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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:47 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:11:43 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB02306
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB02162
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHydrochloric acid
DescriptionHydrochloric acid constitutes the majority of gastric acid, the human digestive fluid. In a complex process and at a large energetic burden, it is secreted by parietal cells (also known as oxyntic cells). These cells contain an extensive secretory network (called canaliculi) from which the HCl is secreted into the lumen of the stomach. They are part of the epithelial fundic glands (also known as oxyntic glands) in the stomach. The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). It is a strong acid, the major component of gastric acid and of wide industrial use. Hydrochloric acid must be handled with appropriate safety precautions because it is a highly corrosive liquid. Hydrochloric acid, or muriatic acid by its historical but still occasionally used name, has been an important and frequently used chemical from early history and was discovered by the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan around the year 800. Hydrogen chloride, also known under the name HCl, is a highly corrosive and toxic colorless gas that forms white fumes on contact with humidity. These fumes consist of hydrochloric acid which forms when hydrogen chloride dissolves in water. The hydrogen chloride molecule HCl is a simple diatomic molecule consisting of a hydrogen atom H and a chlorine atom Cl connected with a covalent single bond. Since the chlorine atom is much more electronegative than the hydrogen atom, the covalent bond between the atoms is quite polar. Hydrogen chloride forms corrosive hydrochloric acid on contact with body tissue. Inhalation of the fumes can cause coughing, choking, inflammation of the nose, throat, and upper respiratory tract, and in severe cases, pulmonary edema, circulatory system failure, and death. Skin contact can cause redness, pain, and severe skin burns. Hydrogen chloride may cause severe burns to the eye and permanent eye damage.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Anhydrous Hydrochloric acid
  2. Aqueous hydrogen chloride
  3. Chlorane
  4. Chlorohydric acid
  5. HCL]
  6. Hydrochloric acid (JP15/NF)
  7. Hydrochloric acid gas
  8. Hydrochloric acid [jan]
  9. Hydrogen chloric anhydrous
  10. Hydrogen chloride (acid)
  11. Hydrogen chloride (HCL)
  12. Hydrogen chloride anhydrous [UN1050] [Poison gas]
  13. Marine acid
  14. Muriatic acid
  15. Spirit of salt
  16. [HCL]
Chemical FormulaClH
Average Molecular Weight36.461
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight35.976677739
IUPAC Namehydrogen chloride
Traditional IUPAC Namehydrochloric acid
CAS Registry Number7647-01-0
SMILES
Cl
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/ClH/h1H
InChI KeyVEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Non-metal Compounds
ClassHalogen Organides
Sub ClassHalogen Hydrides
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
  • chlorine molecular entity(ChEBI)
  • hydrogen halide(ChEBI)
  • mononuclear parent hydride(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentHalogen Hydrides
Ontology
StatusExpected and Not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.61ChemAxon
pKa (strongest acidic)-7ChemAxon
physiological charge-1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count0ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area0ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity6.42ChemAxon
polarizability2.65ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB016076
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID307
KEGG Compound IDC01327
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkHydrochloric acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB02306
Metagene LinkHMDB02306
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound313
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17883
References
Synthesis ReferenceSuzuta, Tetsuya; Mori, Yasuhiko; Abe, Tadashi. method to produce chlorine and hydrochloric acid. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (2005), 13 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Part of the host defense system of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is responsible for microbicidal activity against a wide range of organisms. In the stimulated PMN, MPO catalyzes the production of hypohalous acids, primarily hypochlorous acid in physiologic situations, and other toxic intermediates that greatly enhance PMN microbicidal activity.
Gene Name:
MPO
Uniprot ID:
P05164
Molecular weight:
83867.71
Reactions
Hydrochloric acid + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen Ion → HClO + Waterdetails
Hydrochloric acid + Hydrogen peroxide → HClO + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTM2
Uniprot ID:
P28161
Molecular weight:
25744.395
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTM1
Uniprot ID:
P09488
Molecular weight:
25711.555
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Significant glutathione conjugating activity is found only with the model substrate, 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB).
Gene Name:
GSTK1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2Q3
Molecular weight:
31565.605
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Also functions as a glutathione peroxidase.
Gene Name:
MGST3
Uniprot ID:
O14880
Molecular weight:
16516.185
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. May govern uptake and detoxification of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics at the testis and brain blood barriers.
Gene Name:
GSTM3
Uniprot ID:
P21266
Molecular weight:
26559.32
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTA1
Uniprot ID:
P08263
Molecular weight:
25630.785
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Bifunctional enzyme showing minimal glutathione-conjugating activity with ethacrynic acid and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole and maleylacetoacetate isomerase activity. Has also low glutathione peroxidase activity with T-butyl and cumene hydroperoxides. Is able to catalyze the glutathione dependent oxygenation of dichloroacetic acid to glyoxylic acid.
Gene Name:
GSTZ1
Uniprot ID:
O43708
Molecular weight:
17895.68
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Has a wide substrate specificity.
Gene Name:
MGST1
Uniprot ID:
P10620
Molecular weight:
17598.45
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Active on 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene.
Gene Name:
GSTM4
Uniprot ID:
Q03013
Molecular weight:
25561.095
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTM5
Uniprot ID:
P46439
Molecular weight:
25674.455
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in enzyme activator activity
Specific function:
Can catalyze the production of LTC4 from LTA4 and reduced glutathione. Can catalyze the conjugation of 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene with reduced glutathione.
Gene Name:
MGST2
Uniprot ID:
Q99735
Molecular weight:
16620.4
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits glutathione-dependent thiol transferase and dehydroascorbate reductase activities. Has S-(phenacyl)glutathione reductase activity. Has also glutathione S-transferase activity. Participates in the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic and reduces monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsonic acid.
Gene Name:
GSTO1
Uniprot ID:
P78417
Molecular weight:
27565.6
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GSTA5
Uniprot ID:
Q7RTV2
Molecular weight:
25721.725
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles.
Gene Name:
GSTA2
Uniprot ID:
P09210
Molecular weight:
25663.675
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Catalyzes isomerization reactions that contribute to the biosynthesis of steroid hormones. Efficiently catalyze obligatory double-bond isomerizations of delta(5)-androstene-3,17-dione and delta(5)-pregnene-3,20-dione, precursors to testosterone and progesterone, respectively.
Gene Name:
GSTA3
Uniprot ID:
Q16772
Molecular weight:
25301.355
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. This isozyme has a high catalytic efficiency with 4-hydroxyalkenals such as 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE).
Gene Name:
GSTA4
Uniprot ID:
O15217
Molecular weight:
25703.905
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Exhibits glutathione-dependent thiol transferase activity. Has high dehydroascorbate reductase activity and may contribute to the recycling of ascorbic acid. Participates in the biotransformation of inorganic arsenic and reduces monomethylarsonic acid (MMA).
Gene Name:
GSTO2
Uniprot ID:
Q9H4Y5
Molecular weight:
24399.09
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Acts on 1,2-epoxy-3-(4-nitrophenoxy)propane, phenethylisothiocyanate 4-nitrobenzyl chloride and 4-nitrophenethyl bromide. Displays glutathione peroxidase activity with cumene hydroperoxide.
Gene Name:
GSTT1
Uniprot ID:
P30711
Molecular weight:
27334.755
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glutathione transferase activity
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Regulates negatively CDK5 activity via p25/p35 translocation to prevent neurodegeneration.
Gene Name:
GSTP1
Uniprot ID:
P09211
Molecular weight:
23355.625
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
General function:
Involved in protein disulfide oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
LOC51064
Uniprot ID:
Q6FII1
Molecular weight:
25496.6
General function:
Posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Has a sulfatase activity.
Gene Name:
GSTT2
Uniprot ID:
P0CG29
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Conjugation of reduced glutathione to a wide number of exogenous and endogenous hydrophobic electrophiles. Has a sulfatase activity.
Gene Name:
GSTT2B
Uniprot ID:
P0CG30
Molecular weight:
27506.715
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione → S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione → 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione → S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails