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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-22 15:12:32 UTC
Update Date2016-02-11 01:06:02 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB03101
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameViolaxanthin
DescriptionXanthophyll; a carotene epoxide that is precursor to capsanthin; one of 3 xanthophylls involved in evolution of plastids of green plants (oxygen evolution); 3 (violaxanthin, zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin) participate in series of photo-induced interconversions known as ''violaxanthin cycle''; cleavage of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoids (violaxanthin) to xanthoxin, catalyzed by 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, is the key regulatory step of abscisic acid biosynthesis.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
9-cis-ViolaxanthinHMDB
all-trans-ViolaxanthinHMDB
Chemical FormulaC40H56O4
Average Molecular Weight600.8702
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight600.41786028
IUPAC Name(1R,6R)-6-[(1E,3E,5E,7E,9E,11E,13E,15E,17E)-18-[(1S,6R)-4-hydroxy-2,2,6-trimethyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptan-1-yl]-3,7,12,16-tetramethyloctadeca-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-nonaen-1-yl]-1,5,5-trimethyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptan-3-ol
Traditional Name(1R,6R)-6-[(1E,3E,5E,7E,9E,11E,13E,15E,17E)-18-[(1S,6R)-4-hydroxy-2,2,6-trimethyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptan-1-yl]-3,7,12,16-tetramethyloctadeca-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-nonaen-1-yl]-1,5,5-trimethyl-7-oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptan-3-ol
CAS Registry Number126-29-4
SMILES
OC1C[C@@]2(C)O[C@]2(\C=C\C(\C)=C\C=C\C(\C)=C\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\[C@@]23O[C@]2(C)CC(O)CC3(C)C)C(C)(C)C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C40H56O4/c1-29(17-13-19-31(3)21-23-39-35(5,6)25-33(41)27-37(39,9)43-39)15-11-12-16-30(2)18-14-20-32(4)22-24-40-36(7,8)26-34(42)28-38(40,10)44-40/h11-24,33-34,41-42H,25-28H2,1-10H3/b12-11+,17-13+,18-14+,23-21+,24-22+,29-15+,30-16+,31-19+,32-20+/t33?,34?,37-,38-,39-,40+/m1/s1
InChI KeyInChIKey=SZCBXWMUOPQSOX-LOIAFDEVSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthophylls. These are carotenoids containing an oxygenated carotene backbone. Carotenes are characterized by the presence of two end-groups (mostly cyclohexene rings, but also cyclopentene rings or acyclic groups) linked by a long branched alkyl chain. Carotenes belonging form a subgroup of the carotenoids family. Xanthophylls arise by oxygenation of the carotene backbone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassTetraterpenoids
Direct ParentXanthophylls
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Xanthophyll
  • Oxepane
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Ether
  • Oxirane
  • Dialkyl ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Food
  • Plant
Biofunction
  • Cell signaling
  • Fuel and energy storage
  • Fuel or energy source
  • Membrane integrity/stability
Application
  • Nutrients
  • Stabilizers
  • Surfactants and Emulsifiers
Cellular locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point208 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.000568 mg/mLALOGPS
logP8.33ALOGPS
logP7.26ChemAxon
logS-6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)14.84ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area65.52 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity192.33 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability74.63 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Bioavailability0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
SpectraNot Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biofluid LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationNot Available
PathwaysNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB015879
KNApSAcK IDC00003787
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC08614
BioCyc IDCPD-7196
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB03101
Metagene LinkHMDB03101
METLIN ID3672
PubChem Compound53477762
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceAcemoglu, Murat; Uebelhart, Peter; Rey, Max; Eugster, Conrad Hans. , Zurich, Zurich, Switz. Syntheses of enantiomerically pure violaxanthins and related compounds. Helvetica Chimica Acta (1988), 71(5), 931-56.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Czeczuga-Semeniuk E, Wolczynski S: Identification of carotenoids in ovarian tissue in women. Oncol Rep. 2005 Nov;14(5):1385-92. [16211314 ]
  2. Wehner A, Grasses T, Jahns P: De-epoxidation of violaxanthin in the minor antenna proteins of photosystem II, LHCB4, LHCB5, and LHCB6. J Biol Chem. 2006 Aug 4;281(31):21924-33. Epub 2006 Jun 5. [16754673 ]
  3. Latowski D, Kruk J, Burda K, Skrzynecka-Jaskier M, Kostecka-Gugala A, Strzalka K: Kinetics of violaxanthin de-epoxidation by violaxanthin de-epoxidase, a xanthophyll cycle enzyme, is regulated by membrane fluidity in model lipid bilayers. Eur J Biochem. 2002 Sep;269(18):4656-65. [12230579 ]