Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:47 UTC
Update Date2013-02-09 00:11:43 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB02306
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB02162
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHydrochloric acid
DescriptionHydrochloric acid constitutes the majority of gastric acid, the human digestive fluid. In a complex process and at a large energetic burden, it is secreted by parietal cells (also known as oxyntic cells). These cells contain an extensive secretory network (called canaliculi) from which the HCl is secreted into the lumen of the stomach. They are part of the epithelial fundic glands (also known as oxyntic glands) in the stomach. The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). It is a strong acid, the major component of gastric acid and of wide industrial use. Hydrochloric acid must be handled with appropriate safety precautions because it is a highly corrosive liquid. Hydrochloric acid, or muriatic acid by its historical but still occasionally used name, has been an important and frequently used chemical from early history and was discovered by the alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan around the year 800. Hydrogen chloride, also known under the name HCl, is a highly corrosive and toxic colorless gas that forms white fumes on contact with humidity. These fumes consist of hydrochloric acid which forms when hydrogen chloride dissolves in water. The hydrogen chloride molecule HCl is a simple diatomic molecule consisting of a hydrogen atom H and a chlorine atom Cl connected with a covalent single bond. Since the chlorine atom is much more electronegative than the hydrogen atom, the covalent bond between the atoms is quite polar. Hydrogen chloride forms corrosive hydrochloric acid on contact with body tissue. Inhalation of the fumes can cause coughing, choking, inflammation of the nose, throat, and upper respiratory tract, and in severe cases, pulmonary edema, circulatory system failure, and death. Skin contact can cause redness, pain, and severe skin burns. Hydrogen chloride may cause severe burns to the eye and permanent eye damage.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. Anhydrous Hydrochloric acid
  2. Aqueous hydrogen chloride
  3. Chlorane
  4. Chlorohydric acid
  5. HCL]
  6. Hydrochloric acid (JP15/NF)
  7. Hydrochloric acid gas
  8. Hydrochloric acid [jan]
  9. Hydrogen chloric anhydrous
  10. Hydrogen chloride (acid)
  11. Hydrogen chloride (HCL)
  12. Hydrogen chloride anhydrous [UN1050] [Poison gas]
  13. Marine acid
  14. Muriatic acid
  15. Spirit of salt
  16. [HCL]
Chemical FormulaClH
Average Molecular Weight36.461
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight35.976677739
IUPAC Namehydrogen chloride
Traditional IUPAC Namehydrochloric acid
CAS Registry Number7647-01-0
SMILES
Cl
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/ClH/h1H
InChI KeyVEXZGXHMUGYJMC-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
KingdomInorganic Compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous Non-metal Compounds
ClassHalogen Organides
Sub ClassHalogen Hydrides
Other Descriptors
  • Aliphatic Acyclic Compounds
  • a small molecule(Cyc)
  • chlorine molecular entity(ChEBI)
  • hydrogen halide(ChEBI)
  • mononuclear parent hydride(ChEBI)
Substituents
  • N/A
Direct ParentHalogen Hydrides
Ontology
StatusExpected and Not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Osmolyte, enzyme cofactor, signalling
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0.61ChemAxon
pKa (strongest acidic)-7ChemAxon
physiological charge-1ChemAxon
hydrogen acceptor count0ChemAxon
hydrogen donor count0ChemAxon
polar surface area0ChemAxon
rotatable bond count0ChemAxon
refractivity6.42ChemAxon
polarizability2.65ChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB016076
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID307
KEGG Compound IDC01327
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkHydrochloric acid
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB02306
Metagene LinkHMDB02306
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound313
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17883
References
Synthesis ReferenceSuzuta, Tetsuya; Mori, Yasuhiko; Abe, Tadashi. method to produce chlorine and hydrochloric acid. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho (2005), 13 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

Gene Name:
MPO
Uniprot ID:
P05164
Reactions
Hydrochloric acid + Hydrogen peroxide + Hydrogen Ion unknown HClO + Waterdetails
Hydrochloric acid + Hydrogen peroxide unknown HClO + Waterdetails
Gene Name:
GSTM2
Uniprot ID:
P28161
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
GSTM1
Uniprot ID:
P09488
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
GSTK1
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2Q3
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
MGST3
Uniprot ID:
O14880
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
GSTM3
Uniprot ID:
P21266
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
GSTA1
Uniprot ID:
P08263
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
GSTZ1
Uniprot ID:
O43708
Gene Name:
MGST1
Uniprot ID:
P10620
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
GSTM4
Uniprot ID:
Q03013
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
GSTM5
Uniprot ID:
P46439
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
MGST2
Uniprot ID:
Q99735
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
GSTO1
Uniprot ID:
P78417
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
GSTA5
Uniprot ID:
Q7RTV2
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
GSTA2
Uniprot ID:
P09210
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
GSTA3
Uniprot ID:
Q16772
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
GSTA4
Uniprot ID:
O15217
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
GSTO2
Uniprot ID:
Q9H4Y5
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
GSTT1
Uniprot ID:
P30711
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
GSTP1
Uniprot ID:
P09211
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Gene Name:
LOC51064
Uniprot ID:
Q6FII1
Gene Name:
GSTT2
Uniprot ID:
P0CG29
Gene Name:
GSTT2B
Uniprot ID:
P0CG30
Reactions
1,1-Dichloroethylene epoxide + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Chloroacetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown S-(2-Chloroacetyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl chloride + Glutathione unknown 2-(S-Glutathionyl)acetyl glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails
Trichloroethylene + Glutathione unknown S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)glutathione + Hydrochloric aciddetails