Available
              Phenol Explorer Compound ID Not Available
              Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID Not Available
              FoodDB ID FDB022898
              KNApSAcK ID Not Available
              Chemspider ID 94857 Link_out
              KEGG Compound ID C15471 Link_out
              BioCyc ID Not Available
              BiGG ID Not Available
              Wikipedia Link Bismuth Link_out
              NuGOwiki Link HMDB02196 Link_out
              Metagene Link HMDB02196 Link_out
              METLIN ID Not Available
              PubChem Compound 105143 Link_out
              PDB ID Not Available
              ChEBI ID 33301 Link_out
              Synthesis Reference Not Available
              Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) Download (PDF)
              General References
              1. Ateshkadi A, Lam NP, Johnson CA: Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease. Clin Pharm. 1993 Jan;12(1):34-48. Pubmed: 8428432 Link_out
              2. Ysart G, Miller P, Crews H, Robb P, Baxter M, De L'Argy C, Lofthouse S, Sargent C, Harrison N: Dietary exposure estimates of 30 elements from the UK Total Diet Study. Food Addit Contam. 1999 Sep;16(9):391-403. Pubmed: 10755130 Link_out
              3. Pannequin J, Kovac S, Tantiongco JP, Norton RS, Shulkes A, Barnham KJ, Baldwin GS: A novel effect of bismuth ions: selective inhibition of the biological activity of glycine-extended gastrin. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jan 23;279(4):2453-60. Epub 2003 Oct 6. Pubmed: 14530269 Link_out
              4. Slikkerveer A, de Wolff FA: Pharmacokinetics and toxicity of bismuth compounds. Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp. 1989 Sep-Oct;4(5):303-23. Pubmed: 2682129 Link_out

              Name: Serum albumin
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: ALB
              Uniprot ID: P02768 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA
              Name: Serotransferrin
              Reactions: Not Available
              Gene Name: TF
              Uniprot ID: P02787 Link_out
              Protein Sequence: FASTA
              Gene Sequence: FASTA