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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:55 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:05:42 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB02503
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameVanadium
DescriptionVanadium is a steel-grey, corrosion-resistant metal, which exists in oxidation states ranging from -1 to +5. Metallic vanadium does not occur in nature, and the most common valence states are +3, +4, and +5. The pentavalent form (VO3-) predominates in extracellular body fluids whereas the quadrivalent form (VO+2) is the most common intracellular form. Because of its hardness and its ability to form alloys, vanadium (i.e., ferrovanadium) is a common component of hard steel alloys used in machines and tools. Although most foods contain low concentrations of vanadium (< 1 ng/g), food is the major source of exposure to vanadium for the general population. High air concentrations of vanadium occur in the occupation setting during boiler-cleaning operations as a result of the presence of vanadium oxides in the dust. The lungs absorb soluble vanadium compounds (V2O5) well, but the absorption of vanadium salts from the gastrointestinal tract is poor. The excretion of vanadium by the kidneys is rapid with a biological half-life of 20-40 hours in the urine. Physiologically, it exists as an ion in the body. Vanadium is probably an essential trace element, but a vanadium-deficiency disease has not been identified in humans. The estimated daily intake of the US population ranges from 10-60 micrograms V. Vanadyl sulfate is a common supplement used to enhance weight training in athletes at doses up to 60 mg/d. In vitro and animal studies indicate that vanadate and other vanadium compounds increase glucose transport activity and improve glucose metabolism. In general, the toxicity of vanadium compounds is low. Pentavalent compounds are the most toxic and the toxicity of vanadium compounds usually increases as the valence increases. Most of the toxic effects of vanadium compounds result from local irritation of the eyes and upper respiratory tract rather than systemic toxicity. The only clearly documented effect of exposure to vanadium dust is upper respiratory tract irritation characterized by rhinitis, wheezing, nasal hemorrhage, conjunctivitis, cough, sore throat, and chest pain. Case studies have described the onset of asthma after heavy exposure to vanadium compounds, but clinical studies to date have not detected an increased prevalence of asthma in workers exposed to vanadium. Vanadium is a trace element present in practically all cells in plants and animals. It exerts interesting actions in living systems. At pharmacological doses, vanadium compounds display relevant biological actions such as mimicking insulin and growth factors as well as having osteogenic activity. Some vanadium compounds also show antitumoral properties. The importance of vanadium in bone arises from the studies developed to establish the essentiality of this element in animals and humans. Bone tissue, where the element seems to play an important role, accumulates great amounts of vanadium. Among several metals, vanadium has emerged as an extremely potent agent with insulin-like properties. These insulin-like properties have been demonstrated in isolated cells, tissues, different animal models of type I and type II diabetes as well as a limited number of human subjects. Vanadium treatment has been found to improve abnormalities of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and of gene expression in rodent models of diabetes. In isolated cells, it enhances glucose transport, glycogen and lipid synthesis, and inhibits gluconeogenesis and lipolysis. The molecular mechanism responsible for the insulin-like effects of vanadium compounds have been shown to involve the activation of several key components of insulin-signaling pathways that include the mitogen-activated-protein kinases (MAPKs) extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38MAPK, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-K)/protein kinase B (PKB). (PMID: 16998531 , 16456236 , 10382561 )
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
V(3+)ChEBI
VANADIUM ionChEBI
Vanadium(III)ChEBI
Vanadium, ion(3+)ChEBI
VanadiumHMDB
Chemical FormulaV
Average Molecular Weight50.9415
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight50.943963675
IUPAC Namevanadium(3+) ion
Traditional Namevanadium(3+) ion
CAS Registry Number7440-62-2
SMILES
[V+3]
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/V/q+3
InChI KeyInChIKey=KOKKJWHERHSKEB-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as homogeneous transition metal compounds. These are inorganic compounds containing only metal atoms,with the largest atom being a transition metal atom.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous metal compounds
ClassHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentHomogeneous transition metal compounds
Alternative ParentsNot Available
Substituents
  • Homogeneous transition metal
  • Acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAcyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
OriginNot Available
Biofunction
  • Essential minerals
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locationsNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point1910 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP0ChemAxon
Physiological Charge3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity0 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability1.78 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biofluid Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0012 +/- 0.00059 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0016 +/- 0.00098 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00092 (0.00069 - 0.00130) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00047 (0.00033 - 0.00061) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.003+/-0.001 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    details
    Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.404 +/- 0.071 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
    SalivaDetected and Quantified0.583 +/- 0.20 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
      • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.033(0.004-0.083) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
    Normal
    details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.001 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
    UrineDetected and Quantified0.00162 ± 0.00144 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
    Abnormal Concentrations
    BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
    BloodDetected and Quantified0.00098 +/- 0.00059 uMElderly (>65 years old)BothAlzheimer's disease details
    BloodDetected and Quantified0.00216 +/- 0.00137 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothParkinson's disease details
    BloodDetected and Quantified0.0018 +/- 0.00059 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothMultiple sclerosis details
    Associated Disorders and Diseases
    Disease References
    Alzheimer's disease
    1. Bocca B, Forte G, Petrucci F, Pino A, Marchione F, Bomboi G, Senofonte O, Giubilei F, Alimonti A: Monitoring of chemical elements and oxidative damage in patients affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):197-203. [16244393 ]
    Multiple sclerosis
    1. Forte G, Visconti A, Santucci S, Ghazaryan A, Figa-Talamanca L, Cannoni S, Bocca B, Pino A, Violante N, Alimonti A, Salvetti M, Ristori G: Quantification of chemical elements in blood of patients affected by multiple sclerosis. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):213-6. [16244395 ]
    Parkinson's disease
    1. Forte G, Alimonti A, Pino A, Stanzione P, Brescianini S, Brusa L, Sancesario G, Violante N, Bocca B: Metals and oxidative stress in patients with Parkinson's disease. Ann Ist Super Sanita. 2005;41(2):189-95. [16244392 ]
    Associated OMIM IDs
    DrugBank IDNot Available
    DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
    Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
    FoodDB IDNot Available
    KNApSAcK IDNot Available
    Chemspider ID10659555
    KEGG Compound IDC06267
    BioCyc IDNot Available
    BiGG IDNot Available
    Wikipedia LinkVanadium
    NuGOwiki LinkHMDB02503
    Metagene LinkHMDB02503
    METLIN IDNot Available
    PubChem CompoundNot Available
    PDB IDV
    ChEBI ID49948
    References
    Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
    Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
    General References
    1. Kudrin AV: Trace elements in regulation of NF-kappaB activity. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2000 Oct;14(3):129-42. [11130849 ]
    2. Badmaev V, Prakash S, Majeed M: Vanadium: a review of its potential role in the fight against diabetes. J Altern Complement Med. 1999 Jun;5(3):273-91. [10381252 ]
    3. Wang YL, Yu B: Effect of peroxovanadate compound on phenylalanine hydroxylase gene expression. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2000 Jun;74(3):237-44. [11055810 ]
    4. Mukherjee B, Patra B, Mahapatra S, Banerjee P, Tiwari A, Chatterjee M: Vanadium--an element of atypical biological significance. Toxicol Lett. 2004 Apr 21;150(2):135-43. [15093669 ]
    5. Barrio DA, Etcheverry SB: Vanadium and bone development: putative signaling pathways. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2006 Jul;84(7):677-86. [16998531 ]
    6. Mehdi MZ, Pandey SK, Theberge JF, Srivastava AK: Insulin signal mimicry as a mechanism for the insulin-like effects of vanadium. Cell Biochem Biophys. 2006;44(1):73-81. [16456236 ]
    7. Barceloux DG: Vanadium. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1999;37(2):265-78. [10382561 ]