|Creation Date||2006-05-22 14:17:41 UTC|
|Update Date||2013-02-08 18:22:04 UTC|
|Secondary Accession Numbers||None|
|Description||Bismuth is a brittle metal with a white, silver-pink hue. Of all the metals, it is the most naturally diamagnetic, and only mercury has a lower thermal conductivity. It is generally considered to be the last naturally occurring stable, non-radioactive element on the periodic table, although it is actually slightly radioactive, with an extremely long half-life. Bismuth compounds are used in cosmetics, medicines (as antacids), and in medical procedures. As a result trace levels of bismuth are found in almost all humans. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. The normal concentration of bismuth in blood is between 1 and 15 ug/L, but absorption from oral preparations produces a significant rise. Distribution of bismuth in the organs is largely independent of the compound administered or the route of administration: the concentration in kidney is always highest and the substance is also retained there for a long time. It is bound to a bismuth-metal binding protein in the kidney, the synthesis of which can be induced by the metal itself. Elimination from the body takes place by the urinary and faecal routes, but the exact proportion contributed by each route is still unknown. Elimination from blood displays multicompartment pharmacokinetics, the shortest half life described in humans being 3.5 minutes, and the longest 17 to 22 years. A number of toxic effects have been attributed to bismuth compounds in humans: nephropathy, encephalopathy, osteoarthropathy, gingivitis, stomatitis and colitis. Whether hepatitis is a side effect, however, is open to dispute. Each of these adverse effects is associated with certain bismuth compounds. Bismuth encephalopathy occurred in France as an epidemic of toxicity and was associated with the intake of inorganic salts including bismuth subnitrate, subcarbonate and subgallate. In the prodromal phase patients developed problems in walking, standing or writing, deterioration of memory, changes in behaviour, insomnia and muscle cramps, together with several psychiatric symptoms.|
|Average Molecular Weight||208.9804|
|Monoisotopic Molecular Weight||208.980383241|
|IUPAC Name||bismuth(3+) ion|
|Traditional IUPAC Name||bismuth(3+) ion|
|CAS Registry Number||7440-69-9|
|Super Class||Homogeneous Metal Compounds|
|Class||Homogeneous Post-transition Metal Compounds|
|Direct Parent||Homogeneous Post-transition Metal Compounds|
|Status||Detected and Quantified|
|Cellular locations||Not Available|
|Melting Point||271 °C||Not Available|
|Boiling Point||Not Available||Not Available|
|Water Solubility||Not Available||Not Available|
|LogP||Not Available||Not Available|
|Cellular Locations||Not Available|
|Tissue Location||Not Available|
|Blood||Detected and Quantified||0.000096 +/- 0.000048 uM||Elderly (>65 years old)||Both||Normal|
|Blood||Detected and Quantified||0.00019 +/- 0.0001 uM||Adult (>18 years old)||Both||Multiple sclerosis|
|Blood||Detected and Quantified||0.0000957 +/- 0.0000479 uM||Adult (>18 years old)||Both||Parkinson's disease|
|Blood||Detected and Quantified||0.000096 +/- 0.000048 uM||Elderly (>65 years old)||Both||Alzheimer's disease|
|Associated Disorders and Diseases|
- Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203.
- Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6.
- Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95.
|Associated OMIM IDs|
|DrugBank ID||Not Available|
|DrugBank Metabolite ID||Not Available|
|Phenol Explorer Compound ID||Not Available|
|Phenol Explorer Metabolite ID||Not Available|
|FoodDB ID||FDB022898 |
|KNApSAcK ID||Not Available|
|Chemspider ID||94857 |
|KEGG Compound ID||C15471 |
|BioCyc ID||Not Available|
|BiGG ID||Not Available|
|Wikipedia Link||Bismuth |
|NuGOwiki Link||HMDB02196 |
|Metagene Link||HMDB02196 |
|METLIN ID||Not Available|
|PubChem Compound||105143 |
|PDB ID||Not Available|
|ChEBI ID||33301 |
|Synthesis Reference||Not Available|
|Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)||Not Available|
- Ateshkadi A, Lam NP, Johnson CA: Helicobacter pylori and peptic ulcer disease. Clin Pharm. 1993 Jan;12(1):34-48.
- Ysart G, Miller P, Crews H, Robb P, Baxter M, De L'Argy C, Lofthouse S, Sargent C, Harrison N: Dietary exposure estimates of 30 elements from the UK Total Diet Study. Food Addit Contam. 1999 Sep;16(9):391-403.
- Pannequin J, Kovac S, Tantiongco JP, Norton RS, Shulkes A, Barnham KJ, Baldwin GS: A novel effect of bismuth ions: selective inhibition of the biological activity of glycine-extended gastrin. J Biol Chem. 2004 Jan 23;279(4):2453-60. Epub 2003 Oct 6.
- Slikkerveer A, de Wolff FA: Pharmacokinetics and toxicity of bismuth compounds. Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp. 1989 Sep-Oct;4(5):303-23.