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Record Information
Version3.6
Creation Date2006-05-22 15:12:38 UTC
Update Date2015-12-02 05:10:15 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB03178
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHeme
DescriptionHeme is the color-furnishing portion of hemoglobin. It is found free in tissues and as the prosthetic group in many hemeproteins. A heme or haem is a prosthetic group that consists of an iron atom contained in the center of a large heterocyclic organic ring called a porphyrin. Not all porphyrins contain iron, but a substantial fraction of porphyrin-containing metalloproteins have heme as their prosthetic subunit; these are known as hemoproteins.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
  1. (protoporphyrinato)iron
  2. Ferroheme
  3. Ferroheme b
  4. Ferroprotoheme
  5. Ferroprotoporphyrin
  6. Ferroprotoporphyrin IX
  7. Ferrous protoheme
  8. Ferrous protoheme IX
  9. Haem
  10. Hem
  11. Heme
  12. Iron protoporphyrin
  13. Iron protoporphyrin IX
  14. Iron(II) protoporphyrin IX
  15. Protoferroheme
  16. Protohaem
  17. Protoheme
  18. Protoheme IX
  19. Reduced hematin
Chemical FormulaC34H32FeN4O4
Average Molecular Weight616.487
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight616.177297665
IUPAC Name(1R)-15,19-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5,10-diethenyl-4,9,14,20-tetramethyl-2λ⁵,22,23λ⁵,25-tetraaza-1-ferraoctacyclo[11.9.1.1¹,⁸.1³,²¹.0²,⁶.0¹⁶,²³.0¹⁸,²².0¹¹,²⁵]pentacosa-2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16(23),17,19,21(24)-undecaene-2,23-bis(ylium)
Traditional NameHeme
CAS Registry Number14875-96-8
SMILES
CC1=C(CCC(O)=O)C2=CC3=C(CCC(O)=O)C(C)=C4C=C5C(C=C)=C(C)C6=[N]5[Fe++]5(N2C1=CC1=[N]5C(=C6)C(C=C)=C1C)N34
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C34H34N4O4.Fe/c1-7-21-17(3)25-13-26-19(5)23(9-11-33(39)40)31(37-26)16-32-24(10-12-34(41)42)20(6)28(38-32)15-30-22(8-2)18(4)27(36-30)14-29(21)35-25;/h7-8,13-16H,1-2,9-12H2,3-6H3,(H4,35,36,37,38,39,40,41,42);/q;+4/p-2/b25-13-,26-13-,27-14-,28-15-,29-14-,30-15-,31-16-,32-16-;
InChI KeyInChIKey=YHLKGEDAGPGZPN-RGGAHWMASA-L
Chemical Taxonomy
DescriptionThis compound belongs to the class of organic compounds known as metallotetrapyrroles. These are polycyclic compounds containing a tetrapyrrole skeleton combined with a metal atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassTetrapyrroles and derivatives
Sub ClassMetallotetrapyrroles
Direct ParentMetallotetrapyrroles
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Metallotetrapyrrole skeleton
  • Substituted pyrrole
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Pyrrole
  • Azacycle
  • Organic metal salt
  • Metalloheterocycle
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic transition metal salt
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic cation
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Origin
  • Endogenous
Biofunction
  • Component of Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • Enzyme co-factor
ApplicationNot Available
Cellular locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0012 mg/mLALOGPS
logP0.29ALOGPS
logP2.19ChemAxon
logS-5.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.28ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area92.22 Å2ChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count8ChemAxon
Refractivity169.77 m3·mol-1ChemAxon
Polarizability69.61 Å3ChemAxon
Number of Rings8ChemAxon
Bioavailability1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash Key
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000002z000-08e94d7c2cff81987ae6View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-10000bz000-150b04b26bd0fad6c95eView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-g2002z4000-4c81932d5d5b64f74979View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-300000z000-77439249aa1341eca15bView in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-h00005z000-d5852f40e204e6105174View in MoNA
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-z0000ui000-cdc39a1b5fe31aa6657eView in MoNA
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Mitochondria
Biofluid Locations
  • Saliva
Tissue Location
  • Skin
Pathways
NameSMPDB LinkKEGG Link
11-beta-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP11B1)SMP00575Not Available
17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP17)SMP00566Not Available
17-Beta Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase III DeficiencySMP00356Not Available
21-hydroxylase deficiency (CYP21)SMP00576Not Available
27-Hydroxylase DeficiencySMP00720Not Available
3-Beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase DeficiencySMP00718Not Available
Acetaminophen Action PathwaySMP00710Not Available
Acetaminophen Metabolism PathwaySMP00640Not Available
Acetylsalicylic Acid PathwaySMP00083Not Available
Acute Intermittent PorphyriaSMP00344Not Available
Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)SMP00535Not Available
Adenosine Deaminase DeficiencySMP00144Not Available
Adenylosuccinate Lyase DeficiencySMP00167Not Available
Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 3 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase DeficiencySMP00373Not Available
Adrenal Hyperplasia Type 5 or Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 17 Alpha-hydroxylase DeficiencySMP00372Not Available
AICA-RibosiduriaSMP00168Not Available
Alendronate pathwaySMP00095Not Available
Androgen and Estrogen MetabolismSMP00068map00150
Antipyrine Action PathwaySMP00692Not Available
Antrafenine Action PathwaySMP00693Not Available
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndromeSMP00717Not Available
Arachidonic Acid MetabolismSMP00075map00590
Arginine and Proline MetabolismSMP00020map00330
Arginine: Glycine Amidinotransferase Deficiency (AGAT Deficiency)SMP00362Not Available
Aromatase deficiencySMP00565Not Available
Artemether Metabolism PathwaySMP00651Not Available
Atorvastatin PathwaySMP00131Not Available
Azathioprine PathwaySMP00427Not Available
Bile Acid BiosynthesisSMP00035map00120
Bromfenac PathwaySMP00102Not Available
Caffeine MetabolismSMP00028map00232
Carbamazepine Metabolism PathwaySMP00634Not Available
Carprofen Action PathwaySMP00694Not Available
Celecoxib Metabolism PathwaySMP00644Not Available
Celecoxib PathwaySMP00096Not Available
Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis (CTX)SMP00315Not Available
Cerivastatin PathwaySMP00111Not Available
CHILD SyndromeSMP00387Not Available
Cholesteryl ester storage diseaseSMP00508Not Available
Chondrodysplasia Punctata II, X Linked Dominant (CDPX2)SMP00388Not Available
Citalopram Metabolism PathwaySMP00627Not Available
Citalopram PathwaySMP00424Not Available
Clomipramine Metabolism PathwaySMP00639Not Available
Clopidogrel Metabolism PathwaySMP00610Not Available
Clopidogrel PathwaySMP00260Not Available
Codeine Metabolism PathwaySMP00621Not Available
Codeine PathwaySMP00405Not Available
Congenital Bile Acid Synthesis Defect Type IISMP00314Not Available
Congenital Bile Acid Synthesis Defect Type IIISMP00318Not Available
Congenital Erythropoietic Porphyria (CEP) or Gunther DiseaseSMP00345Not Available
Congenital Lipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia (CLAH) or Lipoid CAHSMP00371Not Available
Corticosterone methyl oxidase I deficiency (CMO I)SMP00577Not Available
Corticosterone methyl oxidase II deficiency - CMO IISMP00578Not Available
Creatine deficiency, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiencySMP00504Not Available
Cyclophosphamide Metabolism PathwaySMP00604Not Available
Cyclophosphamide PathwaySMP00447Not Available
Degradation of SuperoxidesSMP00468Not Available
Desipramine Metabolism PathwaySMP00626Not Available
Desipramine PathwaySMP00423Not Available
DesmosterolosisSMP00386Not Available
Diclofenac PathwaySMP00093Not Available
Diflunisal PathwaySMP00289Not Available
Disulfiram PathwaySMP00429Not Available
Doxepin Metabolism PathwaySMP00641Not Available
Doxorubicin Metabolism PathwaySMP00650Not Available
Ethanol DegradationSMP00449Not Available
Etodolac PathwaySMP00084Not Available
Etoposide Metabolism PathwaySMP00601Not Available
Etoposide PathwaySMP00442Not Available
Etoricoxib Action PathwaySMP00695Not Available
Familial Hypercholanemia (FHCA)SMP00317Not Available
Felbamate Metabolism PathwaySMP00633Not Available
Fenoprofen Action PathwaySMP00696Not Available
Fluoxetine Metabolism PathwaySMP00646Not Available
Fluoxetine PathwaySMP00426Not Available
Flurbiprofen Action PathwaySMP00697Not Available
Fluvastatin PathwaySMP00119Not Available
Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller SyndromeSMP00365Not Available
Guanidinoacetate Methyltransferase Deficiency (GAMT Deficiency)SMP00188Not Available
Hereditary Coproporphyria (HCP)SMP00342Not Available
Hyper-IgD syndromeSMP00509Not Available
HypercholesterolemiaSMP00209Not Available
Hyperornithinemia with gyrate atrophy (HOGA)SMP00505Not Available
Hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria [HHH-syndrome]SMP00506Not Available
Hyperprolinemia Type ISMP00361Not Available
Hyperprolinemia Type IISMP00360Not Available
Ibandronate PathwaySMP00079Not Available
Ibuprofen Metabolism PathwaySMP00590Not Available
Ibuprofen PathwaySMP00086Not Available
Ifosfamide Metabolism PathwaySMP00605Not Available
Ifosfamide PathwaySMP00448Not Available
Imipramine Metabolism PathwaySMP00625Not Available
Imipramine PathwaySMP00422Not Available
Indomethacin PathwaySMP00104Not Available
Irinotecan Metabolism PathwaySMP00600Not Available
Irinotecan PathwaySMP00433Not Available
Ketoprofen PathwaySMP00085Not Available
Ketorolac PathwaySMP00098Not Available
L-arginine:glycine amidinotransferase deficiencySMP00507Not Available
Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)SMP00364Not Available
Leukotriene C4 Synthesis DeficiencySMP00353Not Available
Levomethadyl Acetate Metabolism PathwaySMP00638Not Available
Lidocaine (Antiarrhythmic) PathwaySMP00328Not Available
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) Metabolism PathwaySMP00620Not Available
Lidocaine (Local Anaesthetic) PathwaySMP00398Not Available
Lornoxicam Action PathwaySMP00700Not Available
Lovastatin PathwaySMP00099Not Available
Lumiracoxib Action PathwaySMP00699Not Available
Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency (Wolman Disease)SMP00319Not Available
Magnesium salicylate Action PathwaySMP00698Not Available
Mefanamic Acid PathwaySMP00109Not Available
Meloxicam PathwaySMP00106Not Available
Mercaptopurine PathwaySMP00428Not Available
Methadone Metabolism PathwaySMP00624Not Available
Methadone PathwaySMP00408Not Available
Mevalonic aciduriaSMP00510Not Available
Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndromeSMP00536Not Available
Mitochondrial Electron Transport ChainSMP00355map00190
Molybdenum Cofactor DeficiencySMP00203Not Available
Mycophenolic Acid Metabolism PathwaySMP00652Not Available
Myoadenylate deaminase deficiencySMP00537Not Available
Nabumetone PathwaySMP00114Not Available
Naproxen PathwaySMP00120Not Available
Nepafenac Action PathwaySMP00702Not Available
Nevirapine Metabolism PathwaySMP00642Not Available
Nicotine Metabolism PathwaySMP00628Not Available
Nicotine PathwaySMP00431Not Available
Ornithine Aminotransferase Deficiency (OAT Deficiency)SMP00363Not Available
Oxaprozin PathwaySMP00113Not Available
Pamidronate PathwaySMP00117Not Available
Phenylbutazone Action PathwaySMP00701Not Available
Phenytoin (Antiarrhythmic) PathwaySMP00327Not Available
Piroxicam PathwaySMP00077Not Available
Porphyria Variegata (PV)SMP00346Not Available
Porphyrin MetabolismSMP00024map00860
Pravastatin PathwaySMP00089Not Available
Prednisone Metabolism PathwaySMP00631Not Available
Prednisone PathwaySMP00440Not Available
Prolidase Deficiency (PD)SMP00207Not Available
Prolinemia Type IISMP00208Not Available
Purine MetabolismSMP00050map00230
Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase DeficiencySMP00210Not Available
Retinol MetabolismSMP00074map00830
Risedronate PathwaySMP00112Not Available
Rofecoxib PathwaySMP00087Not Available
Rosiglitazone Metabolism PathwaySMP00653Not Available
Rosuvastatin PathwaySMP00092Not Available
Salicylate-sodium Action PathwaySMP00708Not Available
Salicylic Acid Action PathwaySMP00709Not Available
Salsalate Action PathwaySMP00707Not Available
Simvastatin Action PathwaySMP00082Not Available
Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome (SLOS)SMP00389Not Available
Sorafenib Metabolism PathwaySMP00648Not Available
Steroid BiosynthesisSMP00023map00100
SteroidogenesisSMP00130map00140
Sulfate/Sulfite MetabolismSMP00041map00920
Sulfite oxidase deficiencySMP00532Not Available
Sulindac PathwaySMP00094Not Available
Suprofen PathwaySMP00101Not Available
Tamoxifen Metabolism PathwaySMP00606Not Available
Tamoxifen PathwaySMP00471Not Available
Teniposide Metabolism PathwaySMP00602Not Available
Teniposide PathwaySMP00443Not Available
Tenoxicam Action PathwaySMP00706Not Available
Thioguanine PathwaySMP00430Not Available
Thyroid hormone synthesisSMP00716Not Available
Tiaprofenic Acid Action PathwaySMP00705Not Available
Tolmetin Action PathwaySMP00704Not Available
Tramadol Metabolism PathwaySMP00637Not Available
Trisalicylate-choline Action PathwaySMP00703Not Available
Tryptophan MetabolismSMP00063map00380
Valdecoxib PathwaySMP00116Not Available
Valproic Acid Metabolism PathwaySMP00635Not Available
Venlafaxine Metabolism PathwaySMP00636Not Available
Vinblastine PathwaySMP00436Not Available
Vinorelbine PathwaySMP00439Not Available
Vitamin A DeficiencySMP00336Not Available
Wolman diseaseSMP00511Not Available
Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)SMP00220Not Available
Xanthinuria type ISMP00512Not Available
Xanthinuria type IISMP00513Not Available
Zellweger SyndromeSMP00316Not Available
Zoledronate PathwaySMP00107Not Available
Normal Concentrations
BiofluidStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot ApplicableAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
DrugBank Metabolite IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Metabolite IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB016272
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID24604415
KEGG Compound IDC00032
BioCyc IDHEME_A
BiGG ID33586
Wikipedia LinkHeme
NuGOwiki LinkHMDB03178
Metagene LinkHMDB03178
METLIN ID3680
PubChem CompoundNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID17627
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Ono F, Sharma BK, Smith CC, Burnett JW, Aurelian L: CD34+ cells in the peripheral blood transport herpes simplex virus DNA fragments to the skin of patients with erythema multiforme (HAEM). J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Jun;124(6):1215-24. [15955097 ]
  2. Allhorn M, Lundqvist K, Schmidtchen A, Akerstrom B: Heme-scavenging role of alpha1-microglobulin in chronic ulcers. J Invest Dermatol. 2003 Sep;121(3):640-6. [12925227 ]
  3. Walczyk T, von Blanckenburg F: Natural iron isotope variations in human blood. Science. 2002 Mar 15;295(5562):2065-6. [11896276 ]
  4. Kuhnel A, Gross U, Doss MO: Hereditary coproporphyria in Germany: clinical-biochemical studies in 53 patients. Clin Biochem. 2000 Aug;33(6):465-73. [11074238 ]
  5. Zhang JP, Normark S: Induction of gene expression in Escherichia coli after pilus-mediated adherence. Science. 1996 Aug 30;273(5279):1234-6. [8703059 ]
  6. Taylor TD, Litt M, Kramer P, Pandolfo M, Angelini L, Nardocci N, Davis S, Pineda M, Hattori H, Flett PJ, Cilio MR, Bertini E, Hayflick SJ: Homozygosity mapping of Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome to chromosome 20p12.3-p13. Nat Genet. 1996 Dec;14(4):479-81. [8944032 ]
  7. Park KK, Park JH, Jung YJ, Chung WY: Inhibitory effects of chlorophyllin, hemin and tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin on oxidative DNA damage and mouse skin inflammation induced by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate as a possible anti-tumor promoting mechanism. Mutat Res. 2003 Dec 9;542(1-2):89-97. [14644357 ]

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 170 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in 5-aminolevulinate synthase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALAS2
Uniprot ID:
P22557
Molecular weight:
64632.86
General function:
Involved in 5-aminolevulinate synthase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALAS1
Uniprot ID:
P13196
Molecular weight:
70580.325
General function:
Involved in succinate dehydrogenase activity
Specific function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q).
Gene Name:
SDHC
Uniprot ID:
Q99643
Molecular weight:
16650.185
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
AOX1
Uniprot ID:
Q06278
Molecular weight:
147916.735
General function:
Involved in heme oxygenase (decyclizing) activity
Specific function:
Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring at the alpha methene bridge to form biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Under physiological conditions, the activity of heme oxygenase is highest in the spleen, where senescent erythrocytes are sequestrated and destroyed. Heme oxygenase 2 could be implicated in the production of carbon monoxide in brain where it could act as a neurotransmitter.
Gene Name:
HMOX2
Uniprot ID:
P30519
Molecular weight:
36032.615
Reactions
Heme + AH(2) + Oxygen → Biliverdin + Fe2+ + CO + A + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
Membrane-anchoring subunit of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) that is involved in complex II of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and is responsible for transferring electrons from succinate to ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SDHD
Uniprot ID:
O14521
Molecular weight:
17042.82
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
This enzyme is required for electron transfer from NADP to cytochrome P450 in microsomes. It can also provide electron transfer to heme oxygenase and cytochrome B5.
Gene Name:
POR
Uniprot ID:
P16435
Molecular weight:
77047.575
General function:
Involved in heme oxygenase (decyclizing) activity
Specific function:
Heme oxygenase cleaves the heme ring at the alpha methene bridge to form biliverdin. Biliverdin is subsequently converted to bilirubin by biliverdin reductase. Under physiological conditions, the activity of heme oxygenase is highest in the spleen, where senescent erythrocytes are sequestrated and destroyed.
Gene Name:
HMOX1
Uniprot ID:
P09601
Molecular weight:
32818.345
Reactions
Heme + AH(2) + Oxygen → Biliverdin + Fe2+ + CO + A + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of four acetate groups of uroporphyrinogen-III to yield coproporphyrinogen-III.
Gene Name:
UROD
Uniprot ID:
P06132
Molecular weight:
40786.58
General function:
Involved in coproporphyrinogen oxidase activity
Specific function:
Key enzyme in heme biosynthesis. Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of propionic acid side chains of rings A and B of coproporphyrinogen III.
Gene Name:
CPOX
Uniprot ID:
P36551
Molecular weight:
50151.605
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes C14-demethylation of lanosterol; it transforms lanosterol into 4,4'-dimethyl cholesta-8,14,24-triene-3-beta-ol.
Gene Name:
CYP51A1
Uniprot ID:
Q16850
Molecular weight:
57277.81
General function:
Involved in calcium ion binding
Specific function:
Iodination and coupling of the hormonogenic tyrosines in thyroglobulin to yield the thyroid hormones T(3) and T(4).
Gene Name:
TPO
Uniprot ID:
P07202
Molecular weight:
102961.63
General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
May contribute to airway host defense against infection.
Gene Name:
LPO
Uniprot ID:
P22079
Molecular weight:
70983.6
General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Part of the host defense system of polymorphonuclear leukocytes. It is responsible for microbicidal activity against a wide range of organisms. In the stimulated PMN, MPO catalyzes the production of hypohalous acids, primarily hypochlorous acid in physiologic situations, and other toxic intermediates that greatly enhance PMN microbicidal activity.
Gene Name:
MPO
Uniprot ID:
P05164
Molecular weight:
83867.71
General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Mediates tyrosine nitration of secondary granule proteins in mature resting eosinophils. Shows significant inhibitory activity towards Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv by inducing bacterial fragmentation and lysis.
Gene Name:
EPX
Uniprot ID:
P11678
Molecular weight:
81039.5
General function:
Involved in uroporphyrinogen-III synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes cyclization of the linear tetrapyrrole, hydroxymethylbilane, to the macrocyclic uroporphyrinogen III, the branch point for the various sub-pathways leading to the wide diversity of porphyrins. Porphyrins act as cofactors for a multitude of enzymes that perform a variety of processes within the cell such as methionine synthesis (vitamin B12) or oxygen transport (heme).
Gene Name:
UROS
Uniprot ID:
P10746
Molecular weight:
28627.37
General function:
Involved in hydroxymethylbilane synthase activity
Specific function:
Tetrapolymerization of the monopyrrole PBG into the hydroxymethylbilane pre-uroporphyrinogen in several discrete steps.
Gene Name:
HMBS
Uniprot ID:
P08397
Molecular weight:
39329.74
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the omega- and (omega-1)-hydroxylation of various fatty acids such as laurate, myristate and palmitate. Has little activity toward prostaglandins A1 and E1. Oxidizes arachidonic acid to 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE).
Gene Name:
CYP4A11
Uniprot ID:
Q02928
Molecular weight:
59347.31
General function:
Involved in heme binding
Specific function:
Catalyzes the cleavage of the pyrrol ring of tryptophan and incorporates both atoms of a molecule of oxygen.
Gene Name:
IDO1
Uniprot ID:
P14902
Molecular weight:
45325.89
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the aromatization of androstendione to estrone have also been ascribed to cytochrome P450 XIB.
Gene Name:
CYP11B1
Uniprot ID:
P15538
Molecular weight:
57572.44
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes a rate-limiting step in cholesterol catabolism and bile acid biosynthesis by introducing a hydrophilic moiety at position 7 of cholesterol. Important for cholesterol homeostasis.
Gene Name:
CYP7A1
Uniprot ID:
P22680
Molecular weight:
57660.155
General function:
Involved in biliverdin reductase activity
Specific function:
Reduces the gamma-methene bridge of the open tetrapyrrole, biliverdin IX alpha, to bilirubin with the concomitant oxidation of a NADH or NADPH cofactor.
Gene Name:
BLVRA
Uniprot ID:
P53004
Molecular weight:
33428.225
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Broad specificity oxidoreductase that catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a variety of flavins, such as riboflavin, FAD or FMN, biliverdins, methemoglobin and PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone). Contributes to heme catabolism and metabolizes linear tetrapyrroles. Can also reduce the complexed Fe(3+) iron to Fe(2+) in the presence of FMN and NADPH. In the liver, converts biliverdin to bilirubin.
Gene Name:
BLVRB
Uniprot ID:
P30043
Molecular weight:
22119.215
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the side-chain cleavage reaction of cholesterol to pregnenolone.
Gene Name:
CYP11A1
Uniprot ID:
P05108
Molecular weight:
60101.87
General function:
Involved in cysteine biosynthetic process from serine
Specific function:
Only known pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme that contains heme. Important regulator of hydrogen sulfide, especially in the brain, utilizing cysteine instead of serine to catalyze the formation of hydrogen sulfide. Hydrogen sulfide is a gastratransmitter with signaling and cytoprotective effects such as acting as a neuromodulator in the brain to protect neurons against hypoxic injury (By similarity).
Gene Name:
CBS
Uniprot ID:
P35520
Molecular weight:
60586.05
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In macrophages, NO mediates tumoricidal and bactericidal actions. Also has nitrosylase activity and mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of cytoplasmic target proteins such COX2.
Gene Name:
NOS2
Uniprot ID:
P35228
Molecular weight:
131116.3
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is a messenger molecule with diverse functions throughout the body. In the brain and peripheral nervous system, NO displays many properties of a neurotransmitter. Probably has nitrosylase activity and mediates cysteine S-nitrosylation of cytoplasmic target proteins such SRR.
Gene Name:
NOS1
Uniprot ID:
P29475
Molecular weight:
160969.095
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Produces nitric oxide (NO) which is implicated in vascular smooth muscle relaxation through a cGMP-mediated signal transduction pathway. NO mediates vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced angiogenesis in coronary vessels and promotes blood clotting through the activation of platelets. Isoform eNOS13C: Lacks eNOS activity, dominant-negative form that may down-regulate eNOS activity by forming heterodimers with isoform 1.
Gene Name:
NOS3
Uniprot ID:
P29474
Molecular weight:
133273.59
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ATP-dependent ligation of succinate and CoA to form succinyl-CoA (By similarity).
Gene Name:
SUCLA2
Uniprot ID:
Q9P2R7
Molecular weight:
50316.88
General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
Mediates the formation of prostaglandins from arachidonate. May have a role as a major mediator of inflammation and/or a role for prostanoid signaling in activity-dependent plasticity.
Gene Name:
PTGS2
Uniprot ID:
P35354
Molecular weight:
68995.625
General function:
Involved in peroxidase activity
Specific function:
May play an important role in regulating or promoting cell proliferation in some normal and neoplastically transformed cells.
Gene Name:
PTGS1
Uniprot ID:
P23219
Molecular weight:
68685.82
General function:
Involved in ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase activity
Specific function:
This is a component of the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex (complex III or cytochrome b-c1 complex), which is part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This subunit interacts with cytochrome c1
Gene Name:
UQCR10
Uniprot ID:
Q9UDW1
Molecular weight:
7308.4
General function:
Involved in respiratory electron transport chain
Specific function:
Component of the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex (complex III or cytochrome b-c1 complex), which is a respiratory chain that generates an electrochemical potential coupled to ATP synthesis
Gene Name:
MT-CYB
Uniprot ID:
P00156
Molecular weight:
42729.1
General function:
Involved in iron ion binding
Specific function:
This is the heme-containing component of the cytochrome b-c1 complex, which accepts electrons from Rieske protein and transfers electrons to cytochrome c in the mitochondrial respiratory chain
Gene Name:
CYC1
Uniprot ID:
P08574
Molecular weight:
35389.5
General function:
Involved in ubiquinol-cytochrome-c reductase activity
Specific function:
This is a component of the ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase complex (complex III or cytochrome b-c1 complex), which is part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. This protein may mediate formation of the complex between cytochromes c and c1
Gene Name:
UQCRH
Uniprot ID:
P07919
Molecular weight:
10738.7
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics.
Gene Name:
CYP4F2
Uniprot ID:
P78329
Molecular weight:
59852.825
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. This enzyme requires molecular oxygen and NADPH for the omega-hydroxylation of LTB4, a potent chemoattractant for polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Gene Name:
CYP4F3
Uniprot ID:
Q08477
Molecular weight:
59846.085
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the 6-electron oxidation of protoporphyrinogen-IX to form protoporphyrin-IX.
Gene Name:
PPOX
Uniprot ID:
P50336
Molecular weight:
50764.8
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the first step in the oxidation of the side chain of sterol intermediates; the 27-hydroxylation of 5-beta-cholestane-3-alpha,7-alpha,12-alpha-triol. Has also a vitamin D3-25-hydroxylase activity.
Gene Name:
CYP27A1
Uniprot ID:
Q02318
Molecular weight:
60234.28
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D) to 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D) plays an important role in normal bone growth, calcium metabolism, and tissue differentiation.
Gene Name:
CYP27B1
Uniprot ID:
O15528
Molecular weight:
56503.475
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Conversion of pregnenolone and progesterone to their 17-alpha-hydroxylated products and subsequently to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione. Catalyzes both the 17-alpha-hydroxylation and the 17,20-lyase reaction. Involved in sexual development during fetal life and at puberty.
Gene Name:
CYP17A1
Uniprot ID:
P05093
Molecular weight:
57369.995
General function:
Involved in heme binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
SUOX
Uniprot ID:
P51687
Molecular weight:
60282.59
General function:
Involved in ferrochelatase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the ferrous insertion into protoporphyrin IX.
Gene Name:
FECH
Uniprot ID:
P22830
Molecular weight:
47861.77
Reactions
Heme + Hydrogen Ion → Protoporphyrin IX + Fe2+details
Protoporphyrin IX + Fe2+ → Heme + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in porphobilinogen synthase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes an early step in the biosynthesis of tetrapyrroles. Binds two molecules of 5-aminolevulinate per subunit, each at a distinct site, and catalyzes their condensation to form porphobilinogen.
Gene Name:
ALAD
Uniprot ID:
P13716
Molecular weight:
36294.485
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GUCY1B3
Uniprot ID:
Q02153
Molecular weight:
70513.89
General function:
Involved in phosphorus-oxygen lyase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GUCY1B2
Uniprot ID:
O75343
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the isomerization of prostaglandin H2 to prostacyclin (= prostaglandin I2).
Gene Name:
PTGIS
Uniprot ID:
Q16647
Molecular weight:
57103.385

Transporters

General function:
Involved in transmembrane transport
Specific function:
Has been shown to act both as an intestinal proton- coupled high-affinity folate transporter and as an intestinal heme transporter which mediates heme uptake from the gut lumen into duodenal epithelial cells. The iron is then released from heme and may be transported into the bloodstream. Dietary heme iron is an important nutritional source of iron. Shows a higher affinity for folate than heme
Gene Name:
SLC46A1
Uniprot ID:
Q96NT5
Molecular weight:
49770.0

Only showing the first 50 proteins. There are 170 proteins in total.