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Record Information
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:53 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:05:40 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameNickel
DescriptionNickel is a solid, silver-white, hard, malleable transition metal with an atomic number of 28. It resists corrosion even at high temperatures. It is present in many alloys in widespread use, including stainless steels. It may also be present as an impurity in any alloy. Nickel is used in the production of coins, jewellery, and nickel-cadmium batteries, and as a catalyst for the hydrogenation of liquid oils to solid fats such as oleomargarine and vegetable shortening. Nickel-containing dental alloys continue to be used successfully in the provision of various forms of dental care. Many of these alloys have applications in the construction of restorations designed to remain in clinical service for many years, including crowns, fixed bridgework, and removable partial dentures. Furthermore, nickel containing alloys find extensive application in orthodontics, including metallic brackets, arch wires, bands, springs and ligature wires. Many instruments and devises, for example, endodontic instruments also contain nickel. Allergic responses are mediated through the immune system. In a sensitized individual, allergic responses can be initiated by relatively small amounts of the allergen; for example, if nickel ions are released from a nickel plated material following direct and prolonged contact with the skin. Individuals are first sensitized to the allergen. Subsequent exposures, if sufficiently high, may then result in an allergic reaction. A number of allergens are used in the clinical practice of dentistry, notably eugenol, mercury, nickel, chromium, cobalt, components of resin-based materials and a host of other chemical agents. The majority of dental allergies, including allergic responses to nickel-containing dental alloys, comprise Type IV hypersensitivity reactions, cell-mediated by T-lymphocytes. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body.(PMID: 17243350 , 16405986 ).
Nickel, ion (ni2+)ChEBI
Nickelous ionChEBI
Carbonyl nickel powderHMDB
Malleable nickelHMDB
Nickel 200HMDB
Nickel 201HMDB
Nickel 204HMDB
Nickel 205HMDB
Nickel 211HMDB
Nickel 212HMDB
Nickel 213HMDB
Nickel 222HMDB
Nickel 223HMDB
Nickel 229HMDB
Nickel 270HMDB
Nickel particlesHMDB
Nickel spongeHMDB
Raney alloyHMDB
Raney nickelHMDB
Chemical FormulaNi
Average Molecular Weight58.6934
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight57.935347922
IUPAC Namenickel(2+) ion
Traditional Namenickel(2+) ion
CAS Registry Number7440-02-0
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Alternative Parents
  • Homogeneous transition metal
  • Inorganic nickel compound
  • Acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAcyclic compounds
External Descriptors
StatusDetected and Quantified
OriginNot Available
  • Essential minerals
  • semi-essential minerals
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point1455 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-08256b3c9e2cc1750f60View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-08256b3c9e2cc1750f60View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-08256b3c9e2cc1750f60View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-4648ffc6f53552c41503View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-4648ffc6f53552c41503View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9000000000-4648ffc6f53552c41503View in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.64 +/- 0.72 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.01415(0.01122-0.01743) uMNot AvailableBothNormal
    • Report on Human B...
BloodDetected and Quantified0.01277(0.01053-0.01536) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Report on Human B...
BloodDetected and Quantified0.053 +/- 0.017 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
BloodDetected and Quantified0.046 +/- 0.02 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.097 +/- 0.109 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified<0.004 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.108 +/- 0.035 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.341 +/- 0.170 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Natheer H. Al-Raw...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00420 (0.00302-0.00572) umol/mmol creatinineNot AvailableBothNormal
    • Report on Human B...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00345(0.00254-0.00447) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Report on Human B...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0080 (0.0015-0.0450) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0028 +/- 0.0015 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
    • West Cadwell, N.J...
    • Basel, Switzerlan...
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.022 +/- 0.011 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMultiple sclerosis details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.011 +/- 0.0057 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParkinson's disease details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.01 +/- 0.0062 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
SalivaDetected and Quantified2.896 +/- 1.533 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedOral squamous cell carcinoma
    • Natheer H. Al-Raw...
SalivaDetected and Quantified3.237 +/- 1.704 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Oral squamous cell carcinoma
    • Natheer H. Al-Raw...
SalivaDetected and Quantified2.215 +/- 0.682 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Oral squamous cell carcinoma
    • Natheer H. Al-Raw...
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Alzheimer's disease
  1. Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. [16244393 ]
Multiple sclerosis
  1. Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. [16244395 ]
Parkinson's disease
  1. Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. [16244392 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB013444
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID909
KEGG Compound IDC19609
BioCyc IDCPD-7425
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNickel
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB02457
Metagene LinkHMDB02457
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound934
ChEBI ID49786
Synthesis ReferenceLightner, David A.; Crist, B. Vincent; Kalyanam, Nagabushanam; May, Leslie M.; Jackman, Dennis E. The octant rule. 15. Antioctant effects: synthesis and circular dichroism of 2-exo- and 2-endo-alkylbicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-7-ones and bicyclo[3.2.1]octan-8-one
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Nielsen FH: How should dietary guidance be given for mineral elements with beneficial actions or suspected of being essential? J Nutr. 1996 Sep;126(9 Suppl):2377S-2385S. [8811801 ]
  2. Uthus EO, Seaborn CD: Deliberations and evaluations of the approaches, endpoints and paradigms for dietary recommendations of the other trace elements. J Nutr. 1996 Sep;126(9 Suppl):2452S-2459S. [8811811 ]
  3. Biego GH, Joyeux M, Hartemann P, Debry G: Daily intake of essential minerals and metallic micropollutants from foods in France. Sci Total Environ. 1998 Jun 30;217(1-2):27-36. [9695171 ]
  4. Hostynek JJ: Sensitization to nickel: etiology, epidemiology, immune reactions, prevention, and therapy. Rev Environ Health. 2006 Oct-Dec;21(4):253-80. [17243350 ]
  5. Setcos JC, Babaei-Mahani A, Silvio LD, Mjor IA, Wilson NH: The safety of nickel containing dental alloys. Dent Mater. 2006 Dec;22(12):1163-8. Epub 2006 Jan 6. [16405986 ]


General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Cleaves A-5'-PPP-5'A to yield AMP and ADP. Possible tumor suppressor for specific tissues.
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Uniprot ID:
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General function:
Involved in transport
Specific function:
Binds copper, nickel, and fatty acids as well as, and bilirubin less well than, serum albumin. Only a small percentage (less than 2%) of the human AFP shows estrogen-binding properties
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Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of formate and 2-keto-4-methylthiobutyrate (KMTB) from 1,2-dihydroxy-3-keto-5-methylthiopentene (DHK-MTPene). Also down-regulates cell migration mediated by MMP14. Necessary for hepatitis C virus replication in an otherwise non-permissive cell line.
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