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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-22 15:12:24 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:05:56 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB02991
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB60150
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCysteamine
DescriptionCysteamine is a product of the constitutive degradation of coenzyme A, a process that occurs in all tissues, although some tissues such as brain and heart may have exceptionally high coenzyme A turnover rates. Cysteamine has only one known function, and that is as a precursor for the formation of hypotaurine, which is subsequently oxidized to taurine. The rate of cysteamine production as a result of coenzyme A breakdown is not well understood but it is clear that cysteamine levels are not as dramatically affected by dietary habits as are cysteine levels. Cysteamine is generated from hypotaurine by cysteamine dioxygenase (EC:1.13.11.19), an enzyme that was recently identified in mammals (PMID: 17581819 ). Cysteamine is the simplest stable aminothiol found in the body. It is used in the treatment of disorders of cystine excretion. Cysteamine cleaves the disulfide bond with cysteine to produce molecules that can escape the metabolic defect in cystinosis and cystinuria. Cyst(e)amine may also serve as an endogenous regulator of immune system activity as well as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of Huntington disease. Cysteamine is also used as a radiation-protective agent that oxidizes in air to form cystamine. It can be given intravenously or orally to treat radiation sickness. -- Wikipedia.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-amino-1-EthanethiolChEBI
2-amino-ETHANETHIOLChEBI
2-AminoethanethiolChEBI
beta-AminoethanethiolChEBI
beta-AminoethylthiolChEBI
beta-MEAChEBI
beta-MercaptoethylamineChEBI
MEAChEBI
MercaptaminaChEBI
MercaptamineChEBI
MercaptaminumChEBI
ThioethanolamineChEBI
b-AminoethanethiolGenerator
β-aminoethanethiolGenerator
b-AminoethylthiolGenerator
β-aminoethylthiolGenerator
b-MEAGenerator
β-meaGenerator
b-MercaptoethylamineGenerator
β-mercaptoethylamineGenerator
(2-Mercaptoethyl)amineHMDB
2-Aminoethyl mercaptanHMDB
2-MercaptoethanamineHMDB
Aminoethyl mercaptanHMDB
BecaptanHMDB
CASHHMDB
CisteaminaHMDB
CysteamideHMDB
CysteaminHMDB
CysteaminiumHMDB
CysteinamineHMDB
DecarboxycysteineHMDB
EthanethiolamineHMDB
LambratenHMDB
LambrateneHMDB
MecramineHMDB
MercaminHMDB
MercamineHMDB
MercaptaminHMDB
MerkaminHMDB
RiaconHMDB
Chemical FormulaC2H7NS
Average Molecular Weight77.149
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight77.029919919
IUPAC Name2-aminoethane-1-thiol
Traditional Namecysteamine
CAS Registry Number60-23-1
SMILES
NCCS
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C2H7NS/c3-1-2-4/h4H,1-3H2
InChI KeyInChIKey=UFULAYFCSOUIOV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alkylthiols. These are organic compounds containing the thiol functional group linked to an alkyl chain.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganosulfur compounds
ClassThiols
Sub ClassAlkylthiols
Direct ParentAlkylthiols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alkylthiol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
StatusDetected and Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Redox control, taurine synthesis and sulfur metabolism
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point98 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility23.5 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.01ALOGPS
logP-0.42ChemAxon
logS-0.52ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.42ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)10.4ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area26.02 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity22.39 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability8.65 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-1900000000-287334efed4c27d47e62View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-1900000000-e26f666cab18d523e475View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (3 TMS)splash10-00di-7900000000-25e27a3413a3e9bd6e86View in MoNA
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS)splash10-00dr-3900000000-5f3c0dc6b99382c852e2View in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-9000000000-0fdf5bdcf8a4a1bf9afbView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-9000000000-f99f2f10c6728595d6eaView in MoNA
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-01t9-9000000000-fa7f96e00debe1bebf70View in MoNA
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot Available
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biofluid Locations
  • Urine
Tissue Location
  • Leukocyte
  • Muscle
  • Pancreas
  • Spleen
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
Pantothenate and CoA BiosynthesisSMP00027map00770
Taurine and Hypotaurine MetabolismSMP00021map00430
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected and Quantified<1 nmol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023091
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5834
KEGG Compound IDC01678
BioCyc IDCPD-3721
BiGG ID1808054
Wikipedia LinkCysteamine
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB02991
Metagene LinkHMDB02991
METLIN ID3222
PubChem Compound6058
PDB IDDHL
ChEBI ID17141
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Dominy JE Jr, Simmons CR, Hirschberger LL, Hwang J, Coloso RM, Stipanuk MH: Discovery and characterization of a second mammalian thiol dioxygenase, cysteamine dioxygenase. J Biol Chem. 2007 Aug 31;282(35):25189-98. Epub 2007 Jun 20. [17581819 ]
  2. Pastore A, Massoud R, Motti C, Lo Russo A, Fucci G, Cortese C, Federici G: Fully automated assay for total homocysteine, cysteine, cysteinylglycine, glutathione, cysteamine, and 2-mercaptopropionylglycine in plasma and urine. Clin Chem. 1998 Apr;44(4):825-32. [9554495 ]
  3. Sonies BC, Almajid P, Kleta R, Bernardini I, Gahl WA: Swallowing dysfunction in 101 patients with nephropathic cystinosis: benefit of long-term cysteamine therapy. Medicine (Baltimore). 2005 May;84(3):137-46. [15879904 ]
  4. Lochman P, Adam T, Friedecky D, Hlidkova E, Skopkova Z: High-throughput capillary electrophoretic method for determination of total aminothiols in plasma and urine. Electrophoresis. 2003 Apr;24(7-8):1200-7. [12707912 ]
  5. Chakrabarti MC, Le N, Paik CH, De Graff WG, Carrasquillo JA: Prevention of radiolysis of monoclonal antibody during labeling. J Nucl Med. 1996 Aug;37(8):1384-8. [8708780 ]
  6. Skov Olsen P: Role of epidermal growth factor in gastroduodenal mucosal protection. J Clin Gastroenterol. 1988;10 Suppl 1:S146-51. [3053882 ]
  7. Gahl WA, Schneider JA, Schulman JD, Thoene JG, Reed GF: Predicted reciprocal serum creatinine at age 10 years as a measure of renal function in children with nephropathic cystinosis treated with oral cysteamine. Pediatr Nephrol. 1990 Mar;4(2):129-35. [2397178 ]
  8. Smolin LA, Clark KF, Thoene JG, Gahl WA, Schneider JA: A comparison of the effectiveness of cysteamine and phosphocysteamine in elevating plasma cysteamine concentration and decreasing leukocyte free cystine in nephropathic cystinosis. Pediatr Res. 1988 Jun;23(6):616-20. [3393396 ]
  9. Levtchenko EN, van Dael CM, de Graaf-Hess AC, Wilmer MJ, van den Heuvel LP, Monnens LA, Blom HJ: Strict cysteamine dose regimen is required to prevent nocturnal cystine accumulation in cystinosis. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006 Jan;21(1):110-3. Epub 2005 Oct 27. [16252107 ]
  10. Liu YC, Wang CM, Hsiung KP: Comparison of different protein immobilization methods on quartz crystal microbalance surface in flow injection immunoassay. Anal Biochem. 2001 Dec 15;299(2):130-5. [11730334 ]
  11. Yudkoff M, Foreman JW, Segal S: Effects of cysteamine therapy in nephropathic cystinosis. N Engl J Med. 1981 Jan 15;304(3):141-5. [7442733 ]
  12. Gahl WA, Charnas L, Markello TC, Bernardini I, Ishak KG, Dalakas MC: Parenchymal organ cystine depletion with long-term cysteamine therapy. Biochem Med Metab Biol. 1992 Dec;48(3):275-85. [1476793 ]
  13. Geelen JM, Monnens LA, Levtchenko EN: Follow-up and treatment of adults with cystinosis in the Netherlands. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2002 Oct;17(10):1766-70. [12270982 ]
  14. Stachowicz M, Lehmann B, Tibi A, Prognon P, Daurat V, Pradeau D: Determination of total cysteamine in human serum by a high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1998 Aug;17(4-5):767-73. [9682161 ]
  15. Orloff S, Butler JD, Towne D, Mukherjee AB, Schulman JD: Pantetheinase activity and cysteamine content in cystinotic and normal fibroblasts and leukocytes. Pediatr Res. 1981 Jul;15(7):1063-7. [7254953 ]
  16. de Graaf-Hess A, Trijbels F, Blom H: New method for determining cystine in leukocytes and fibroblasts. Clin Chem. 1999 Dec;45(12):2224-8. [10585356 ]
  17. Chmiel J, Kopczynski Z, Rybczynska M: The influence of the known radioprotective compounds on the metabolism of red blood cells. I. Effect of cysteamine on the cellular level of the intermediates and coenzymes. Pol J Pharmacol Pharm. 1976;28(2):113-21. [934944 ]
  18. Schneider JA, Clark KF, Greene AA, Reisch JS, Markello TC, Gahl WA, Thoene JG, Noonan PK, Berry KA: Recent advances in the treatment of cystinosis. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1995;18(4):387-97. [7494398 ]
  19. Thiele I, Swainston N, Fleming RM, Hoppe A, Sahoo S, Aurich MK, Haraldsdottir H, Mo ML, Rolfsson O, Stobbe MD, Thorleifsson SG, Agren R, Bolling C, Bordel S, Chavali AK, Dobson P, Dunn WB, Endler L, Hala D, Hucka M, Hull D, Jameson D, Jamshidi N, Jonsson JJ, Juty N, Keating S, Nookaew I, Le Novere N, Malys N, Mazein A, Papin JA, Price ND, Selkov E Sr, Sigurdsson MI, Simeonidis E, Sonnenschein N, Smallbone K, Sorokin A, van Beek JH, Weichart D, Goryanin I, Nielsen J, Westerhoff HV, Kell DB, Mendes P, Palsson BO: A community-driven global reconstruction of human metabolism. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 Mar 3. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2488. [23455439 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hormone activity
Specific function:
Somatostatin inhibits the release of somatotropin
Gene Name:
SST
Uniprot ID:
P61278
Molecular weight:
12735.4
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, acting on carbon-nitrogen (but not peptide) bonds, in linear amides
Specific function:
Amidohydrolase that hydrolyzes specifically one of the carboamide linkages in D-pantetheine thus recycling pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and releasing cysteamine.
Gene Name:
VNN1
Uniprot ID:
O95497
Molecular weight:
57011.16
Reactions
Pantetheine + Water → Pantothenic acid + Cysteaminedetails
General function:
Involved in cysteamine dioxygenase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ADO
Uniprot ID:
Q96SZ5
Molecular weight:
29750.535
Reactions
Cysteamine + Oxygen → Hypotaurinedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Amidohydrolase that hydrolyzes specifically one of the carboamide linkages in D-pantetheine thus recycling pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and releasing cysteamine. Involved in the thymus homing of bone marrow cells. May regulate beta-2 integrin-mediated cell adhesion, migration and motility of neutrophil.
Gene Name:
VNN2
Uniprot ID:
O95498
Molecular weight:
33256.93
Reactions
Pantetheine + Water → Pantothenic acid + Cysteaminedetails
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Amidohydrolase that hydrolyzes specifically one of the carboamide linkages in D-pantetheine thus recycling pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and releasing cysteamine.
Gene Name:
VNN3
Uniprot ID:
Q9NY84
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Pantetheine + Water → Pantothenic acid + Cysteaminedetails